F~ CAPTIONS OF ILLUSTRATIONS

list of all the figure and plate images in the letter F entries.

 

F ENTRIES: CAPTIONS OF ILLUSTRATIONS

 

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FACULTIES OF THE UNIVERSITY OF TEHRAN v. Faculty of Medicine

Figure 1. Faculty and students of the Faculty of Medicine, 1319 Š./1940 The members of the faculty, seated in the front row, include (from left to right): (1) Ebrāhim Neʿmat-Allāhī, (2) Ḥasan ʿAlawī, (3) Moḥammadqolī Šams, (4) Javād Āštiāni, (5) Charles Oberling, (6) Esmāʿīl Merʾāt, (7) Amīr Amīr-Aʿlam, (8) Moḥammad Ḥosayn Adīb, (9) ʿAbbās Nafīsī, (10) Jahānšāh Ṣāleḥ, and (11) unidentified. Photograph courtesy of Houtan Adib.

FĀL-ASĪRĪ, Ḥājj Sayyed ʿALĪ-AKBAR

Figure 1. Alī-Akbar Fāl-asīrī. After Saʿīdī Sīrjānī, ed., Waqāyeʿ-e ettefāqīya, facing p. 584.

FĀL-NĀMA

Plate I. While still in his cradle, the infant ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭāl eb slays a dragon. The poet comments on this and adds the reassuri ng comment that success and victory will be on the side of the reader since ʿAlī has looked favorably upon this fāl. A fter Kahl, p. 131, no. 19; courtesy of the Museum voor Volkenkunde, Rotterdam.

FĀL-NĀMA

Plate II. The poem informs the reader that since the shah of Khorasan, “the supreme leader of mankind and the jinn” (i.e., the Eighth Imam, ʿAlī Reżā), has appeared in his fāl, his enemy, even if of the stature of a dīv, will be destroyed at once. After Kahl, pp. 125-26, no 10; courtesy of the Museum voor Volkenku nde, Rotterdam.

FĀL-NĀMA

Plate III. The Day of Judgement. After Kahl, p. 131, no. 19; courtesy of the Museum voor Volkenkunde, Rotterdam.

FĀL-NĀMA

Plate IV. Moses striking the giant ʿŪj. After Kahl, p. 135, no. 25; courtesy of the Museum voor Volkenkunde, Rotterdam.

FARAḤĀBĀD

Figure 1. Location of Faraḥābād, Māzandarān, and antiquities in its environs. After sketch map by W. Kleiss.

FARĀHĀNĪ, MĪRZĀ MOḤAMMAD-ḤOSAYN

Figure 1. Mīrzā Moḥammad-Ḥosayn Malek-al-Kottāb Faṟāhānī. After M.-Ḥ. Farāhānī, Ḥālat, Tehran, 1311 Š./1932.

FARAHVAŠI, BAHRĀM

Figure 1. Photograph of Bahrām Farahvaši, 4 February 1979.

FARAS-NĀMA

Plate I. On the characteristics of black horses with white patches, from th e Faras-nāma-ye hendī (a translation of the Sanskrit Sālihōtra), MS London, Wellcome Institute, WMS.Per.47(A), f. 7a (undated). Courtesy of the Wellcome Institute for the History of Medicine.

FARAS-NĀMA

Plate II. On the characteristics of white horses with a shade of black, from the Faras-nāma-ye hendī, MS London, Wellcome Institute , WMS.Per.559, f. 18a (dated 1218/1803). Courtesy of the Wellcome Institutefor the History of Medicine.

FARDIN, MOḤAMMAD ʿALI

Figure 1. Moḥammad ʿAli Fardin.

FĀRESĪ, KAMĀL-AL-DĪN ABU’L-ḤASAN MOḤAMMAD

Plate I. The eye and optic nerves according to Kamāl-al-Dīn Fāresī in the Tanqīḥ al-manāẓer.

FĀRESĪ, KAMĀL-AL-DĪN ABU’L-ḤASAN MOḤAMMAD

Plate II. The eye and optic nerves according to Kamāl-al-Dīn Fāresī in the Tanqīḥ al-manāẓer.

FARHĀD MĪRZĀ MOʿTAMAD-AL-DAWLA

Figure 1. Image of Farhād Mīrzā.

FARMĀN

Plate I. Example of the square tamḡā in a farmān of Sultan Aḥmad Jalāyer (ca. 784/1382). After Qāʾem-maqāmī, 1971, fig. 59.

FARMĀN

Plate IIa. Aq Qoyunlu farmāns: Gold tamḡā in farmān of Rostam Bahādor Beyg Aq Qoyunlu. After Qā ʾem-maqāmī, 1971, fig. 32.

FARMĀN

Plate IIb. Aq Qoyunlu farmāns: Intitulation of Uzun Ḥasan. After Qāʾem-maqāmī, 1971, fig. 28.

FARMĀN

Plate III. Farmān of Shah Esmāʿīl I with the seal (and kolāh) moved from the bottom to the top of the text, immediately beneath the intitulation. After Qāʾem-maqāmī , 1971, fig. 29.

FARMĀN

Plate IVa. Farmāns showing reforms under Shah Ṭahmāsb: The farmān-e homāyūn šod formula in red ink. After Qāʾem-maqāmī, 1971, fig. 38.

FARMĀN

Plate IVb. Farmāns showing reforms under Shah Ṭahmāsb: Document with “roof shaped” seal. After Fekete, Plate 147 (document n. 65).

FARMĀN

Plate IVc. Farmāns showing reforms under Shah Ṭahmāsb: Document with round seal. Aftert Fekete, Plate159 (document n. 70).

FARMĀN

Plate IX. Farmān of the Qajar period. After Qāʾem-maqām ī, 1971, Fig. 46.

