Table of Contents

  • PASHTO LANGUAGE

    Cross-Reference

    See AFGHANISTAN vi. PAŠTO.

  • PAUL THE PERSIAN

    Byard Bennett

    writer at the time of the Nestorian Patriarch Ezekiel (567-580 C.E.). Bar Hebraeus attributes to Paul “an admirable introduction to the dialectics (of Aristotle).” He also appears as a literary figure in an early Byzantine Greek anti-Manichean work, the Debate of Photinus the Manichean and Paul the Persian.

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  • PAYĀM-E MAŠREQ

    David Matthews

    Title of a collection of Persian verse by Muhammad Iqbal.

  • PAYANDEH, ABU’L-QASEM

    Ṣafdar Taqizāda

    (1908/1911-1984), journalist, translator, and fiction writer.

  • PEARL i. PRE-ISLAMIC PERIOD

    Brigitte Musche

    i. PRE-ISLAMIC PERIOD The oldest find of pearls in Persia comes from Tepe Giyan in Luristan, from levels dated to the mid-second millennium BCE.

  • PEARL ii. ISLAMIC PERIOD

    Daniel T. Potts

    ii. ISLAMIC PERIOD In the Islamic era pearls have been widely used—strung to make necklaces or sewn onto textiles, used to decorate hats, crowns, daggers, and scabbards.

  • PEJMAN-E BAKHTIARI, HOSAYN

    Soheila Saremi

    (1900-1974) poet, lyricist, writer and  translator, who composed highly acclaimed ḡazals, and also played an instrumental role in editing and annotating Neẓāmi Ganjavi’s Panj Ganj or Ḵamseh.

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  • PELLIOT, PAUL

    Samuel Lieu

    (1878-1945), French orientalist who particularly contributed to the study of the languages and  history of the diverse religions and cultures of Central Asia.

  • PEPPER

    Cross-Reference

    See FELFEL.

  • PERICLES

    Ernst Badian

    (ca. 495-429 BCE), Athenian politician and commander in the period after the major victories over the forces of Xerxes I.