MOʿIN-E MOṢAVVER (معین مصوّر, lit. Moʿin the painter), Safavid manuscript and album painter, arguably the most prominent Safavid artist of the second half of the 17th century (b. ca. 1610-1615; d. probably 1104/1693).


Moʿin’s extant work, which includes more than 300 paintings and drawings, spans almost sixty years from 1635 to 1693. Moʿin’s style, which remained remarkably consistent over his lifetime, represents a return to the more conservative and traditional values of earlier generations of Persian painting; as such, it is a marked reversal in values from that of his prominent predecessor Reżā ʿAbbāsi, and a rejection of the Western values that became the vogue of many of his later contemporaries. Because of the large number of works that can be associated with his name, it is generally accepted that Moʿin had a workshop, where less distinguished artists assisted him, at least in the creation of the many manuscript paintings.

None of the contemporary chronicles of the time makes any mention of Moʿin, so little is known about his life except what can be gleaned from his numerous extant works. Moʿin’s single-page images, particularly the drawings that often reflect the life and realities of his personal surroundings, are often accompanied by lengthy inscriptions, which relate information about events concerning their creation, the subjects’ identity, or other relevant conditions. They are executed with a keen sense of draftsmanship and observation, and quite often are dated. One outstanding example is the drawing of A Tiger Attacking a Youth (Figure 1, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, no. 14.634); it has both a lengthy, detailed inscription and unusual subject matter. The nearly illegible inscription suggests that it was drawn from an event that he had witnessed, or which, perhaps, had been described to him; together, drawing and inscription reveal a true sense of the artist’s revulsion at the horror of the event—a rarity for Persian painting. Unlike other contemporary accounts of the period, which are primarily historical chronicles with little information on everyday life, Moʿin’s inscription “offers a rare personal glimpse of life in Isfahan” (Farhad, 1992, p. 116). Tiger Attacking a Youth is not an isolated example in Moʿin’s oeuvre; other works—such as Woman Milking a Cow, A Lion and His Keeper (Figure 2), Adolescent with a Rooster—just to cite a few examples (see the list below), provide additional, unusual views of the details of everyday life, fully documented in images and words.

Perhaps the most important Moʿin inscription, at least from a historical perspective, is on a portrait of Reżā ʿAbbāsi (Princeton University Library, no. 96G, dated 1084/1673). It is a lengthy inscription signed by Moʿin, attesting that the portrait was painted by him a month before the death of his master (ostād) Reżā in 1044/1635 and completed years later on the fortieth anniversary of his passing. Most scholars seem to accept that Moʿin was speaking in the literal, not figurative, sense in referring to Reżā as his master, and that he indeed learned his art directly from Reżā in a master/student workshop relationship. Additional credence to Moʿin’s having been in the workshop of Reżā is Moʿin’s apparent knowledge of, and access to, a number of Reżā’s works, such as a drawing attributable to him in Tehran (Poet Attacked by Dogs, Reza Abbasi Museum, Tehran, no. 33-421; Figure 3), which is a copy of a drawing by Reżā, which itself is a self-acknowledged copy of an original by Behzād. To this, one might also add Moʿin’s depiction of Shah ʿAbbās and a Page (Welch, 1973, no. 85), which is in turn inspired by Reżā’s depiction of Shah ʿAbbās and the Mughal Khan ʿĀlam (Mirza Barḵᵛardār), now in St. Petersburg. Presumably, Moʿin may have joined Reżā as his apprentice around 1630, a few years before the elder artist’s death in 1635, which would place his birthday in the period 1610-1615.

The earliest securely signed and dated work attributable to Moʿin, a Portrait of a Youth (Figure 4, Freer Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, no. 53.57; Atil, p. 70, no. 34), is dated 1[0]47/1638, only three years after Reżā’s death. Several other drawings in similar style have unsigned inscriptions in Moʿin’s hand and can be assigned to about the same time. The subject matter of these early drawings is not far removed from that of Reżā, but they are not slavish copies of his master’s style. If Moʿin was indeed a student of Reżā, he digested what he chose from Reżā, and transformed that style into something else. Moʿin’s mustachioed, stocky, virulent men are far removed from the svelte types and languid poses of Reżā’s figures that made Reżā’s art quite unsuitable for illustrations of the Šāh-nāma and historiographical works. 