FARMĀN

Plate V. Safavid farmān of the ḵalīfat al-ḵolafā type with šajara. After Qāʾem-maqāmī, 1971, fig. 13. (b) Detail of the šajara genealogy in the above document (turned upright). After Qāʾem-maqʾāmī, 1971, fig. 37.

FARMĀN

Plate VI. Farmān (meṯāl) of Rafīʿ-al-Dīn Moḥammad Ḥosaynī, ṣadr of Shah ʿAbbās I. After Qāʾem-maqāmī, 1971, fig. 38.

FARMĀN

Plate VII. Seals and ṭoḡrā of Nāder Shah. After Qāʾem-maqāmī, 1971, fig. 39.

FARMĀN

Plate VIII. Farmān of Shah ʿAbbās II showing the revived use of the sözümiz intitulation but combined with the names of the Twelve Imams. After Qāʾem-maqāmī, 1971, fi g. 30.

FARMĀNFARMĀ, FĪRŪZ MĪRZĀ NOṢRAT-AL-DAWLA

Figure 1. Drawing of Fīrūz Mīrzā Farmānfarmā by Abū Tor āb Ḡaffārī Naqqāš-bāšī. Courtesy of H. Farmayan.

FARMĀNFARMĀ, ʿABD-AL-ḤOSAYN MĪRZĀ

Plate I. Autographed photograph of ʿAbd-al-Ḥosayn Mīrzā Farmānfarmā. Courtesy of H. Farmayan.

FARMĀNFARMĀ, ʿABD-AL-ḤOSAYN MĪRZĀ

Plate IIa. Copy of the waqf-nāma by which ʿAbd-al-Ḥosayn Mīrzā Farmānfarmā conveyed property and other funds for what became the Pasteur Institute in Tehran. Dated 25 Šaʿbān 1342/31 March 1924. Courtesy of H. Farmayan.

FARMĀNFARMĀ, ʿABD-AL-ḤOSAYN MĪRZĀ

Plate IIb. Copy of the waqf-nāma by which ʿAbd-al-Ḥosayn Mīrzā Farmānfarmā conveyed property and other funds for what became the Pasteur Institute in Tehran. Dated 25 Šaʿbān 1342/31 March 1924. Courtesy of H. Farmayan.

FARMĀNFARMĀ, ʿABD-AL-ḤOSAYN MĪRZĀ

Plate IIc. Copy of the waqf-nāma by which ʿAbd-al-Ḥosayn Mīrzā Farmānfarmā conveyed property and other funds for what became the Pasteur Institute in Tehran. Dated 25 Šaʿbān 1342/31 March 1924. Courtesy of H. Farmayan.

FARR(AH) ii. Iconography of Farr(ah)/Xᵛarənah

Figure 1. Tripartite cycle of the xᵛarenah. Glazed brick panel, Persepolis, 6-5th century BCE. (Courtesy of the Oriental Institute, Chicago. Photo no. P 58470).

FARR(AH) ii. Iconography of Farr(ah)/Xᵛarənah

Figure 10. Sasanian silk textile fragment, circa 4th century CE (private collection; photograph A. Soudavar).

FARR(AH) ii. Iconography of Farr(ah)/Xᵛarənah

Figure 11. Stucco plaque. Ctesiphon 6th century. Museum fur Islamische Kunst, Berlin Inv. no. KtO 1084 (photograph A. Soudavar).

FARR(AH) ii. Iconography of Farr(ah)/Xᵛarənah

Figure 12. Grandees offering lotuses as symbols of 10,000-farr. Detail of the relief of Shapur I. Dārāb. (Trümpelmann, “Das Sasanianissche Felsrelief von Dārāb,” 6/II).

FARR(AH) ii. Iconography of Farr(ah)/Xᵛarənah

Figure 13. Flying chimera with a ribbon; detail of Panjikant fresco. Hermitage Museum, St Petersburg (photograph A. Soudavar).

FARR(AH) ii. Iconography of Farr(ah)/Xᵛarənah

Figure 14. Manuel II Palaeologos. Detail of the Adoration of the Magi. Uffizi Museum, Florence. (Soudavar, 2008, fig. 155).

FARR(AH) ii. Iconography of Farr(ah)/Xᵛarənah

Figure 15. Silk fragment, detail of a Bodhisattva hand. Sinkiang, China, 8th century. Museum of Indian Art, Berlin (III 6348; photograph A. Soudavar).

FARR(AH) ii. Iconography of Farr(ah)/Xᵛarənah

Figure 16. Bahrām-e Gōr appointing his brother Narseh as governor of Khorasan, a page from the Šāh-nāma manuscript sometimes referred to as Abu-Saʿid-nāma, previously in the Khosrovani Collection.

FARR(AH) ii. Iconography of Farr(ah)/Xᵛarənah

Figure 2. Symbol of Ahura Mazdā with added solar emblem of Šamaš, Bisotun. (Soudavar, 2003, fig. 85)

FARR(AH) ii. Iconography of Farr(ah)/Xᵛarənah

Figure 3. Persepolis door jamb drawing (based on Curtis and Tallis, p. 76).

FARR(AH) ii. Iconography of Farr(ah)/Xᵛarənah

Figure 4. Sphinx guarding the xᵛarenah symbol, glazed bricks from Susa, Louvre Museum (photograph A. Soudavar)

FARR(AH) ii. Iconography of Farr(ah)/Xᵛarənah

Figure 5. Falcon carrying the encapsulated xᵛarenah (pearls), glazed plaque from Persepolis. (Computer regeneration courtesy of Shahrokh Razmjou)

FARR(AH) ii. Iconography of Farr(ah)/Xᵛarənah

Figure 6. Apąm Napāt offering a dastār as symbol of farr and victory. Detail of Shapur I’s victory relief. Bišāpur (photograph A. Soudavar).

