Table of Contents

  • SILK


    Originally from China, silk has been known in Iran since ancient times. See ABRĪŠAM.


    Michael Spink

    Silver, the element Ag, was found in a number of areas of Islamic Greater Iran, and medieval authors described its exploitation. Although few silver vessels have survived, contemporary literature demonstrates its importance as a luxury material.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.

    Luke Treadwell

    a family of Turkish mamluks who over four generations, from the late 9th century to the Qarakhanid conquest (389/999), played a leading role in the Samanid state.


    Hanns-Peter Schmidt

    (Persian), Sēnmurw (Pahlavi), Sīna-Mrū (Pāzand), a fabulous, mythical bird. The name derives from Avestan mərəγō saēnō ‘the bird Saēna’, originally a raptor, either eagle or falcon, as can be deduced from the etymologically identical Sanskrit śyená.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.

    Christopher Shackle

    A language of the Indo-Aryan family. Many of its numerous distinctive features may be attributed to the isolated position in the lower Indus valley of Sindh.


    Nassereddin Parvin

    the first Persian magazine entirely devoted to cinematography (1930).


    David Pingree

    10th-century polymath known best for his work as a grammarian.

  • ŠIRĀZI, Nur-al-Din Moḥammad ʿAbd-Allāh

    Fabrizio Speziale

    Indo-Muslim physician and one of the main Persian authors of works on medical subjects in India in the 17th century.


    Ernst Badian

    the mother of Darius III and of Stateira (2), perhaps also of Oxyathres; captured in the Persian base camp after the battle of Issus along with other members of the immediate royal family.

  • SISTĀN ii. In the Islamic period

    C. E. Bosworth

    It was during the governorship in Khorasan of ʿAbdallāh b. ʿĀmer for the caliph ʿOṯmān that the Arabs first appeared in Sistān, when in 31/652 Zarang surrendered peacefully, although Bost resisted fiercely.