Table of Contents


    ʿA. Navāʾī

    a chronological history of Iran and the neighboring countries written by Ḥasan Beg Rūmlū (b. 937/1530-31), a qūṛčī in the service of the Safavid Shah Ṭahmāsb.

  • AHU

    B. Schlerath

    two homonymous Avestan terms: (1) “Existence, life” in a range of religious phrases, (2) “Lord, overlord,” linked with ratu- “lord, judge.”

  • ĀHŪ

    B. P. O’Regan, H. Javadi

    Two species of gazelle occur in Iran, Gazella sub-gutturosa and G. dorcas.


    C. J. Brunner

    Middle Persian form of Avestan Ahuna Vairya, name of the most sacred of the Gathic prayers.


    F. B. J. Kuiper

    designation of a type of deity inherited by Zoroastrianism from the prehistoric Indo-Iranian religion.


    M. Boyce

    the Avestan name with title of a great divinity of the Old Iranian religion, who was subsequently proclaimed by Zoroaster as God.


    M. Boyce

    an infrequent Avestan adjective meaning “following the Ahuric doctrine.”


    B. Schlerath

    feminine deity of the waters.


    Multiple Authors

    city of southwestern Iran, located in the province of Ḵūzestān on the Kārun river.

  • AHVĀZ i. History

    C. E. Bosworth

    Ahvāz was apparently a flourishing town in pre-Islamic times. When the Arabs invaded Ḵūzestān in the later 630s, after the overrunning of Iraq, the general ʿOtba b. Ḡazwān destroyed the administrative half of the town of Ahvāz but preserved the commercial one.