Table of Contents

  • HAFEZ ii. HAFEZ’S LIFE AND TIMES

    Bahaʾ-al-Din Khorramshahi and EIr

    In spite of this enormous popularity and influence, details of his life are extremely sketchy, and the brief references in taḏkeras (anthologies with biographical sketches) are often unreliable or even purely fictitious.

  • HAFEZ iii. HAFEZ’S POETIC ART

    J. T. P. de Bruijn

    Perhaps the greatest progress in research on Hafez during the past century has been made in the domain of philology. Critical editions have been published which begin to provide a reliable basis for the study of Hafez’s poetry.

  • HAFEZ iv. LEXICAL STRUCTURE OF HAFEZ’S GHAZALS

    D. Meneghini Correale

    Despite limitations, it is nevertheless necessary to base textual criticism on complete and reliable lexico-statistical inventories of Hafez’s ghazals.

  • HAFEZ v. MANUSCRIPTS OF HAFEZ

    Julie Scott Meisami

    A major concern of 20th-century Hafez scholarship has been the establishment of a reliable text of his poems.

  • HAFEZ vi. PRINTED EDITIONS OF THE DIVĀN OF HAFEZ

    Bahaʾ-al-Din Khorramshahi and EIr

    Printed editions of Hafez’s poems include partial and complete collections, non-critical and critical editions, in lithographic, calligraphic, facsimile, and typeset formats. The earliest printed editions appeared outside of Persia. The first lithograph edition was commissioned by Richard Johnson of the East India Company and published by Upjohn’s Calcutta press in 1791.

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  • HAFEZ viii. HAFEZ AND RENDI

    Franklin Lewis

    Rend, variously translated in English as “rake, ruffian, pious rogue, brigand, libertine, lout, debauchee,” is the very antithesis of establishment propriety.

  • HAFEZ ix. HAFEZ AND MUSIC

    Franklin Lewis

    The poetics of Hafez, perhaps more so than many Persian poets, depends on a sensuality of language and imagery. Smell, taste, texture, color and certainly sound imagery abound. Translations, adaptations, and inspirations from Hafez have repeatedly been set to music in songs/lieder of the Western classical music tradition. 

  • HAFEZ x. TRANSLATIONS OF HAFEZ IN ENGLISH

    Parvin Loloi

    The first poem by Hafez to appear in English was the work of Sir William Jones (1746-94).

  • HAFEZ xi. TRANSLATIONS OF HAFEZ IN GERMAN

    Hamid Tafazoli

    The name of Hafez is closely associated with that of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe in German literature. This is directly attributable to the status Goethe accords Hafez in his West-West-östlicher Divan (1819).

  • HAFEZ xii. HAFEZ AND THE VISUAL ARTS

    Priscilla Soucek

    The 16th century constitutes the apex in production for illustrated copies of Hafez’s Divān; they were made in several places for a range of patrons. The largest group of the illustrated Hafez manuscripts was produced in Shiraz, the most impressive among them dating to the 1580s.

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