Table of Contents

  • JUDICIAL AND LEGAL SYSTEMS i. ACHAEMENID JUDICIAL AND LEGAL SYSTEMS

    F. Rachel Magdalene

    This article will address principally the sources of our knowledge of the judicial and legal system in the Achaemenid period, as well as the nature of the court system, which persons had standing to sue, and legal procedure.

  • JUDICIAL AND LEGAL SYSTEMS ii. PARTHIAN AND SASANIAN JUDICIAL SYSTEMS

    Mansour Shaki

    In Sasanian times, and by extrapolation in previous periods, there were courts of justice at various levels all over the empire, in every rural area, district, and city.

  • JUDICIAL AND LEGAL SYSTEMS iii. SASANIAN LEGAL SYSTEM

    Maria Macuch

    A great number of treatises on jurisprudence must have existed in the Sasanian age, called dādestān-nāmag “Lawbooks,” but only one text from this period has survived.

  • JUDICIAL AND LEGAL SYSTEMS iv. JUDICIAL SYSTEM FROM THE ADVENT OF ISLAM THROUGH THE 19TH CENTURY

    Willem Floor

    From the beginning of Islamic rule in Persia, a secular and a religious judiciary co-existed: the ʿorfi court applying the common law, the tribunal of religious judge (qāẓi) applying the sacred law (šariʿa).

  • JUDICIAL AND LEGAL SYSTEMS v. JUDICIAL SYSTEM IN THE 20TH CENTURY

    Willem Floor

    Twentieth-century Iran experienced dramatic changes to its judicial system during the following periods: (1) Constitutional Period, (2) Pahlavi Period, (3) Post-revolution Period. Judges still applied pre-revolution laws and regulations until 11 August 1982, when Ayatollah Khomeini ordered judges to use their knowledge of Islamic law in cases where no new Islamic laws had yet been formulated.

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  • JUDICIAL AND LEGAL SYSTEMS vi. LEGAL SYSTEM, ISLAMIC PERIOD

    Cross-Reference

    See forthcoming, online. See also AḴBĀRIYA; CIVIL CODE; CONSTITUTION; CONTRACT; FEQHHADITH.

  • JUKES, ANDREW

    Shireen Mahdavi

    British East India Company surgeon and political agent (1774-1821).

  • JULFA

    Multiple Authors

    short for New Julfa, a large settlement on the southwestern edge of Isfahan, established by Armenian refugees in 1605. The modern town is still mostly populated by Armenians.

  • JULFA i. SAFAVID PERIOD

    Vazken S. Ghougassian

    The original Julfa (Arm. ǰuła) is a very old village in the province of Nakhijevan (Naḵjavān), in historical Armenia.  In early summer of 1605, the Julfa deportees to Iran were given temporary shelter in Isfahan, and they began with the building of New Julfa on the right bank of the Zāyandarud. For the first decades after its foundation, New Julfa was exclusively populated by Armenians from Old Julfa.

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  • JULFA ii. THE 18TH AND THE 19TH CENTURY

    Vazken S. Ghougassian

    The Afghan occupation of Isfahan between 1722 and 1729 struck a most devastating blow to the Armenians of New Julfa, although the city was spared total destruction and massive killings of its population. Nāder Shah Afšār (d. 1747) was even more brutal. Karim Khan Zand (d. 1779) treated the Armenian community fairly well and tried to encourage the return of expatriate Julfan merchants.

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