Table of Contents


    Richard N. Frye

    title of a low-ranking official at the Sasanian court.


    Multiple Authors

    (NPers. Darīūš, Dārā), name of several Achaemenid and Parthian rulers and princes.

  • DARIUS i. The Name

    Rudiger Schmitt

    the common Latin form of Greek Dareîos, itself a shortened rendering of Old Persian five-syllable Dārayavauš, the throne name of Darius the Great and two other kings of the Achaemenid dynasty, which thus enjoyed considerable popularity among noblemen in later periods

  • DARIUS ii. Darius the Mede

    Richard N. Frye

    In the Old Testament Book of Daniel Darius the Mede is mentioned (5:30-31) as ruler after the slaying of the “Chaldean king” Belshazzar.

  • DARIUS iii. Darius I the Great

    A. Shapur Shahbazi

    third Achaemenid king of kings (r. 29 September 522-October 486 BCE). Once he gained power, Darius placed the empire on foundations that lasted for nearly two centuries and influenced the organization of subsequent states, including the Seleucid and Roman empires.

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  • DARIUS iv. Darius II

    Heleen Sanchisi-Weerdenburg

    the sixth Achaemenid king of kings (r. February 423- March 403 B.C.E.). He had been satrap of Hyrcania. Darius was his throne name; his given name is reported in classical sources as Ochus.

  • DARIUS v. Darius III


    (b. ca. 380 BCE, d. mid-330), the last Achaemenid king. The lack of sources is especially severe for his life and reign. There are no Persian royal texts or monuments, and what is known comes almost solely from the Greek historians, who depicted his career mainly as a contrast to the brilliant first few years of Alexander the Great.

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  • DARIUS vi. Achaemenid Princes

    Rudiger Schmitt

    the name of two Achaemenid princes in addition to the emperors who bore it.

  • DARIUS vii. Parthian Princes

    Rudiger Schmitt

    In 64 B.C.E. while his father, Mithridates VI Eupator, king of Pontus (ca. 121/20-63 B.C.E.), was fighting his last, losing campaign against the troops of the Roman general Pompey (106-48 B.C.E.), the child Darius was taken prisoner, along with several brothers and his sister Eupatra, in Phanagoria

  • DARIUS viii. Darius Son of Artabanus

    Marie Louise Chaumont

    A son of the Parthian king Artabanus II named Darius was sent as a hostage to Rome shortly after an interview between Artabanus and the Roman legate for Syria, Vitellius, in 37 C.E.