Moʿin’s known works are grouped below in the following manner: first, manuscript illustrations, including seven Šāh-nāma manuscripts with 161 paintings, three historiography manuscripts (histories of Shah Esmāʿil I) with 68 paintings, and 3 paintings from miscellaneous manuscripts; second, individual loose pages, including at least 29 paintings and 11 drawings.

Manuscript Illustrations.

There are twelve or more manuscripts that include paintings attributable to Moʿin or his workshop. Only two of these manuscripts provide any mention of the patron’s name or the place of production, or any indication that it was produced for a royal patron. Some of the manuscripts are complete, others fragmentary and/or dispersed. It is not by coincidence that eleven of these manuscripts are epics, either the Šāh-nāma or histories of Shah Esmāʿil, for which Moʿin’s style was more appropriately suited than those of his other contemporaries from Reżā ʿĀbbāsi’s workshop. Conversely, very few of the romantic epics can be associated with his name.

Šāh-nāma manuscripts. Moʿin’s extant Šāh-nāma manuscripts include three complete manuscripts with ninety-three paintings and four fragmentary manuscripts with sixty-eight paintings. There is also one painting that may be the early work of Moʿin, circa 1630-40; British Library, London, Ms. 1256, folio 79a  (

(1) A complete or nearly complete Šāh-nāma with 42 known paintings by Moʿin has a colophon dated 1058/1648 and one painting dated 1059/1649. The manuscript is characterized by gilt interlinear decoration and calligraphy written on the diagonal. Paintings are all signed and are excellent, perhaps even the best, examples of Moʿin’s manuscript work. The re-bound volume containing 27 paintings is in the David Collection in Copenhagen; 15 individual leaves with paintings that were separated from the original volume are dispersed in several collections including the British Museum, London, the Khalili Collection in London, and the Sackler Art Museum, Boston. Other paintings from this manuscript have occasionally turned up at auction (see Canby, 2010, for an excellent article on this manuscript; reproduced online atʿinMsB/Canby_article.html; for illustrations of the “reassembled” manuscript, see

(2) A complete manuscript that constitutes the first half of the Šāh-nāma includes thirty paintings, of which twenty-eight are signed by Moʿin in the lower margin; several are dated 1065/1654-55. Most of the paintings are in good Moʿin style (Welch, 1978, illustrates six of them). They are presently in the Aga Khan Museum, in Toronto, AKM00274; formerly they were in the collection of Prince Sadruddin Aga Khan, Geneva, Ms. 22 (ʿinMsC/index.html). The matching volume that constitutes the second half of the Šāh-nāma is in the Chester Beatty Library, Dublin (see below).

(3) A complete manuscript that constitutes the second half of the Šāh-nāma contains twenty-one paintings, all of which are signed by Moʿin; one of them is dated 1066/1655. The paintings are all in good Moʿin style and for the most part exhibit clever solutions to unique compositional problems (Chester Beatty Library, Dublin, Ms. 270;ʿinMsD/index.html).

(4) A dispersed, fragmentary Šāh-nāma manuscript originally contained 104 or more paintings, of which thirty-four (and counting) paintings are known at present. Twenty-one of the paintings are signed by Moʿin. The paintings vary from fair to excellent Moʿin style; this variance in quality suggests the possible involvement of a workshop. Paintings date from circa 1660. The rebound core of the original volume, the so-called Gutman Šāh-nāma, in the Metropolitan Museum in New York, contains twelve paintings. Nine additional paintings formerly in the collection of Prince Sadruddin Aga Khan (Geneva, Ms. 4) are now in the Aga Khan Museum, Toronto. Others are dispersed at various collections around the world (ʿinMsE/index.html).

