Table of Contents


    Ulf Jaeger

    translated as “drinking horn,” its upper end can be filled with liquid and the lower end has a spout for pouring liquid out.

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    Moḥammad Esteʿlāmi

    prominent scholar of Persian classical literature, statesman, and professor of Persian language and literature.

  • RICE


    See BERENJ.


    Shireen Mahdavi

    (Rišār Khan), the Persian name of Jules Richard (1816-1891), a Frenchman in the service of Persian government as a language instructor at Dār al-Fonun College, court photographer, and translator.  

  • RITTER, Hellmut

    Josef van Ess

    (1892-1971), German scholar of Islamic studies, and particularly of Persian literature and mysticism. His magnum opus: Das Meer der Seele: Mensch, Welt und Gott in den Geschichten des Farīduddīn ʿAṭṭār (Leiden 1955) is an encyclopedic manual which guides the reader through the psychology of Islamic mysticism. The book is the best introduction to date into Sufi thought. 

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  • ROBINSON, Samuel

    Parvin Loloi

    (1794-1884), British scholar of Persian, translator, cotton manufacturer, and educationalist.


    Keith Hitchins

    Economical and political relations developed significantly between Romania and Iran in the second half of the 20th century;these led to cultural relations as well, as evidenced by the translations of classical Persian poetry and manuscripts into Romanian.



    See GOLĀB.

  • ROSTAM b. Farroḵ-Hormozd

    D. Gershon Lewental

    Sasanian provincial ruler and military commander at the Battle of Qādesiya (mid-630s CE).


    Ernst Badian

    the name of several women in the aristocracy of Achaemenid Iran, the most important of whom was the wife of Alexander the Great. She bore him a son, also named Alexander, whom she hoped to gain kingship.


    A. Shapur Shahbazi

    princess of Kabul, wife of Zāl, and mother of Rostam in the Šāh-nāma.


    Marcel Bazin and Christian Bromberger

    town and district in southwestern Gilān. Rudbār is located on both banks of the Safidrud river at lat 36°51′ N, long 49°25′ E, at an average altitude of 300 m.


    Marcel Bazin

    city and sub-provincial district (šahrestān) in eastern Gilān.


    Houman Sarshar

    (1900-1995), master of Persian classical music. He belongs to the first generation of Persian classical musicians who learned musical notation and the second generation to record his music.


    Multiple Authors

    (d. 1273), Persian poet and Sufi philosopher

  • RUMI, JALĀL-AL-DIN vii. Philosophy

    William C. Chittick

  • RUMI, JALĀL-AL-DIN viii. Rumi’s Teachings

    Jawid Mojaddedi

    His didactic poem, the Maṯnawi and his main prose work, the Fihe mā fihe represent the last two decades of his life, constituting the most substantial sources for his teachings without need for recourse to his many biographies.


    Multiple Authors

    I. Russo-Iranian Relations up to the Bolshevik Revolution. II. Iranian-Soviet Relations (1917-1991). III. Travelers in Persia to 1917. IV. Russians at the court of Moḥammad-ʿAli Shah.

  • RUSSIA i. Russo-Iranian Relations up to the Bolshevik Revolution

    Elena Andreeva

    Prior to the 18th century, Iran and Russia treated each other as equal in their sporadic trade and diplomatic contacts. The fragmentation of Iran during the 18th century encouraged Russian aspirations to establish its domination in the Caucasus and the Caspian.

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    N. M. Mamedova

    From the outset, the very first international resolutions of the young Soviet state had an immediate impact on relations with Iran.