Table of Contents

  • PARTHIAN(S)

    Cross-Reference

    See ARSACID DYNASTY.

  • PASARGADAE

    David Stronach and Hilary Gopnik

    capital city and last resting place of Cyrus the Great (r. 559-530 BCE), located in northern Fārs in the fertile and well-watered Dasht-i Murghab (Dašt-e morḡāb), the site stands 1,900 m above sea level at 30°15’ N and 53°14’ E.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • PASHTO LANGUAGE

    Cross-Reference

    See AFGHANISTAN vi. PAŠTO.

  • PASTEUR INSTITUTE

    Cross-Reference

    See INSTITUT PASTEUR.

  • PAUL THE PERSIAN

    Byard Bennett

    writer at the time of the Nestorian Patriarch Ezekiel (567-580 C.E.). Bar Hebraeus attributes to Paul “an admirable introduction to the dialectics (of Aristotle).” He also appears as a literary figure in an early Byzantine Greek anti-Manichean work, the Debate of Photinus the Manichean and Paul the Persian.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • PAYĀM-E MAŠREQ

    David Matthews

    Title of a collection of Persian verse by Muhammad Iqbal.

  • PAYANDEH, ABU’L-QASEM

    Ṣafdar Taqizāda

    (1908/1911-1984), journalist, translator, and fiction writer.

  • PEARL i. PRE-ISLAMIC PERIOD

    Brigitte Musche

    i. PRE-ISLAMIC PERIOD The oldest find of pearls in Persia comes from Tepe Giyan in Luristan, from levels dated to the mid-second millennium BCE.

  • PEARL ii. ISLAMIC PERIOD

    Daniel T. Potts

    ii. ISLAMIC PERIOD In the Islamic era pearls have been widely used—strung to make necklaces or sewn onto textiles, used to decorate hats, crowns, daggers, and scabbards.

  • PEJMAN-E BAKHTIARI, HOSAYN

    Soheila Saremi

    (1900-1974) poet, lyricist, writer and  translator, who composed highly acclaimed ḡazals, and also played an instrumental role in editing and annotating Neẓāmi Ganjavi’s Panj Ganj or Ḵamseh.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • PELLIOT, PAUL

    Samuel Lieu

    (1878-1945), French orientalist who particularly contributed to the study of the languages and  history of the diverse religions and cultures of Central Asia.

  • PEPPER

    Cross-Reference

    See FELFEL.

  • PERICLES

    Ernst Badian

    (ca. 495-429 BCE), Athenian politician and commander in the period after the major victories over the forces of Xerxes I.

  • PERIKHANIAN, ANAHIT

    Arthur Ambartsumian

    (1928-2012), scholar of Iranian studies, specializing in Sasanian jurisprudence, history, and society. 


    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • PĒRŌZ

    Cross-Reference

    Sasanian king (r. 459-84). See FIRUZ.

  • PERROT, JEAN

    Rémy Boucharlat

    (1920-2012), French archeologist and the last director of the Délégation Archéologique Française en Iran (1968-83).

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • PERSEPOLIS

    A. Shapur Shahbazi

    ruined monuments of the acropolis of the city of Pārsa, the dynastic center of the Achaemenid Persian kings, located in the plain of Marvdašt, some 57 km northeast of Shiraz.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • PERSEPOLIS ADMINISTRATIVE ARCHIVES

    Annalisa Azzoni, Elspeth R. M. Dusinberre, Mark B. Garrison, Wouter F. M. Henkelman, Charles E. Jones, and Matthew W. Stolper

    two groups of clay tablets, fragments, and sealings produced and stored by administrative agencies based at Persepolis.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • PERSEPOLIS ELAMITE TABLETS

    Muhammad Dandamayev

    administrative records in Elamite inscribed on clay tablets. Parts of two archives of such tablets were discovered in Persepolis in 1933-34 and 1936-38.

  • PERSEPOLIS GRAFFITI: FOREIGN VISITORS

    St. John Simpson

    These represent another phase in the transformation of the monuments from living palaces to evocative ruined memorials of the past, alongside the earlier systematic iconoclastic defacement of exposed human faces, the addition of Sasanian and Buyid drawings and inscriptions.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.