(5) From a dispersed, fragmentary Šāh-nāma manuscript, sixteen (and counting) paintings are known. All of the paintings are in the style of Moʿin, including two that are signed and dated 1077/1666-67. There is evidence of other hands being involved in the production of the paintings, which appears to be a collaborative effort of studio assistants. Some of the paintings have been severely damaged and suffered even more from very crude retouching (Grube, 1972, nos. 163-72, illustrates most of the paintings; Ex-Kraus Collection, New York). Eight paintings are in the Khalili Collection in London; three are in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. The remainder is dispersed  (ʿinMsF/index.html).

(6) A complete manuscript of the Šāh-nāma contains forty-two paintings, of which twenty-one can be associated with the style of Moʿin (Robinson, 1972, pp. 73-86). The remaining paintings are signed by, or attributable to, Moḥammad-al-Zamān ʿAli-Naqi b. Shaikh ʿAbbāsi, and an unknown Pir Beg (or Ḡolām Parmāk). The calligraphy was apparently accomplished in six years, being dated 1074/1663 and 1079/1669. The paintings are of later period and are dated between 1104/1693 and 1109/1698. Fourteen of the twenty-one paintings are signed by Moʿin; five are dated 1104/1693. Curiously, eighteen of these twenty-one paintings bear the miniscule signature of Fażl-ʿAli in obscure places, often in addition to the signature of Moʿin Moṣavver that appears in the lower margin. That Moʿin had artists of lower status assisting him in the studio has long been taken for granted. Eighteen paintings bear the signature of one artist, which is rather unusual. This and the fact that a number of artists with different styles were engaged in finishing this manuscript leaves the impression that perhaps the death of Moʿin in 1104/1693 left the patron little option but to allow studio assistants to finish those paintings already near completion and to commission other artists to execute those not yet started (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, Acq.13.228.17 [Cochran 4]; all paintings are illustrated and supplemented with further references, atʿinMsG/index.html).

Historiographical manuscripts (histories of Shah Esmāʿil I). It is not clear why there should have been a sudden and profound interest in the reign of Shah Esmāʿil I (r. 907-30/1501-24) during the last quarter of the 17th century. All three of these Esmāʿil manuscripts with 68 images are illustrated by Moʿin-e Moṣavver. Unlike conventional Šāh-nāma illustrations, which had a long established iconography to emulate, there were no prototypes for the Esmāʿil manuscripts. The compositions, often static with battles reduced to a contest of individuals, draw upon Moʿin’s prior experience with Šāh-nāma illustration, but the details often reveal that the artist was familiar with the text, and he adhered to the text in his illustrations.

(1) A bound incomplete copy of the Tāriḵ-e ʿālāmārā-ye Šāh Esmāʿil with twenty-one paintings is in good Moʿin style. One painting has an inscription in Moʿin’s handwriting and a date; the signature is smudged and illegible, but a later attribution next to it claims the paintings to be the work of Moʿin Moṣavver. The date in the inscription, 1010/1601, is stylistically impossible, but the year is written “10 10,” with a definite space between the first “0” and the second “1,” suggesting that the date has been altered or damaged. If the second “1” was originally something else, it could only be a “6” or “9,” making it either 1060/1650 or 1090/1679. The latter date fits chronologically well with the other histories. The Reza Abbasi Museum, Tehran (formerly in the Negrestan Museum [no. 77.1.7], which had acquired it from the Mahboubian Collection, New York [Mahboubian cat. no. 93]) lists all paintings with two illustrations. In addition there are seven detached leaves with paintings in exactly the same style that were extracted from the bound unit, perhaps when it was rebound, dispersed in various collections. All 28 paintings are illustrated, along with further references, atʿinMsM/index.html.