FARR(AH) ii. Iconography of Farr(ah)/Xᵛarənah

Figure 7. Ḵosrow acquiring a farr nimbus by virtue of a successful hunt. Detail of the Tāq-e Bostān relief (photograph A. Soudavar).

FARR(AH) ii. Iconography of Farr(ah)/Xᵛarənah

Figure 8. Farr-related signs and caricatures on a coin of Narseh (Gyselen, no. 175).

FFARR(AH) ii. Iconography of Farr(ah)/Xᵛarənah

Figure 9. Shapur II’s victory relief, Tāq-e Bostān (photograph A. Soudavar).

FĀRS i. Geography

Figure 1. Geography of Fārs: mountain ranges and streams. After Naval Intelligence Division, Persia, Geographical Handbook Series B.R. 525, London, 1945, Fig. 15.

FĀRS i. Geography

Figure 2. The province of Fārs.

FĀRS ix. Prehistoric  Sequence

Figure 1. Kur River basin, map of the key archaeological sites. Courtesy of the author.

FĀRS ix. Prehistoric   Sequence

Figure 2. Marvdašt plain, satellite image of the key archaeological sites.  Courtesy of the author.

FĀRS v. Monuments

Plate I. Taḵt-e Jamšīd, Persepolis. Achaemenid period. Photograph courtesy of the Deutsches Archäologisches Institut.

FĀRS v. Monuments

Plate II. Tower, Nūrābād, probably a reliquary astōdān. Sasanian period. Photograph courtesy of the Deutsches Archäologisches Institut.

FĀRS v. Monuments

Plate III. Carved stone monuments, probably reliquary astōdāns, Naqš-e Rostam. Sasanian period. Photograph courtesy of the Deutsches Archäologisches Institut.

FĀRS v. Monuments

Plate IV. Naqāra Ḵāna, Farrāšband. Sasanian period. Photograph courtesy of the Deutsches Archäologisches Institut

FĀRS v. Monuments

Plate V. Fortress of Qalʿa-ye Doḵtar, Fīrūzābad. Sasanian period. Photograph courtesy of the Deutsches Archäologisches Institut.

FĀRS vi. Population

Figure 1. Administrative districts and population centers of Fars. After Āmār-nāma-ye Fārs, 1375 Š./1996.

FĀRS vii. Ethnography

Figure 1. Distribution of major tribal groups in Fārs (ca. 1960). After map provided by P. Oberling.

FĀRS viii. Dialects

Figure 1. Administrative districts and population centers of Fārs. After Āmār-nāma-ye Fārs, 1375 Š./1996.

FĀRS-NĀMA-YE NĀṢERĪ i. The Author

Figure 1. Ḥajj Mīrzā Ḥasan Ḥosaynī Fasāʾī.

FARZĀD, MASʿŪD

Figure 1. Masʿūd Farzād.

FASĀ ii. Tall-e Żaḥḥāk

Figure 1. Site Plan of Tall-e Żaḥḥāk.

FASĀ ii. Tall-e Żaḥḥāk

Plate I. View of Tall-e Żaḥḥāk.

FASĀ ii. Tall-e Żaḥḥāk

Plate II. Figure 1. Site Plan of Tall-e Żaḥḥāk.

FASIH, Esma’il

Figure 1. Portrait of Esmail Fasih.

FĀṬEMĪ, ḤOSAYN

Figure 1. Ḥosayn Fāṭemī. Photograph courtesy of Saeid Fatemi.

FATḤ-ʿALĪ SHAH QĀJĀR

Plate I. Fatḥ-ʿAlī Shah Qājār. Painting signed by Mehr- ʿAlī and dated 1224/1809-10 (253 x 124 cm). Courtesy of the State Hermitage Museum, Saint Petersburg, VR-1107.

FATḤ-ʿALĪ SHAH QĀJĀR

Plate IIa. Plate IIa-c. The court of Fatḥ-ʿAlī Shah (ca. 1812-13). These watercolors, based on life-size wall paintings at the Negārestān Palace near Tehran, depict an idealized version of a Now Rūz (New Year’s) reception rather than any actual event. The central panel (60 x 52 cm) (Plate IIa), showing the enthroned shah, his sons, and court officals, is flanked by side murals (each 33 x 135 cm) (Plate IIb and IIc) portraying rows of other dignitaries, including envoys from France, Great Britain, and the Ottoman empire (see L. Diba, ed., Royal Persian Paintings: The Qajar Epoch 1785-1925, London, 1998). The Art and History Trust, L TS 1997.5.1-3. Courtesy of the Arthur M. Sackler Galery, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.

FATḤ-ʿALĪ SHAH QĀJĀR

Plate IIa. The court of Fatḥ-ʿAlī Shah (ca. 1812-13). These watercolors, based on life-size wall paintings at the Negārestān Palace near Tehran, depict an idealized version of a Now Rūz (New Year’s) reception rather than any actual event. The central panel (60 x 52 cm) (Plate IIa), showing the enthroned shah, his sons, and court officals, is flanked by side murals (each 33 x 135 cm) (Plate IIb and IIc) portraying rows of other dignitaries, including envoys from France, Great Britain, and the Ottoman empire (see L. Diba, ed., Royal Persian Paintings: The Qajar Epoch 1785-1925, London, 1998). The Art and History Trust, L TS 1997.5.1-3. Courtesy of the Arthur M. Sackler Galery, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.

FATḤ-ʿALĪ SHAH QĀJĀR

Plate Iic. The court of Fatḥ-ʿAlī Shah (ca. 1812-13). These watercolors, based on life-size wall paintings at the Negārestān Palace near Tehran, depict an idealized version of a Now Rūz (New Year’s) reception rather than any actual event. The central panel (60 × 52 cm) (Plate IIa), showing the enthroned shah, his sons, and court officals, is flanked by side murals (each 33 × 135 cm) (Plate IIb and IIc) portraying rows of other dignitaries, including envoys from France, Great Britain, and the Ottoman empire (see L. Diba, ed., Royal Persian Paintings: The Qajar Epoch 1785-1925, London, 1998). The Art and History Trust, L TS 1997.5.1-3. Courtesy of the Arthur M. Sackler Galery, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.

