Table of Contents

  • SOGDIAN LANGUAGE i. Description

    Yutaka Yoshida

    Sogdian is one of the Eastern Middle Iranian languages once spoken in Sogdiana (northern Uzbekistan and Tajikistan) before the Islamization of the area in the 10th century. It was written in three scripts: Sogdian, Manichean, and Syriac.

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  • SOGDIAN LANGUAGE ii. Loanwords in Persian

    B. Gharib

    Loanwords from Sogdian into Persian were adopted through the cultural relations and commercial interactions which existed between Iran proper and Transoxiana, the birth place of Sogdian language.

  • SOGDIAN LITERATURE i. Buddhist

    Yutaka Yoshida

    A considerable number of Buddhist Sogdian texts dating from around the 8th century CE were unearthed from “Caves of the Thousand Buddhas” at Dunhuang in western China and from Turfan in Chinese Turkestan.

  • SOGDIAN TRADE

    Etienne de la Vaissiere

    The people of Sogdiana were the main caravan merchants of Central Asia from the 5th to the 8th century.

  • SOGDIANA

    Multiple Authors

    the name in Classical sources for Suγd, the region of Central Asia north of the river Oxus/Amu Darya.

  • SOGDIANA iii. HISTORY AND ARCHEOLOGY

    É. de La Vaissière

    an Iranian-speaking region in Central Asia that stretches from the rivers Āmu Daryā in the south to the Syr Daryā in the north, with its heart in the valleys of the Zarafšān and the Kaška Daryā.

  • SOGDIANA iv. SOGDIAN ART

    Markus Mode

    The development and apogee of Sogdian art was limited to four or five centuries before and during the Muslim conquest of Transoxania. Sogdian art of the heartlands flourished in the settled areas of the Zeravshan and Kashkadarya valleys, as well as in Ustrushana (Osrušana), north of the Turkestan mountain range.

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  • ŠOKUROV, MOḤAMMADJĀN

    Habib Borjian and Evelin Grassi

    (1925-2012), Tajik scholar and literary critic. From the late 1980s, in the milieu of glasnost, he cultivated an interest in the theory of modern Tajik culture, and he published copiously on the issues of the history and contemporary conditions of Tajik language, literature, and culture during the independence period after 1991.

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  • SOLAYMĀN

    Peter Jackson

    Il-Khan of Iran (1339-1344), a great-grandson of Hülegü’s third son Yošmut.

  • SOLAYMĀN I

    Rudi Matthee

    (1648-1694), Shah, the eighth king of the Safavid dynasty and the oldest son of Shah ʿAbbās II. Until his enthronement, he grew up secluded in the royal harem and his first language was Turkish.