Table of Contents

  • NATIONAL PARKS OF IRAN

    Eskandar Firouz

    including national nature monuments, wildlife refuges, and protected areas.

  • NAVY i. Nāder Shah and the Iranian Navy

    Michael Axworthy

    earliest moves toward establishing a navy arose out of the consequences of his military campaigns in the interior of Persia.

  • NAWBAḴTI FAMILY

    Sean W. Anthony

    a notable Shiʿite family of Persian descent, many of whose members, like their eponymous ancestor Nawbaḵt and his son Abu Sahl Fażl, ranked among the local illuminati of Baghdad.

  • NAWʿI

    Sunil Sharma

    MOḤAMMAD-REŻĀ ḴABUŠĀNI (1563-1610),  Persian poet in India, best known for his long maṯnawi, Suz o godāza romance centered on a suttee (sati) heroine.

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  • NAXARAR

    N. Garsoian

    term given to the para-feudal, social pattern that early Armenia apparently shared with Parthian Iran, although it was preserved into the Sasanian period and beyond.

  • NAẒIRI NIŠĀPURI

    Paul Losensky

    Indo-Persian poet of the late 16th and early 17th centuries (b. Nishapur, ca. 1560; d. Ahmadabad, between 1612 and 1614).

  • NEDĀY-E ESLĀM

    Nassereddin Parvin

    (The voice of Islam), a pro-constitutional newspaper lithographed and published in Shiraz, 1907.

  • NEGAHBAN, EZAT O.

    Kamyar Abdi

    eminent Iranian archaeologist. Negahban carried out his first series of excavations in 1961 at the site of Mehrānābād about 25 km south of Tehran on the road to Sāveh.

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  • NEHAVAND

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    (Nehāvand), a town in western Iran, situated in the northern Zagros region.

  • NÉMETH, Gyula

    András Bodrogligeti

    Nemeth's scholarship was devoted almost entirely to various aspects of Ottoman-Turkish studies.  A few works of his, however, crossed over into Iranian studies and made lasting contributions to this field.  While he was working on a series of Ottoman Manuals for Sammlung Göschen, he paid special attention to the Persian-Arabic elements in the Turkish language. 

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  • NEMRUD DAĞI

    Bruno Jacobs

    The burial mound of Antiochus I is flanked by terraces in the east, north, and west. The settings of the sculptures on the east and west terraces are essentially identical: in each case, a row of five limestone statues (originally up to 8 m in height) overlook the terrace, their backs to the mound.

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  • NEOLITHIC AGE IN IRAN

    Frank Hole

    Originally the term “Neolithic” referred to the final Stone Age before the ages of metals.Today “Neolithic” usually refers to the period of the origins and early development of agricultural economies.

  • NETHERLANDS : Archives

    Willem Floor

    The main sources for Iran, the Persian Gulf and the Dutch-Persian relations are found in the Dutch National Archives (Nationaal Archief, NA).

  • NEY-DĀWUD, Morteżā

    Morteżā Ḥoseyni Dehkordi

    (1900-1990), celebrated composer of music and performer and instructor of the tār (a plucked, long-necked lute).

  • NĒZAK

    Frantz Grenet

    dynastic name appearing on a long series of silver coins issued by a local dynasty in Kāpisā (in the region of Kabul; Sk. Kāpiśī) ca. late 7th century C.E.

  • NEẒĀM-AL-SALṬANA MĀFI, Ḥosaynqoli Khan

    Mansoureh Ettehadieh

    (1832-1908), governor, minister, and prime minister of the Nāṣeri and Moẓaffarid era. 

  • NEẒĀMI QUNAVI

    Osman G. Özgüdenlı

    (Neẓāmi of Konya; d. 1469-73?), poet in Persian, Arabic, and Turkish.

  • NIETZSCHE AND PERSIA

    Daryoush Ashouri

    Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (1844-1900), the great German thinker, is best known as a philosopher of culture.

  • NIGHTINGALE

    Cross-Reference

    See BOLBOL.

  • NĪRANGDĪN CEREMONY

    Firoze M. Kotwal and Philip G. Kreyenbroek

    a Zoroastrian ritual to consecrate gōmēz, or bull’s urine; the consecrated liquid is known as nīrang or nīrangdīn.