FATḤ-ʿALĪ SHAH QĀJĀR

Plate III. Sketch of Fatḥ-ʿAlī Shah by Robert Ker Porter (Travels, 1821, frontispiece). William Ouseley (III, p. 132) considered it “a strong and spirited resemblance of the Persian Monarch’ s countenance.” Courtesy University of Hawaii Library.

FAYYĀŻ, ʿALĪ-AKBAR MAJĪDĪ

Figure 1. ʿAlī-Akbar Fayyāż. After Rāhnemā-ye ketāb 14, 1350 Š./1971, p. 598

FAZAL’EL-E BALK

Figure 1. Facsimile of Fażāʾel-e Balḵ, fol. 211b, Ms. C453-3 (19th century), the Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg.

FĀŻEL TŪNĪ, MOḤAMMAD-ḤOSAYN

Figure 1. Moḥammad-Ḥosayn Fāżel Tūnī. After MDAT 9/3, 1341 Š./1962, facing p. 3

FREĬMAN, ALEXSANDR   ARNOL’DOVICH

Figure 1. Alexsandr A. Freĭman. Photograph courtesy of S. Bayevsky.

FELT

Plate I. Treading felt in Isfahan, ca. 1890. After E. Höltzer, Persien von 113 Jahren, ed. and tr. M. ʿĀṣemī, Tehran, 1975, p. 280.

FELT

Plate II. Large decorated felt floor mat. Abbot Hall Art Gallery, Kendal, Cumbria, U.K. After Burkett, 1979, cat. no. 43.Photograph courtesy of Mar y E. Burkett.

FELT

Plate III. Kurdish villager in short-sleeved felt coat (kapanak). After Burkett, 1979, col. pl. 5a. Photograph by Michael Gervers, courtesy of Mary E. Burkett.

FEMINIST MOVEMENTS i. INTRODUCTION, ii. In the Late Qajar Period

Plate I. Membership card in the Jamʿīat-e taraqqī-e neswān (which later became the Jamʿīyat-e neswān-e waṭanḵᵛāh), with signature of Moḥtaram Eskandarī (q.v.), dated 3 Dalv 1301/23 January 1923. Courtesy of Mehrangīz Dawlatšāhī.

FEMINIST MOVEMENTS iii. In the Pahlavi Period

Plate II. Board of Directors of the Patriotic Women’s League (Jamʿīyat-e ne swān-e waṭanḵᵛāh). Seated (left to right) : Faḵr-Āfāq Pārsā, Molūk Eskandarī, Kobrā Čanānī, Mastūra Afšār, Noṣ ;rat Mošīrī, Ṣafyīa Eskandarī, ʿEṣmat-al-Mol 8;k Šarīfī. Standing: Mehrangīz Eskandarī, Bānū &Ugra ve;anānī, Hāʾīda Afšār, ʿAbbāsa, Qodsīya Mošīrī. After Bāmdād, I, p. 53.

FEMINIST MOVEMENTS iii. In the Pahlavi Period

Plate III. The first women students at the University of Tehran (September 1936). Front row (left to right): Batūl Samīʿī, Zahrā Eska ndarī, Mehrangīz Manūčehrīān, Serāj-al-Nesā& #247;, Badr-al-Molūk Bāmdād, Šams-al-Molūk Mo ṣāḥeb, Ḵānom Šāhzāda Kāvūsī. Second row (left to right): Zahrā Kīā Ḵānlarī, Forūḡ Kīā, Tāj-al-Molūk Naḵaʿʿī, Šāyesta Ṣādeq, Ṭūsī Ḥāʾerī. After Bāmdād, I, p. 99.

FERDOWSI, ABU’L-QĀSEM iii. Mausoleum

Plate I. Design on leaflet issued by the Anjoman-e āṭār-e mellī to raise funds to complete construction of the Ferdowsī mausoleum, 13 12 Š./1933. After Honar o Mardom,nos. 153-54, 1354 Š. /1975, p. 56.

FERDOWSI, ABU’L-QĀSEM iii. Mausoleum

Plate II. The Ferdowsī mausoleum as initially constructed. After ʿĪ . Ṣadīq, ed., Ketāb-e hezāra-ye Ferdowsī/Th e Millenium of Firdawsi, the Great National Poet of Iran, Tehran, 1322 Š./1943, facing p. 173.

FERDOWSI, ABU’L-QĀSEM iii. Mausoleum

Plate III. Interior of the Ferdowsī mausoleum, showing the cenotaph over the grave. After Honar o mardom, nos. 153-54, 1354 Š./1975, p 161

FERDOWSI, ABU’L-QĀSEM iv. Millenary Celebration

Plate IV. Participants in the Ferdowsī Millenary Congress, photographed at the entrance to the Dār al-fonūn auditorium. Several of those in attendance are not pictured. After Ṣadīq, d., 1943, facing page 202.

FERDOWSI, ABU’L-QĀSEM v. Homages to Ferdowsi

Plate V. Bust of Ferdowsī by Abu’l-Ḥasan Ṣadīqī, approved by the An joman-e āṯār-e mellī and one of the best-known modern representations of the poet (attributed to Kamāl-al-Molk in Mehr 2/5, 1313/1934, frontispiece). After Honar o mardom, nos. 153-54, 1354 Š./1975, p. 104.

FEUVRIER, JEAN-BAPTISTE

Figure 1. Dr. Jean-Baptiste Feuvrier. After Feuvrier, Trois ans àla cour de Perse, frontispiece.

