Table of Contents

  • JULFA ii. THE 18TH AND THE 19TH CENTURY

    Vazken S. Ghougassian

    The Afghan occupation of Isfahan between 1722 and 1729 struck a most devastating blow to the Armenians of New Julfa, although the city was spared total destruction and massive killings of its population. Nāder Shah Afšār (d. 1747) was even more brutal. Karim Khan Zand (d. 1779) treated the Armenian community fairly well and tried to encourage the return of expatriate Julfan merchants.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • JULFA iii. THE 20TH CENTURY

    Vazken S. Ghougassian

    The Constitutional Revolution of 1905-11 had a profound impact on Persian society as a whole. Armenians were actively involved in the constitutional movement.

  • JULFA iv. ARCHITECTURE AND PAINTING

    Armen Haghnazarian

    By 1640 New Julfa had grown into an important cultural center with many public buildings, including churches, markets, and bath houses.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • JULFA v. ARMENIANS IN INDIA

    Sebouh Aslanian

    In the 17th century, Julfan merchants expanded their trade network in South Asia, and at the beginning of the 18th century the Primate of New Julfa had jurisdiction over the Armenian congregations in India and Java.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • JULIAN

    Erich Kettenhofen

    (Flavius Claudius Iulianus), Roman emperor (r. 361-63). The present article deals only with Julian’s military campaign against the Sasanians up to his death.

  • JUNGE, PETER JULIUS

    A. Shapur Shahbazi

    German ancient historian and Iranologist (1913-1943).

  • JUNKER, HEINRICH FRANZ JOSEF

    Werner Sundermann

    Junker chose as the subject of his thesis one of the most difficult and linguistically important Pahlavi texts, the Middle Persian dictionary of heterograms (a most appropriate term applied by Junker to Middle Iranian Aramaic spellings) and their eteographic explanations.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • JUSTI, FERDINAND (WILHELM JAKOB)

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    German scholar of Oriental, particularly Iranian, studies, comparative philologist, and folklorist (1837-1907).

  • JUSTINIAN I

    Erich Kettenhofen

    (Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Justinianus), Eastern Roman emperor, 527-65; his rule was marked by several military conflicts with the Sasanian empire under Kawād I and Chosroes (Ḵosrow) I. When Justinian assumed autarchy on 1 August 527, Byzantium and the Sasanian empire were already at war.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • JUYBĀRIS

    R. D. McChesney

    prominent Bukharan family dynasty, whose leading social position lasted more than 500 years. One of the foundations of the family’s status was spiritual.