Table of Contents

  • REŻWĀNŠAHR

    Marcel Bazin

    small town and sub-provencial unit (šahrestān) in the western part of Gilān Province.

  • RHETORICAL FIGURES

    Natalia Chalisova

    devices of embellishment, tropes, and figures considered as an intrinsic part of literary expression in medieval Persia.

  • RHODOGUNE

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    probably a rendering of OIran. *Vṛda-gaunā-, fem. “rose-colored,” and the name of several female historical figures.

  • RHYTON

    Ulf Jaeger

    translated as “drinking horn,” its upper end can be filled with liquid and the lower end has a spout for pouring liquid out.

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  • RIAHI, MOHAMMAD AMIN

    Moḥammad Esteʿlāmi

    prominent scholar of Persian classical literature, statesman, and professor of Persian language and literature.

  • RICE

    Cross-Reference

    See BERENJ.

  • RISHĀR KHAN

    Shireen Mahdavi

    (Rišār Khan), the Persian name of Jules Richard (1816-1891), a Frenchman in the service of Persian government as a language instructor at Dār al-Fonun College, court photographer, and translator.  

  • RITTER, Hellmut

    Josef van Ess

    (1892-1971), German scholar of Islamic studies, and particularly of Persian literature and mysticism. His magnum opus: Das Meer der Seele: Mensch, Welt und Gott in den Geschichten des Farīduddīn ʿAṭṭār (Leiden 1955) is an encyclopedic manual which guides the reader through the psychology of Islamic mysticism. The book is the best introduction to date into Sufi thought. 

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  • ROBINSON, Samuel

    Parvin Loloi

    (1794-1884), British scholar of Persian, translator, cotton manufacturer, and educationalist.

  • ROMANIAN-IRANIAN RELATIONS

    Keith Hitchins

    Economical and political relations developed significantly between Romania and Iran in the second half of the 20th century;these led to cultural relations as well, as evidenced by the translations of classical Persian poetry and manuscripts into Romanian.

  • ROSE WATER

    Cross-Reference

    See GOLĀB.

  • ROSTAM b. Farroḵ-Hormozd

    D. Gershon Lewental

    Sasanian provincial ruler and military commander at the Battle of Qādesiya (mid-630s CE).

  • ROXANE

    Ernst Badian

    the name of several women in the aristocracy of Achaemenid Iran, the most important of whom was the wife of Alexander the Great. She bore him a son, also named Alexander, whom she hoped to gain kingship.

  • RUDĀBA

    A. Shapur Shahbazi

    princess of Kabul, wife of Zāl, and mother of Rostam in the Šāh-nāma.

  • RUDBĀR

    Marcel Bazin and Christian Bromberger

    town and district in southwestern Gilān. Rudbār is located on both banks of the Safidrud river at lat 36°51′ N, long 49°25′ E, at an average altitude of 300 m.

  • RUDSAR

    Marcel Bazin

    city and sub-provincial district (šahrestān) in eastern Gilān.

  • RUḤAFZĀ, SOLAYMĀN

    Houman Sarshar

    (1900-1995), master of Persian classical music. He belongs to the first generation of Persian classical musicians who learned musical notation and the second generation to record his music.

  • RUḤAWŻI

    William O. Beeman

    a comic type of traditional folk musical drama in Iran.

  • RUMI, JALĀL-AL-DIN

    Multiple Authors

    (d. 1273), Persian poet and Sufi philosopher

  • RUMI, JALĀL-AL-DIN vii. Philosophy

    William C. Chittick