Table of Contents

  • NEO-ARAMAIC LANGUAGE

    Cross-Reference

    See  ARAMAICIRAN vii. NON-IRANIAN LANGUAGES (10). Aramaic ASSYRIANS IN IRAN.

  • NEOLITHIC AGE IN IRAN

    Frank Hole

    Originally the term “Neolithic” referred to the final Stone Age before the ages of metals.Today “Neolithic” usually refers to the period of the origins and early development of agricultural economies.

  • NETHERLANDS : Archives

    Willem Floor

    The main sources for Iran, the Persian Gulf and the Dutch-Persian relations are found in the Dutch National Archives (Nationaal Archief, NA).

  • NEW JULFA

    Cross-Reference

    the Armenian settlement at Isfahan. See JULFA.

  • NEY-DĀWUD, Morteżā

    Morteżā Ḥoseyni Dehkordi

    (1900-1990), celebrated composer of music and performer and instructor of the tār (a plucked, long-necked lute).

  • NĒZAK

    Frantz Grenet

    dynastic name appearing on a long series of silver coins issued by a local dynasty in Kāpisā (in the region of Kabul; Sk. Kāpiśī) ca. late 7th century C.E.

  • NEẒĀM-AL-MOLK

    Neguin Yavari

    (1018-1092), vizier of two Saljuq sultans, rose from a relatively lowly position in the bureaucracy of the provincial governor of Balḵ (Balkh) to become the de facto ruler over a vast empire, with a final apotheosis as the archetypal good vizier in the world of Islam.

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  • NEẒĀM-AL-SALṬANA MĀFI, Ḥosaynqoli Khan

    Mansoureh Ettehadieh

    (1832-1908), governor, minister, and prime minister of the Nāṣeri and Moẓaffarid era. 

  • NEẒĀMI QUNAVI

    Osman G. Özgüdenlı

    (Neẓāmi of Konya; d. 1469-73?), poet in Persian, Arabic, and Turkish.

  • NEZĀR B. AL-MOSTANṢER, ABU MANṢUR

    Farhad Daftary

    (1045-1095), Fatimid crown prince and Nezāri Ismaʿili imam.  He was the eldest son of al-Mostanṣer Be’llāh, the eighth Fatimid caliph and the eighteenth Ismaʿili imam.

  • NEZĀRI QOHESTĀNI

    Nadia Eboo Jamal

    (1247-1320-21), a Persian poet of Nezāri Ismaʿili affiliation; born in Birjand, a commercial town in Qohestān, southern Khorasan.

  • NIĀZI, FĀTEḤ

    Keith Hitchins

    (1914-1991), Tajik prose writer; began his literary career in the early 1930s as a writer of verse in Uzbek. As a fiction writer Niāzi began with short pieces, which he published in a collection entitled Intiqomi tojik. Niāzi’s reputation as a writer rests on three long novels, the writing of which spanned his entire career. All of them are concerned with the Second World War and are based upon his own experiences.

  • NIETZSCHE AND PERSIA

    Daryoush Ashouri

    Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (1844-1900), the great German thinker, is best known as a philosopher of culture.

  • NIGHTINGALE

    Cross-Reference

    See BOLBOL.

  • NĪRANGDĪN CEREMONY

    Firoze M. Kotwal and Philip G. Kreyenbroek

    a Zoroastrian ritual to consecrate gōmēz, or bull’s urine; the consecrated liquid is known as nīrang or nīrangdīn.

  • NISA

    Antonio Invernizzi

    New Nisa, the capital of ancient Parthia, occupies a large area enclosed within stout mud-brick fortifications, which enclose a citadel. The excavations here have been sporadic, but have brought to light a monumental funerary building of the Parthian era with a flat, crenellated roof, a façade, and wall decoration with terracotta plates nailed to the wall.

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  • NISĀBURI, ḤASAN

    David Pingree

     b. Moḥammad al-Aʿraj, Neẓām-al-Din Qommi, astronomer; d. after 1311.

  • NISĀYA

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    the Old Iranian name of several Iranian regions and places, which cannot easily be distinguished from one another.

  • NISHAPUR i. Historical Geography and History to the Beginning of the 20th Century

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    Nishapur (Nišāpur) was, with Balḵ, Marv and Herat, one of the four great cities of the province of Khorasan.  It flourished in Sasanid and early Islamic times, but after the devastations of the Mongol invasions of the 13th century, subsided into a more modest role until it revived in the 20th century.

  • NISHAPUR vi. Archeology

    Rocco Rante

    A major crossroad on the international trade route and silk road, the archeological area in Nishapur has two main sections which have been subjects of discoveries during different eras.