Table of Contents

  • PARTHIAN(S)

    Cross-Reference

    See ARSACID DYNASTY.

  • PASARGADAE

    David Stronach and Hilary Gopnik

    capital city and last resting place of Cyrus the Great (r. 559-530 BCE), located in northern Fārs in the fertile and well-watered Dasht-i Murghab (Dašt-e morḡāb), the site stands 1,900 m above sea level at 30°15’ N and 53°14’ E.

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  • PASHTO LANGUAGE

    Cross-Reference

    See AFGHANISTAN vi. PAŠTO.

  • PASTEUR INSTITUTE

    Cross-Reference

    See INSTITUT PASTEUR.

  • PAUL THE PERSIAN

    Byard Bennett

    writer at the time of the Nestorian Patriarch Ezekiel (567-580 C.E.). Bar Hebraeus attributes to Paul “an admirable introduction to the dialectics (of Aristotle).” He also appears as a literary figure in an early Byzantine Greek anti-Manichean work, the Debate of Photinus the Manichean and Paul the Persian.

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  • PAYĀM-E MAŠREQ

    David Matthews

    Title of a collection of Persian verse by Muhammad Iqbal.

  • PAYANDEH, ABU’L-QASEM

    Ṣafdar Taqizāda

    (1908/1911-1984), journalist, translator, and fiction writer.

  • PEARL i. PRE-ISLAMIC PERIOD

    Brigitte Musche

    i. PRE-ISLAMIC PERIOD The oldest find of pearls in Persia comes from Tepe Giyan in Luristan, from levels dated to the mid-second millennium BCE.

  • PEARL ii. ISLAMIC PERIOD

    Daniel T. Potts

    ii. ISLAMIC PERIOD In the Islamic era pearls have been widely used—strung to make necklaces or sewn onto textiles, used to decorate hats, crowns, daggers, and scabbards.

  • PEJMAN-E BAKHTIARI, HOSAYN

    Soheila Saremi

    (1900-1974) poet, lyricist, writer and  translator, who composed highly acclaimed ḡazals, and also played an instrumental role in editing and annotating Neẓāmi Ganjavi’s Panj Ganj or Ḵamseh.

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