Table of Contents

  • PAPER AND PAPERMAKING

    Willem Floor

    Such was the fame of Samarqand paper that the 10th-century text Ḥodud al-ʿālam records rather matter-of-factly that “Samarqand produces paper which is exported all over the world.” This fame lasted throughout the centuries. Samarqand was not the only town in the eastern Iranian lands to become a center of paper production.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • PARIḴĀN ḴĀNOM

    Manučehr Pārsādust

    (1548-1578), the second daughter of Shah Ṭahmāsp I, a politically influential and colorful figure at the Safavid court.

  • PARMENIO

    Ernst Badian

    (b. ca. 400 BCE, d. 330 BCE); probably from mountainous Upper Macedonia, he became Philip II’s most successful general.

  • PARSI COMMUNITIES i. EARLY HISTORY

    John R. Hinnells

    The creation of a Parsi settlement in India was the outcome of the migration of Zoroastrian refugees from their original homeland in medieval Islamic Persia.

  • PARSI COMMUNITIES ii. IN CALCUTTA

    Jesse S. Palsetia

    Calcutta became a center of Parsi settlement from the 18th century. Dadabhoy Behramji Banaji is recorded as the first Parsi to have come to Calcutta from Surat in western India in 1767.

  • PASARGADAE

    David Stronach and Hilary Gopnik

    capital city and last resting place of Cyrus the Great (r. 559-530 BCE), located in northern Fārs in the fertile and well-watered Dasht-i Murghab (Dašt-e morḡāb), the site stands 1,900 m above sea level at 30°15’ N and 53°14’ E.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • PAUL THE PERSIAN

    Byard Bennett

    writer at the time of the Nestorian Patriarch Ezekiel (567-580 C.E.), well versed in ecclesiastical and philosophical matters.

  • PAYĀM-E MAŠREQ

    David Matthews

    Title of a collection of Persian verse by Muhammad Iqbal.

  • PAYANDEH, ABU’L-QASEM

    Ṣafdar Taqizāda

    (1908/1911-1984), journalist, translator, and fiction writer.

  • PEARL i. PRE-ISLAMIC PERIOD

    Brigitte Musche

    i. PRE-ISLAMIC PERIOD The oldest find of pearls in Persia comes from Tepe Giyan in Luristan, from levels dated to the mid-second millennium BCE.