Table of Contents


    Ulf Jaeger

    translated as “drinking horn,” its upper end can be filled with liquid and the lower end has a spout for pouring liquid out.

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    Moḥammad Esteʿlāmi

    prominent scholar of Persian classical literature, statesman, and professor of Persian language and literature.

  • RICE


    See BERENJ.


    Shireen Mahdavi

    (Rišār Khan), the Persian name of Jules Richard (1816-1891), a Frenchman in the service of Persian government as a language instructor at Dār al-Fonun College, court photographer, and translator.  

  • RITTER, Hellmut

    Josef van Ess

    (1892-1971), German scholar of Islamic studies, and particularly of Persian literature and mysticism. His magnum opus: Das Meer der Seele: Mensch, Welt und Gott in den Geschichten des Farīduddīn ʿAṭṭār (Leiden 1955) is an encyclopedic manual which guides the reader through the psychology of Islamic mysticism. The book is the best introduction to date into Sufi thought. 

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  • ROBINSON, Samuel

    Parvin Loloi

    (1794-1884), British scholar of Persian, translator, cotton manufacturer, and educationalist.


    Keith Hitchins

    Economical and political relations developed significantly between Romania and Iran in the second half of the 20th century;these led to cultural relations as well, as evidenced by the translations of classical Persian poetry and manuscripts into Romanian.



    See GOLĀB.

  • ROSTAM b. Farroḵ-Hormozd

    D. Gershon Lewental

    Sasanian provincial ruler and military commander at the Battle of Qādesiya (mid-630s CE).


    Ernst Badian

    the name of several women in the aristocracy of Achaemenid Iran, the most important of whom was the wife of Alexander the Great. She bore him a son, also named Alexander, whom she hoped to gain kingship.