Table of Contents

  • AḤMADZĪ

    C. M. Kieffer

    “descendants of Aḥmad” (sing. Aḥmadzay), a Paṧtō clan and tribal name.

  • AḤRĀR

    C. E. Bosworth

    (or BANU’L-AḤRĀR), in Arabic literally “the free ones,” a name applied by the Arabs at the time of the Islamic conquests to their Persian foes in Iraq and Iran.

  • AḤRĀR, ḴᵛĀJA ʿOBAYDALLĀH

    J. M. Rogers

    (806-96/1404-90), influential Naqšbandī of Transoxania.

  • AHRIMAN

    J. Duchesne-Guillemin

    "demon," God’s adversary in the Zoroastrian religion.

  • AHRIŠWANG

    B. Schlerath

    a learned transcription of the Avestan nominative Ašiš vaŋuhī, the goddess “Good Recompense.”

  • AḤSĀʾĪ, SHAIKH AḤMAD

    D. M. MacEoin

    (1753-1826), Shiʿite ʿālem and philosopher and unintending originator of the Šayḵī school of Shiʿism in Iran and Iraq.

  • AḤSAN AL-TAQĀSĪM

    C. E. Bosworth

    a celebrated geographical work in Arabic written towards the end of the 4th/10th century.

  • AḤSAN AL-TAWĀRĪḴ

    ʿA. Navāʾī

    a chronological history of Iran and the neighboring countries written by Ḥasan Beg Rūmlū (b. 937/1530-31), a qūṛčī in the service of the Safavid Shah Ṭahmāsb.

  • AHU

    B. Schlerath

    two homonymous Avestan terms: (1) “Existence, life” in a range of religious phrases, (2) “Lord, overlord,” linked with ratu- “lord, judge.”

  • ĀHŪ

    B. P. O’Regan, H. Javadi

    Two species of gazelle occur in Iran, Gazella sub-gutturosa and G. dorcas.