FIRE ALTARS

Figure 1. Stepped fire altar, Kūh-e Ḵᵛāja (Parthian). After Herzfeld, Iran in the Ancient East, London and New York, 1941, p. 301, fig. 397.

FIRE ALTARS

Plate I. Pre-Achaemenid fire altar and protective wall, Tepe Nūš-e Jān (8th-7th c. B.C.E.). Courtesy of D. Stronach.

FIRE ALTARS

Plate II. Dual plinths, Sacred Precinct, Pasargadae (Achaemenid, time of Cyrus). After D. Stronach, Pasargadae, Oxford, 1978, pl. 103. By permission of Oxford University Press.

FIRE ALTARS

Plate III. Fragment of fire bowl (inverted), Pasargadae. After Stronach, Pasargadae. By permission of Oxford University press

FIRE ALTARS

Plate IV. Possible fire altar in Room 5 of the “Fratadara Temple” at Persepolis (Parthian). After Herzfeld, Iran in the Ancient East, pl. LXXXV.

FIREARMS i. History

Plate I. A zambūrak mounted on a camel. After Drouville, Voyage en Perse.

FIREARMS i. History

Plate II. A Persian musketeer (tofangčī) in the time of Shah ʿAbbās I. Drawing by Ḥabīb-Allāh Mašhadī. After Falsafī, 1334 Š./1955, II, facing p. 120.

FIREARMS i. History

Plate III. Persian firearms of the Qajar period: (a) blunderbuss pistol, early 19th century, (b) flintlock rifle with English lock, ca. 1835. After Elgood, nos. 78, 81. By permission of the Tareq Rajab Museum, Hawalli, Kuwait.

FIREARMS ii. Production of Cannon and Muskets

Plate IV. Pattern for construction of cannon. After Solaymān Qūrčī, MS Tehran, Ketāb-ḵāna-ye markazī-e Dānešgāh-e Tehrān, 2085, f. 1.

FIREARMS ii. Production of Cannon and Muskets

Plate V. Furnace and small moulds stacked vertically. After Solaymān Qūrčī.

FIREARMS ii. Production of Cannon and Muskets

Plate VI. Spindle and clay covering. After Solaymān Qūrčī.

FIREARMS ii. Production of Cannon and Muskets

Plate VII. Furnace, pit, conduit, roller, and measuring instruments used in manufacture of a finished cannon. After Solaymān Qūrčī.

FIRUZ, MARYAM

Figure 1. Maryam Furuz and her husband, Nur-al-Din Kiānuri.

FĪRŪZĀBĀD

Figure 1. The Fīrūzābād plain. After D. Huff in Proceedings of the 2nd Annual Symposium on Archaeological Research in Iran, Tehran (Oct.-Nov., 1973), Tehran, 1974, p. 165.

FĪRŪZĀBĀD

Plate I. Fīrūzābād. The Tang-āb gorge and Qalʿa-ye Doḵtar. Photograph after D. Huff in AMI 4, 1971, plate 19-1.

FISH i. Freshwater   Fishes

Figure 1. The Tigris salmon (Barbus esocinus). 2.1 m.

FISH i. Freshwater   Fishes

Figure 10. Barilius mesopotamicus. 5.1 cm.

FISH i. Freshwater   Fishes

Figure 11. Bagrid catfish (Mystus pelusius). 22.9 cm.

FISH i. Freshwater   Fishes

Figure 12. Loach (Cobitis linea). 8.9 cm.

FISH i. Freshwater   Fishes

Figure 13. Iranocichla hormuzensis. 9.7 cm.

FISH i. Freshwater   Fishes

Figure 14. Tench (Tinca tinca). 70.0 cm.

FISH i. Freshwater   Fishes

Figure 15. Snow trout (Schizochorax zarudnyi). 49.0 cm.

FISH i. Freshwater   Fishes

Figure 16. Indian stinging catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis). 30.5 cm.

FISH i. Freshwater   Fishes

Figure 17. Bull shark (Carcharhinus leucas). 3.24 m.

FISH i. Freshwater   Fishes

Figure 18. Mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki). 6.3 cm.

FISH i. Freshwater   Fishes

Figure 19. Snakehead (Channa gachua). 33.0 cm.

FISH i. Freshwater   Fishes

Figure 2. The bitterling (Rhodeus amarus). 18.0 cm., female

FISH i. Freshwater   Fishes

Figure 20. Holly’s pupfish (Aphanius ginaonis). 4.0 cm.

FISH i. Freshwater   Fishes

Figure 3. Iranocypris typhlops. 5.3 cm.

FISH i. Freshwater   Fishes

Figure 4. Nemacheilus smithi. 6.5 cm.

FISH i. Freshwater   Fishes

Figure 5. Minnow (Capoeta damascina). 45.0 cm.

FISH i. Freshwater   Fishes

Figure 6. Herring (Tenualosa ilisha). 60.6 cm.

FISH i. Freshwater   Fishes

Figure 7. Tooth-carp (Aphanius dispar). 7.3 cm.

FISH i. Freshwater   Fishes

Figure 8. Mullet (Liza abu). 26.0 cm.

FISH i. Freshwater   Fishes

Figure 9. Capoeta aculeata. 20.0 cm.

FISH ii. Salt Water  Fishes

Figure 21. A kind of sturgeon (Acipenser stellatus), ūzūn borūn, tīrīj (Gīlakī). 2.2 m.

FISH ii. Salt Water  Fishes

Figure 22. Kīlkā (herring; Clupeonela engrauliformis). 16 cm.

FISH ii. Salt Water Fishes

Figure 23. Gorba-māhī or māhī-e sebīlī (sheatfish; Silurus glanis). 2.3 m. and larger.

