Table of Contents

  • NĒZAK

    Frantz Grenet

    dynastic name appearing on a long series of silver coins issued by a local dynasty in Kāpisā (in the region of Kabul; Sk. Kāpiśī) ca. late 7th century C.E.

  • NEẒĀM-AL-MOLK

    Neguin Yavari

    (1018-1092), vizier of two Saljuq sultans, rose from a relatively lowly position in the bureaucracy of the provincial governor of Balḵ (Balkh) to become the de facto ruler over a vast empire, with a final apotheosis as the archetypal good vizier in the world of Islam.

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  • NEẒĀM-AL-SALṬANA MĀFI, Ḥosaynqoli Khan

    Mansoureh Ettehadieh

    (1832-1908), governor, minister, and prime minister of the Nāṣeri and Moẓaffarid era. 

  • NEẒĀMI QUNAVI

    Osman G. Özgüdenlı

    (Neẓāmi of Konya; d. 1469-73?), poet in Persian, Arabic, and Turkish.

  • NEZĀR B. AL-MOSTANṢER, ABU MANṢUR

    Farhad Daftary

    (1045-1095), Fatimid crown prince and Nezāri Ismaʿili imam.  He was the eldest son of al-Mostanṣer Be’llāh, the eighth Fatimid caliph and the eighteenth Ismaʿili imam.

  • NIĀZI, FĀTEḤ

    Keith Hitchins

    (1914-1991), Tajik prose writer; began his literary career in the early 1930s as a writer of verse in Uzbek. As a fiction writer Niāzi began with short pieces, which he published in a collection entitled Intiqomi tojik. Niāzi’s reputation as a writer rests on three long novels, the writing of which spanned his entire career. All of them are concerned with the Second World War and are based upon his own experiences.

  • NIETZSCHE AND PERSIA

    Daryoush Ashouri

    Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (1844-1900), the great German thinker, is best known as a philosopher of culture.

  • NIGHTINGALE

    Cross-Reference

    See BOLBOL.

  • NĪRANGDĪN CEREMONY

    Firoze M. Kotwal and Philip G. Kreyenbroek

    a Zoroastrian ritual to consecrate gōmēz, or bull’s urine; the consecrated liquid is known as nīrang or nīrangdīn.

  • NISA

    Antonio Invernizzi

    New Nisa, the capital of ancient Parthia, occupies a large area enclosed within stout mud-brick fortifications, which enclose a citadel. The excavations here have been sporadic, but have brought to light a monumental funerary building of the Parthian era with a flat, crenellated roof, a façade, and wall decoration with terracotta plates nailed to the wall.

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  • NISĀBURI, ḤASAN

    David Pingree

     b. Moḥammad al-Aʿraj, Neẓām-al-Din Qommi, astronomer; d. after 1311.

  • NISĀYA

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    the Old Iranian name of several Iranian regions and places, which cannot easily be distinguished from one another.

  • NISHAPUR i. Historical Geography and History to the Beginning of the 20th Century

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    Nishapur (Nišāpur) was, with Balḵ, Marv and Herat, one of the four great cities of the province of Khorasan.  It flourished in Sasanid and early Islamic times, but after the devastations of the Mongol invasions of the 13th century, subsided into a more modest role until it revived in the 20th century.

  • NISHAPUR vi. Archeology

    Rocco Rante

    A major crossroad on the international trade route and silk road, the archeological area in Nishapur has two main sections which have been subjects of discoveries during different eras.

  • NISHAPUR vii. Excavations by the Metropolitan Museum of Art

    Marika Sardar

    The Metropolitan Museum of Art started expeditions in Iran in 1935, after the antiquities law ended the French monopoly there. The excavations began in Qaṣr-e Abu Naṣr, continued to Nishapur, and ended in 1948 after six seasons.

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  • NISIBIS

    Samuel Lieu

    city in northern Mesopotamia, a major focus of military confrontations between the Roman and Sasanian empires an center of theological studies for the Church of the East. Once in Sasanian hands, the city’s role was reversed to that of advanced Persian base of operations against Roman and Byzantine frontier defenses.

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  • NÖLDEKE, THEODOR

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    A most decisive contribution was that Nöldeke could now convincingly prove the thesis already proposed by Niels Ludvig Westergaard (1815-1878) that Middle Persian was not an Irano-Semitic hybrid language, but an authentic Iranian dialect, the phonetic forms of which were “obscured by a partly cryptographic, partly extremely historicizing spelling.”

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  • NOMADISM

    Eckart Ehlers

    Pastoral nomadism is a livelihood form that is ecologically adjusted at a particular level to the utilization of marginal resources. These resources occur in areas too dry, too elevated, or too steep for agriculture to be a viable mode of livelihood, and the nomadic pastoralist thus makes use of resources that otherwise would be neglected.

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  • NOṢAYRIS

    Meir M. Bar-Asher

    followers of Nusayrism, a syncretistic religion with close affinity to Shiʿism, whose adherents live mostly in Syria and southeastern Turkey.

  • NAWBAḴTI, ḤASAN

    David Pingree

    b. Musā Abu Moḥammad, 4th/10th century theologian and philosopher in Baghdad, d. between 300/912-3 and 310/922-3.