Table of Contents

  • HAMZA NİGARİ

    Tahsin Yazi

    (Ḥamza Negāri) Ḥāji Mir Ḥamza Efendi b. Mir Pāšā, Sufi and poet from Azerbaijan, who wrote in both Persian and Turkish (d. 1886).

  • ḤAMZA-NĀMA i. GENERAL

    William L. Hanaway, Jr.

    The hero of Ḥamza-nāma is Ḥamza b. ʿAbd-al-Moṭṭaleb, whose adventures are thought to be a conflation of stories from eastern Persia about Ḥamza b. ʿAbd-Allāh the Kharijite (d. 797-8).

  • ḤAMZA-NĀMA ii. In the Subcontinent

    Frances W. Pritchett

    The Indo-Persian romance tradition, extending from the medieval period to the early 20th century, produced prose works of considerable literary and cultural interest, chief among which were many versions of the Ḥamza romance.

  • HANAFITE MAḎHAB

    Merlin Swartz

    a school of Sunni jurisprudence named after Abu Ḥanifa Noʿmān b. Ṯābet (699-767), an early Kufan jurist and theologian of Persian descent.

  • HANBALITE MAḎHAB

    Merlin Swartz

    a school of Sunni law and theology named after Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal (d. 855) which was founded largely under his influence in Baghdad.

  • HANG-E AFRĀSIĀB

    A. Sh. Shahbazi

    in the national epic, the cave in which Afrāsiāb, the fugitive king of Turān, spent his last days.

  • HĀNIBĀL, ʿALI

    Ali Boloukbashi

    (1891-1966), Russian-born Persian scholar and founder of the first journal of anthropology (majalla-ye mardom-šenāsi) in Persia.

  • HĀNSAVI

    S. H. Qasemi

    , Shaikh (b. 1184-5, d. i1260-61), mystic, poet, and author.

  • HANWAY, JONAS

    Ernest Tucker

    (1712-86), an English merchant who traveled to Persia and wrote an account of the trip which provides an eyewitness view of northern Iran during Nāder Shah’s last years.

  • ḤANẒALA BĀDḠISI

    François de Blois

    one of the earliest (possibly the earliest) Persian poets of whom we have any record.

  • HAOMA

    Dieter Taillieu, Mary Boyce

    Avestan name for a plant and its divinity.

  • HAOMA i. BOTANY

    Dieter Taillieu

    Haoma is the Avestan name for a plant and its divinity, Mid. Pers. hōm, Sogd. xwm, Pers. and other living Iranian languages hōm, hūm and related forms.

  • HAOMA ii. THE RITUALS

    Mary Boyce

    Haoma yields the essential ingredient for the parahaoma, the consecrated liquid prepared during the main act of worship, the Yasna, and its extensions, the Visperad and Vendidad.

  • ḤAQIQAT (1)

    Nasseredin Parvin

    (“truth”), title of six different Persian-language newspapers or periodicals, published at various times in Tehran, Rašt, Isfahan, Kabul, and Aarhus (Denmark).

  • ḤAQIQAT (2)

    Habib Borjian

    (“truth,” apparently a rendering of Russian Pravda),  the title of several newspapers in Tajik Persian.

  • HARĀ BƎRƎZAITĪ

    cross-reference

    See ALBORZ.

  • HARAHUVATIŠ

    cross-reference

    See ARACHOSIA; ROḴAJ.

  • HARAIVA

    cross-reference

    See HERAT i.

  • HARĀSP

    cross-reference

    See ZAV.

  • HARĀT

    cross-reference

    See HERĀT.

  • HARAXVATIŠ

    cross-reference

    See ARACHOSIA; ROḴAJ.

  • HARDINGE, ARTHUR

    Denis Wright

    , Sir, British diplomat (1859-1933). He worked assiduously and effectively to counter the influence of Russia and enhance that of Britain.

  • HARDINGE, CHARLES

    Denis Wright

    , Lord, First Baron Hardinge of Penshurst (1858-1944), British diplomat.

  • HAREM

    Multiple Authors

    (Ar. and Pers. ḥaram “sanctuary”), wives and other female associates in former aristocratic families and the secluded quarter of a house reserved for them.

  • HAREM i. IN ANCIENT IRAN

    A. Shapur Shahbazi

    There is no evidence for the practice among the early Iranians of taking large numbers of wives or concubines and keeping them in secluded quarters.

  • HAREM ii. IN THE QAJAR PERIOD

    Anna Vanzan

    Women played an important role in the life of the Qajar monarchs. Fatḥ-ʿAli Shah and Nāṣer-al-Din Shah, in particular, kept a large harem.