FITZGERALD, EDWARD

Figure 1. Edward FitzGerald in a pose he called “The Statesman.” Photograph by A. H. Cade; after Terhune, III. Reproduced by permission of Princeton University Press.

FLAGS i. Of Persia

Figure 1. Banner with star pennants. After Titley, Pl. 8.

FLAGS i. Of Persia

Figure 10. Dragon banner as illustrated in a Šāh-nāma manuscript of the Il-Khanid period (after Survey of Persian Art X, Pl. 834).

FLAGS i. Of Persia

Figure 11a. Lion banner; after Lillys, Pl. IX.

FLAGS i. Of Persia

Figure 11b. Sīmorḡ banner; after Çağman-Tanindi, Pl. 36.

FLAGS i. Of Persia

Figure 12. Standards with religious invocations. (a) After Lentz-Lowry, p. 247 (no. 137). (b.) After Çağman-Tanindi, Pl. 71.

FLAGS i. Of Persia

Figure 13. Royal banners; after Ipşiroğlu, Pl.19.

FLAGS i. Of Persia

Figure 14. Banner of Sultan Moḥammad Jūkī; after Wilkinson, Pl. XVIII.

FLAGS i. Of Persia

Figure 15. Royal banner. After Wilkinson, Pl. X.

FLAGS i. Of Persia

Figure 16. Standard as depicted in a Šāh-nāma manuscript in the Golestān Palace Library, dated 833/1429; after Survey of Persian Art X, Pl. 873.

FLAGS i. Of Persia

Figure 17. Banner with sīmorḡ; after Survey of Persian Art X, Pl. 857 (manuscript of the Garšāsp-nāma, dated 800/1398).

FLAGS i. Of Persia

Figure 18. Early example of the sun and lion device on a banner; after Nafīsī, 1949, p. 61.

FLAGS i. Of Persia

Figure 19. Banner with lion and sun. After Martin, Pl. 60.

FLAGS i. Of Persia

Figure 2. Pennants with star fields. (a) After Martin, Pl. 12. (b) After Robinson, Pl. VIIIb.

FLAGS i. Of Persia

Figure 20a. Early Safavid banners. After Papadopoulo, Fig. 566.

FLAGS i. Of Persia

Figure 20b. Early Safavid banners. After Titley, Pl. 19.

FLAGS i. Of Persia

Figure 20c. Early Safavid banners. After Lillys, Fig. 2.

FLAGS i. Of Persia

Figure 3. Banner of the Ašʿarī tribesmen . After Qomī, p. 282.

FLAGS i. Of Persia

Figure 4. Standard of Abū Moslem with Koranic slogan (“Permission is given to those who fight because they were wronged…”.

FLAGS i. Of Persia

Figure 5. Abbasid imperial standard.

FLAGS i. Of Persia

Figure 6. Dragon streamer. After Papadopoulo, fig. 420.

FLAGS i. Of Persia

Figure 7. Representation of a Ghaznavid banner. After Rice-Gray, Pl. 39.

FLAGS i. Of Persia

Figure 8. Ghaznavid banner with lion. After Rice-Gray, Pl. 44.

FLAGS i. Of Persia

Figure 9a. Turko-Mongol banners. (a) After Survey of Persian Art X, pl. 850.

FLAGS i. Of Persia

Figure 9b. Turko-Mongol banners. (a) After Survey of Persian Art X, pl. 862.

FLAGS i. Of Persia

Figure 9c. After Lentz-Lowry, p. 247.

FLAGS i. Of Persia

Figure VIII. Flag of the Islamic Republic of Iran.

FLAGS i. Of Persia

Plate I. Banners with stars in Tīmūr’s army during attack on a rebel encampment. Detail of an illustration in Šaraf-al-Dīn Yazdī, Ẓafar-nāma, MS Tehran, Golestān Palace Library (after Survey of Persian Art X, p. 907).

FLAGS i. Of Persia

Plate II. Standard of the king of Persia carried by the Persian delegation during Moḥammad-Reżā Beg’s visit to Versailles, August 1715. (a) After Herbette, p. 115 (from a print in the Gazette de France). (b) After Herbette, p. 155 (from a print in the Musée Carnavalet).

FLAGS i. Of Persia

Plate III. Moḥammad-Reżā Beg, ambassador of Persia, enters Paris, 7 February 1715. After Herbette, p. 115 (from a drawing in the Cabinet des Estampes).

FLAGS i. Of Persia

Plate IV. Drouville’s depiction of the Persian flag in the early 19th century. After Ḏokāʾ in Honar o mardom 31, p. 18.

FLAGS i. Of Persia

Plate V. Procession with Persian flag; painting by Alexis Soltykoff. After Ḏokāʾ in Honar o mardom, 32-33, p. 24 (fig. 25).

FLAGS i. Of Persia

Plate VI. Qajar flags a) Triangular banner of Moḥammad Shah; after Ḏokāʾ in Honar o mardom, 32-33, p. 28 (fig. 29).

FLAGS i. Of Persia

Plate VI. Qajar flags b) Version of the flag of Persia ca. 1886 from an official manual; after Ḏokāʾ in Honar o mardom, 34, p. 28.

FLAGS i. Of Persia

Plate VI. Qajar flags c) Version of the flag of Persia ca. 1886 from an official manual; after Ḏokāʾ in Honar o mardom, 34, p. 28.

FLAGS i. Of Persia

Plate VII. Modern Persian flags. (a) Flag used briefly during the Constitutional era; after Ḏokāʾ in Honar o mardom, 35, p. 33, fig. 75. (b) The national flag as specified by the Fifth Amendment to the Constitution; after Ḏokāʾ in Honar o mardom, 36, p. 30.

FLAGS ii. Of Afghanistan

Plate IX. Flags of Afghanistan a)Flag of the late 19th/early 20th centuries.