(2) A complete copy of the Tāriḵ-e jahāngošā-ye ḵāqān-e ṣāḥebqerān, written by a certain Bijan circa 1680, contains twenty-one paintings in the style of Moʿin. None of the paintings is dated, but they were probably done circa 1685. Four paintings are signed in the lower margin by Moʿin; fifteen others can be attributed to him, perhaps with studio assistance. A. H. Morton was the first one to identify the author and title of the manuscript, for long known as the Ross Anonymous (Morton, 1990; British Library, London, Ms. Or. 3248; Storey, I/2, pp. 1278-79). All nineteen paintings of Moʿin are illustrated, along with further references, atʿinMsL/index.html.

(3) A dispersed, larger, more elaborate and revised version of the same Tāriḵ-e jahāngošā-ye ḵāqān-e ṣāḥebqerān with thirty-one paintings (and still counting) have been identified (Sims, pp. 54-57; and personal correspondence, 23 May 2010). All of the paintings have been mounted, in the late 18th or early 19th century, on different colored mounts with a collar of contrasting colors. The text is set off by gold ornamentation (taḥrir), which distinguishes it very clearly from the other Esmāʿil manuscripts. One of the paintings is signed by Moʿin and dated 990, which should probably be read 1099/1688. All thirty-one paintings are illustrated, along with further references, atʿinMsN/index.html.
Miscellaneous manuscripts. This category of Moʿin’s works includes:

(1) A single leaf from a Haft paykar of Neẓāmi Ganjavi, circa 1660 (Philadelphia Free Library, no. P106;ʿinMsI/index.html).

(2) A single leaf from a Ḵosrow va Širin of Neẓāmi reportedly in the Iran Bastan Museum, Tehran (Kubicova, p. 68 and pl. 36), circa 1660, perhaps from the same manuscript as the preceding (ʿinMsJ/index.html).

(3) A single leaf from an unknown manuscript reportedly in the Iran Bastan Museum, Tehran (Kubicova, pp. 67-68 and pl. 37), circa 1660 (ʿinMsK/index.html).

Individual Loose Pages of Paintings and Drawings.

As one might expect, the paintings are more carefully executed and reserved than the drawings. The largest single group of paintings consists of portraits of various dignitaries, probably executed for a commission. The remainder is a collection of various subjects, including genre, youths and cupbearers, studies of birds, and fanciful subjects that intrigued the artist. The drawings are, by comparison, looser in execution, by virtue of the medium as well as purpose; they appear, for the most part, to be records or detail studies, some of which might have been intended for incorporation into some later painting. The following listing does not intend to be all-inclusive, and for the sake of brevity, many attributions lacking a signature have not been included.

Paintings. The extant Moʿin paintings include the following 29 works:

(1) Portrait of Ḵalifa Solṭān, Eʿtemād-al-Dawla, ca. 1650, with unsigned inscription in Moʿin’s handwriting (Christies, 22 April 1981, Lot 120).

(2) Portrait of a Princely Youth, 1063/1653 (Sotheby’s, 15 October 1998, Lot 65).

(3) Youth in a Pink Turban, circa 1660 or later (Welch, 1978, Ir.M.44).

(4) Loving Couple, 1081/1670 (Farhad, 1990, no. 7).

(5) The Piper, 1082/1672 (Biblithèque Nationale, Paris, Ms. Arabe 6075, fol. 8; illus., Blochet, pl. CVII).

(6) European Youth Standing Holding a Jar, dated 1084/1673 (Anthony and Stuart Welch, no. 40).

(7) Portrait of Reżā ʿĀbbāsi, 1084/1673 (Princeton University Library no. 96G; illus., Welch, 1973, no. 76).

(8) Young Lady Smoking a Waterpipe, 1084/1673-74 (Topkapi Saray Library, Istanbul, Hazine 2142. F. 12; illus., Stchoukine, pl. LXXVI).

(9) Portrait of Ḥakim Šefāʾi Eṣfahāni, 1085/1674 (Anthony and Stuart Welch, no. 41).