  • ḪARḪAR

    Inna Medvedskaya

    a land and a city at the western border of Media. It was taken several times by the Assyrian kings Shalmanaser III (r. 860-825 BCE) and Adad-nerari III (r. 812-782).

  • HARI RUD

    Cross-Reference

    See Supplement.

  • ḤARIRA

    Etrat Elahi

    a very light and diluted Persian dish made of fine wheat flour or wheat starch, or with rice flour or rice powder.

  • HARISA

    Etrat Elahi

    a cooked dish made from a mixture of grains, usually half-ground wheat and barley, and meat, usually lamb and more recently sometimes beef.

  • HARKARN DĀS KANBŌH

    S.H. Qasemi

    the first Hindu author of a Persian work, Eršād al-ṭālebin, commonly known as Enšāʾ-e Harkarn, a collection of documents and model letters.

  • HARKI

    Pierre Oberling

    (Herki), a Kurdish tribe of western Azerbaijan, eastern Anatolia, and northeastern Iraq.

  • HARP

    Bo Lawergren

    (čang), a string instrument which flourished in Persia in many forms from its introduction, about 3000 BCE, until the 17th century.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • HARPAGOS

    Muhammad A. Dandamayev

    a Median magnate and the trusted advisor of the last Median king Astyages, In 550 BCE, during the war between the Medes and Persians, Harpagosdefected to support Cyrus II.

  • ḤARRĀN

    C. E. Bosworth

    an ancient town of Upper Mesopotamia, now located in the modern Turkish province of Diyarbakir approximately 40 km/25 miles south-southeast of Edessa, or Urfa.

  • HARRIMAN MISSION

    Fakhreddin Azimi

    The American diplomat W. Averell Harriman was sent to Tehran in July 1951 to mediate between Persia and Great Britain after Persian nationalization of the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company.

  • HARTNER, WILLY

    A. Panaino

    (1905-1981), professor of the History of Sciences specializing in astronomy,  author of many works devoted to Oriental studies, including ancient Persian calendar systems.

  • HĀRUN AL-MONAJJEM

    David Pingree

    (d. 987), astronomer, astrologer, and Hadith expert.

  • HĀRUN AL-RAŠID

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    , HĀRUN B. MOḤAMMAD B. ʿABD-ALLĀH (d. 809), the fifth caliph of the ʿAbbasid dynasty (r. 786-809), the third son of the caliph al-Mahdi.

  • HĀRUN B. ALTUNTAŠ

    C. E. Bosworth

    son of a Turkish slave commander of Maḥmud of Ghazna who served as governor in Kᵛārazm 1032-35, first for the Ghaznavids, and then as an independent ruler.

  • HĀRUN WELĀYAT

    cross-reference

    See ISFAHAN x. MONUMENTS.

  • HĀRUT and MĀRUT

    A. Shapur Shahbazi

    two fallen angels who taught mankind magic in Babylon, mentioned once in the Koran. Their names derive from the Zoroastrian Ḵordād and Amurdād, two of the Aməša Spəntas.

  • HARZANI

    Cross-Reference

    See Supplement.

  • ḪARZIANU

    I. N. Medvedskaya

    a city and a district in Media, mentioned in the Assyrian texts of the time of Sargon II (r. 722–705 BCE).

  • ḤASAB O NASAB

    Louise Marlow

    term used in Arabic and New Persian literature to express complementary aspects of the concept of nobility. 

  • ḤASAN II

    Farhad Daftary

    , ʿALĀ ḎEKREHE’L-SALĀM, Nezāri Ismaʿili Imam and the fourth ruler of Alamut (1162-66). The most important event of his brief reign was his declaration of the qiāma (the Resurrection).

  • ḤASAN B. ʿABD-AL-MOʾMEN

    Tahsin Yaziçi

    full name: ḤASAN B. ʿABD-AL-MOʾMEN, ḤOSĀM-AL-DIN ḴOʾI, 13th-century scribe, poet, and lexicographer from Azerbaijan.

  • ḤASAN B. ʿABD-ALLĀH

    cross-reference

    B. AL-MARZOBĀN AL-SIRĀFI. See SIRĀFI, ABU SAʿID ḤASAN.

  • ḤASAN B. ʿALI AL-ʿASKARI

    cross-reference

    See ʿASKARI, ḤASAN B. ʿALI.

  • ḤASAN B. ʿALI AL-QOMMI

    David Pingree

    , ABU NAṢR, astrologer of the late 10th century.