FLAGS ii. Of Afghanistan

Plate IX. Flags of Afghanistan b) Flag of Amān-Allāh, 1919-29.

FLAGS ii. Of Afghanistan

Plate IX. Flags of Afghanistan c) Emblem from the time of Amān-Allāh, ca. 1926.

FLAGS ii. Of Afghanistan

Plate IX. Flags of Afghanistan d) Army of Afghanistan flag.

FLAGS ii. Of Afghanistan

Plate IX. Flags of Afghanistan e) National flag approvedby the lōya jerga in 1928.

FLAGS ii. Of Afghanistan

Plate IX. Flags of Afghanistan f) First flag of Nāder Shah, ca. 1929.

FLAGS ii. Of Afghanistan

Plate IX. Flags of Afghanistan g) Flag of 1929-73, with arms encroaching on stripes.

FLAGS ii. Of Afghanistan

Plate IX. Flags of Afghanistan h) Stamp with proposed flag of Paštūnestān.

FLAGS ii. Of Afghanistan

Plate X. Modern Flags of Afghanistan a) Flag of Republic of Afghanistan, 1974-78.

FLAGS ii. Of Afghanistan

Plate X. Modern Flags of Afghanistan b) Emblem of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan, 1978.

FLAGS ii. Of Afghanistan

Plate X. Modern Flags of Afghanistan c) Flag of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan, 1979-87.

FLAGS ii. Of Afghanistan

Plate X. Modern Flags of Afghanistan d) Modified emblem adopted under Najīb-Allāh.

FLAGS ii. Of Afghanistan

Plate X. Modern Flags of Afghanistan e) Flag of Islamic Afghanistan, 1992.

FLAGS ii. Of Afghanistan

Plate X. Modern Flags of Afghanistan f) Detail of new coat of arms on the flag of Afghanistan adopted in 1992.

FLAGS iii. of Tajikistan

Figure 15. Arms of the Tajik SSR, 1935.

FLAGS iii. of Tajikistan

Figure 21. Flag of the amirate of Bukhara.

FLAGS iii. of Tajikistan

Figure 22. Arms of independent Tajikistan, 1992.

FLAGS iii. of Tajikistan

Plate XI. Flag of Turkestan, 1921.

FLAGS iii. of Tajikistan

Plate XII. Tajik ASSR state arms of 1929.

FLAGS iii. of Tajikistan

Plate XIII. a) Flag of the Tajik SSR, 1935.

FLAGS iii. of Tajikistan

Plate XIII. b) Modified flag of the Tajik SSR, 1937.

FLAGS iii. of Tajikistan

Plate XIV. Flag of the Tajik SSR, 1953-92.

FLAGS iii. of Tajikistan

Plate XVI. The flag of independent Tajikistan, 1992 to present.

FLANDIN AND COSTE

Plate I. Flandin in Trabzon; a self-portrait.

FLANDIN AND COSTE

Plate II. View and elevation of the Tall-e Taḵt as drawn by Flandin and Coste.

FLOODS i. Geographical Survey

Figure 1. Schematic section and plan of a kavīr basin susceptible to flooding. After Camb. Hist. Iran I, pp. 574, 579.

FLOODS i. Geographical SurveyEY

Figure 2. The Dašt-e Kavīr. Map by E. Ehlers after Camb. Hist. Iran I, p. 96 (Fig. 25).

FLOODS i. Geographical Survey

Figure 3. Jāz Mūrīān basin. After Camb. Hist. Iran I, p. 87 (Fig. 23)

FLOODS i. Geographical Survey

Figure 4. The Hāmūn-e Hīrmand basin. After Camb. Hist. Iran I, p. 79 (Fig. 20).

FLOODS i. Geographical Survey

Figure 5. The Ḵūzestān plain. After Camb. Hist. Iran I, p. 35 (Fig. 11)

FLORA ii. In Persia

Plate I. Pleurocarpous mosses. Photograph courtesy of W. Frey and W. Probst.

FLORA ii. In Persia

Plate II. Hyrcanian montane forest. Photograph courtesy of W. Frey and W. Probst.

FLORA ii. In Persia

Plate III. Evergreens in the northern Alborz. Photograph courtesy of W. Frey and W. Probst.

FLORA ii. In Persia

Plate IV. Stands of Juniperus excelsa in the Šāh Kūh massif. Photograph courtesy of W. Frey and W. Probst.

FLORA ii. In Persia

Plate IX. Herbaceous and semi-woody salt swamp. Photograph courtesy of W. Frey and W. Probst.

FLORA ii. In Persia

Plate V. Deciduous woodlands in the central Zagros. Photograph courtesy of W. Frey and W. Probst.

FLORA ii. In Persia

Plate VI. Xeromorphic scrub in the southwestern Zagros. Photograph courtesy of W. Frey and W. Probst.

FLORA ii. In Persia

Plate VII. Example of very open xeromorphic (semidesert) scrub. Photograph courtesy of W. Frey and W. Probst.

FLORA ii. In Persia

Plate VIII. Example of thorn cushion at subalpine elevation. Photograph courtesy of W. Frey and W. Probst.

FLORA ii. In Persia

Plate X. Degradation of the Hyrcanian forest. Photograph courtesy of W. Frey and W. Probst.

FLORA ii. In Persia

Plate XI. Degradation of the Zagros forest. Photograph courtesy of W. Frey and W. Probst.

FLOYER, ERNEST AYSCOGHE

Figure 1. E. A. Floyer. Unexplored Baluchistan, frontispiece.

FLURY, SAMUEL

Figure 1. Flury’s drawing and reading of the tombstone of Sebüktegin; after Syria, 1925, p. 64.