(10) Portrait of Navvāb Mirzā Moḥammad-Bāqer and His Son, 1085/1674 (Aga Khan Museum, AKM00081; illus., Welch, 1972, Ir.M.48).

(11) A Lion and Its Keeper, 1086/1676 (Sotheby’s NY, 10 December 1981, Lot 138).

(12) Woman Milking a Cow, 1087/1676 (Staatliche Museen, Berlin, L6756; illus., Kühnel, p. 114, fig. 6).

(13) Adolescent Seated Drinking Wine, 1087/1676 (British Museum no. 1920-9-17-0298,1; illus., Stchoukine, pl. LXXIXa).

(14) Man Attacked by a Dragon, 1087/1676 (British Museum no. 1949-7-9-011; illus., Stchoukine, pl. LXXXIIIb).

(15) An Old Shepherd Leaning on His Staff, 1087/1676 (Sotheby’s, 12 October 2000, Lot 66).

(16) Lady Reclining Against a Cushion, 1089/1678 (Sotheby’s, 1 June 1987, Lot 43).

(17) A Circle of Sufi Boys, 1089/1678-79 (Sotheby’s, 16 October 1996, Lot 65).

(18) European Youth Standing with a Dog, 1089/1679 (Binney, 1966, no. 55).

(19) Darvish Seated Under Some Rocks, 1091/1680 (Staatliche Museen, Berlin, J.6820; illus., Kühnel, fig. 1).

(20) Youth Standing Pouring Wine, 1093/1682 (Los Angeles County Museum, M.73.5.570; illus., Binney, 1973, no. 255).

(21) Youth Seated Drinking Wine, 1094/1693 (Fitzwilliam Museum, Marlay bequest no. 22; illus., Robinson, 1967, no. 90-22).

(22) Portrait of Timur Khan Torkmān, 1095/1683-84 (Oriental Institute, St. Petersburg, Ms. D181, p. 16; illus., in Akimushkin and Ivanov, no. 74).

(23) A Bird Perched on a Rock, 1097/1685 (Sotheby’s 20 November 1986, Lot 185).

(24) Equestrian Portrait of Mirzā Moḥammad-Tāqi Tabrizi (facing left), 1097/1685, Hashem Khosrovani Collection (Farhad, 1990, pl. 10).

(25) An Old Man Kneeling by a Tree Stump, 1097/1685 (Sotheby’s, 14 October 1999, Lot 52).

(26) A Couple Kneeling, 1{0}98/1687 (Walters Art Gallery, Baltimore, no. W690; illus., Grube, 1962, no. 121).

(27) Indian Lady with a Gazelle, 1099/1688 (Fitzwilliam Museum, Marlay bequest no. 25; illus., Robinson, 1967, no. 90-25);

(28) White Bird Sitting on a Rock, 1100/1689 (Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, no. 14.635; illus., Welch, 1973, no. 79).

(29) Shah ʿAbbās and a Page, uncertain date 1041/1632-33 or 1082/1671-72. The event depicted took place at the earlier date; stylistically, the work conforms to the latter date (Sackler Museum, Cambridge, no. 1960.48; illus., Welch, 1973, no. 85).

Drawings. The extant Moʿin’s drawings include the following eleven works.

(1) Young Man Wearing a Hat with a Feather, 1[0]47/1638 (Freer Gallery, no.53.57; illus., Sarre and Mittwoch, pl. 47, fig. 12).

(2) Shah Ṣafi I Meeting with an Uzbeg (?), 1[0]48/1638, unsigned (Los Angeles County Museum, no.73.5.469; illus., Binney, 1973, pp. 136).

(3) Two Lovers, 1052/1642, unsigned (Freer Gallery, no.53.41; illus., Sarre and Mittwoch, pl. 30).

(4) Old Man with a Beard Holding a Pair of Glasses, 1063/1653 (Topkapi Saray Library, Hazine 2168, fol. 8v).

