(Islamic Republic of Afghanistan), landlocked country located in Central Asia and bordered by Iran to the west, Pakistan to the south and east, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan to the north, and China to the far northeast.



i. Geography.

ii. Flora.

iii. Fauna.

iv. Ethnography.

v. Languages.

vi. Paṧto.

vii. Parāčī.

viii. Archeology.

ix. Pre-Islamic Art.

x. Political History.

xi. Administration.

xii. Literature.

xiii. Forests and Forestry.


Search terms:

افغانستان afghanistan    


(Multiple Authors )

Originally Published: December 15, 1983

Last Updated: July 22, 2011

This article is available in print.
Vol. I, Fasc. 5-6, pp. 486-566

Cite this entry:

Multiple Authors, “Afganistan,” Encyclopædia Iranica, I/5-6, pp. 486-566; an updated version is available online at (accessed on 7 March 2014).