FOʾĀDI BOŠRUʾI, ḤASAN

Figure 1. Photograph of Ḥasan Foʾādi Bošruʾi. (Courtesy of the author and Minudoḵt Foʾādi)

FONDOQESTĀN

Figure 1. Royal couple, Fonduqestān. (Photograph L. Dupree)

FONDOQESTĀN

Figure 2. Sculpture, Fonduqestān. (Photograph J. Powell)

FORESTS AND FORESTRY i. In Persia

Figure 1. Distribution of forests in Persia.

FORṢAT-AL-DAWLA

Figure 1. Forṣat-al-Dawla Šīrāzī. After the frontispiece to his Dīvān.

FORTIFICATIONS

Figure 1. Stone wall at Kotal-e Sangar between Nūrābād and Behbahān. Drawing by W. Kleiss.

FORTIFICATIONS

Figure 2. Wall at the pass between Fīrūzābād and Farrāšband. Drawing by W. Kleiss.

FORTIFICATIONS

Figure 3. The Kotal-e Doḵtar pass between Shiraz and Kāzerūn. Drawing by W. Kleiss.

FORTIFICATIONS

Figure 4. "Alexander‘s Wall" (Sadd-e Eskandar). Map by W. Kleiss.

FORTIFICATIONS

Figure 5. Darband. Map by W. Kleiss.

FORTIFICATIONS

Figure 6. The Byzantine-Turkish fortifications at Trabzon. Map by W. Kleiss.

FORTIFICATIONS

Figure 7. Circular fortifications at Dārābgerd. Map by W. Kleiss.

FORTIFICATIONS

Figure 8. Citadels and fortification walls of Shiraz and Isfahan. Plans by W. Kleiss.

FORTIFICATIONS

Figure 9. Comparative plans of various citadels in fortified settlements. Plans by W. Kleiss.

FORTIFICATIONS

Figure 10. Old city and 19th century walls of Tehran. Map by W. Kleiss.

FORŪGĪ, MOḤAMMAD-ʿALĪ ḎOKĀʾ-AL-MOLK i. Biography

Figure 1. Photograph of Moḥammad-ʿAlī Forūḡī.

FORŪGĪ, MOḤSEN i. Biography

Figure 1. Moḥsen Forūḡī. Photograph courtesy of P. Foroughi.

FORŪGĪ, MOḤSEN ii. Art Collection

Plate I. Bronze bell-clapper in the form of two goddesses. Luristan, 8th-7th century B.C.E. 10 cm × 11.7 cm. Forūḡī Collection, Tehran.

FORŪGĪ, MOḤSEN ii. Art Collection

Plate II. Bronze object, thought to be a representation of the divinity Sraoša. Luristan, 8th-7th century B.C.E. Height: 20 cm. Forūḡī Collection, Tehran.

FORŪGĪ, MOḤSEN ii. Art Collection

Plate III. Statuette of a bearded man. Elamite, 3rd millenium B.C.E. Height: 11.5 cm. Forūḡī Collection, Tehran.

FORUTAN, ʿALI-AKBAR

Figure 1. Photograph of ʿAli-Akbar Forutan.

FORUZĀNFAR, BADIʿ-AL-AMĀN

Figure 1. Badīʿ-al-Zamān Forūzānfar. After B. ʿĀqelī, p. 241.

FOX ii. In Persia

Figure 1. Common fox (Vulpes vulpes). (With permission, E. Firouz, The Complete Fauna of Iran, London, 2005, p. 59)

FRANCE vii. FRENCH TRAVELERS IN PERSIA, 1600-1730

Figure 1. The Capuchin Father Pacifique de Provins.

FRANCE vii. French Travelers in Persia, 1600-1730

Figure 2. Jean-Baptiste Tavernier.

FRANCE vii. French Travelers in Persia, 1600-1730

Figure 3. Pétis de la Croix.

FRANCE vii. French Travelers in Persia, 1600-1730

Figure 4. Jean de Thévenot.

FRANCE vii. French Travelers in Persia, 1600-1730

Figure 5. Jean Chardin.

FRANCE vii. French Travelers in Persia, 1600-1730

Figure 6. François Pallu.

FRANCE vii. French Travelers in Persia, 1600-1730

Figure 7. François Picquet.

FRANCE xi. Persian Art and Art Collections in France

Plate 1. Star-tile panel tile from Emāmzāda Jaʿfar, Kāšān, 13th C. Louvre, no. 6319. Photograph courtesy of RMN-Hervé Lewandowski.

FRANCE xi. Persian Art and Art Collections in France

Plate II. Kilim with depiction of Bahrām Gōr struggling with a dragon (center medallion) and Leyli and Majnūn in the desert (corners). Kāšān, 17th c. 2.49 × 1.39 m. RMN-Chuzeville, inv. 5946.

FRANCE xi. Persian Art and Art Collections in France

Plate III. Imam Reżā fights a demon. Illustration from a Safavid fāl-nāma. Louvre MAO. 894. Photograph courtesy of RMN-Gérard Blot.

FRANCE xi. Persian Art and Art Collections in France

Plate IV. Zoomorphical jug with inscription. 15th c. Sèvres, MNC 22687. RMN-Agence photographique.

FRANCE xi. Persian Art and Art Collections in France

 Plate V. Lavender-blue qalyān. Safavid. Sèvres MNC 16379.

FRANCE xv. French  Schools in Persia

Figure 1. Lazarist Catholic Mission School in Tabrīz, 1904. After Nāṭeq, p. 346.

FREEMASONRY i. INTRODUCTION

Figure 1. The form of the Lodge Room; adapted from Mackey, p. 380.

FRYER, JOHN

Figure 1. John Fryer, drawing and engraving by R. White. Published as frontispiece in his New Account of East-India and Persia, London, 1698 (orig. h. 32 cm). Courtesy of the Rare Book and Manuscript Library of Columbia University in the City of New York.

FŪMAN

Figure 1. Sketch map of Fuman.

(Cross-Reference)

Last Updated: July 24, 2015