(5) Adolescent Walking with a Rooster in His Arms, 1066/1656 (Chester Beatty Library, Ms. 265(ii); illus., Wiet, pl. XL left).

(6) Man with a Moustache Holding a Sheet of Paper, 107(?)/1660-68 (illus., Martin, pl. 146b).

(7) Tiger Attacking a Man, 1082/1672 (Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, no. 14.634; illus., Welch, 1973, no. 75).

(8) Lion with Four Bodies and One Head, 1088/1677 (illus., Welch, 1973, no. 77).

(9) Camel Seen from the Rear, 1089/1678 (illus., Grube, 1962, no) 120).

(10) Man with a Moustache Seated, unsigned, undated; attribution circa 1670. (Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, no. 14.619; illus., Coomaraswamy, pl. XLVIII).

(11) Equestrian Portrait of Mirzā Moḥammad-Taqi Tabrizi (facing right), 1097/1685, Hashem Khosrovani Collection. (Farhad, 1990, pl. 9).

For the most complete, fully illustrated review of the manuscript painting of Moʿin-e Moṣavver to date, with further references, see


Oleg F. Akimushkin and Anatol A. Ivanov, Persidskie miniatyury XIV-XVII vv. (Persian miniatures from the 14th to the 17th cents. CE), Moscow, 1968.

Esin Atil, The Brush of the Masters. Drawings from Iran and India, Washington, D.C., 1978.

Edwin Binney 3rd, Islamic Art from the Collection of Edwin Binney 3rd, Washington, D. C., 1966.

Lawrence Binyon, James V. S. Wilkinson, and Basil Gray, Persian Miniature Painting, Including a Critical and Descriptive Catalogue of the Miniatures Exhibited at Burlington House, January-March 1931, London, 1933.

Edgar Blochet, Les enluminures des manuscrits orientaux, turcs, arabes, persans, de la Biblithèque Nationale, Paris, 1926.

Sheila Canby, “An Illustrated Šāh-nāma  of 1650: Isfahan in the Service of Yazd,” Journal of the David Collection, III, Copenhagen, 2010, pp. 54-113; available online at

Ananda K. Coomaraswamy, “Les miniatures orientales de la collection Goloubew au Museum of Fine Arts de Boston,” Ars Asiatica 13, Paris and Brussels, 1929.

Massumeh Farhad, “The Art of Muʿin Musavvir: A Mirror of His Times,” in Sheila R. Canby, ed., Persian Masters: Five Centuries of Painting, Bombay, 1990, pp. 113-28.

Idem, “An Artist’s Impression: Muʿin Musavvir’s Tiger Attacking a Youth,” Muqarnas 9, 1992, pp. 116-23.

Ernst J. Grube, Muslim Miniature Paintings from the XIII to XIX Century from Collections in the United States and Canada, Venice, 1962.

Idem, Islamic Paintings from the 11th to the 18th Century in the Collection of Hans P. Kraus, New York, 1972.

Vera Kubicova and Werner Forman, Persian Miniatures, tr. R. Finlayson-Samsour, London, 1960.

Ernst Kühnel, “Der Maler Muʿîn,” Pantheon 39, 1942, pp. 108-14.

Fredrick R. Martin, Miniature Painting and Painters of Persia, India and Turkey, from the 8th to the 18th Century, London, 1912.

A. H. Morton, “The Date and Attribution of the Ross Anonymous: Notes on A Persian History of Shāh Ismāʿil I,” Pembroke Papers 1, 1990, pp. 179-212.

Pratapaditya Pal, ed., Islamic Art: The Nasli M. Heeramaneck Collection, Los Angeles, 1973.

Basil William Robinson, Persian Drawings from the 14th through the 19th Century, New York, 1965.

Idem, Persian Miniature Painting from Collections in the British Isles, Catalogue of An Exhibition at the Victoria and Albert Museum, London, 1967.

Idem, “The Shāhnāmeh Manuscript Cochran 4 in the Metropolitan Museum of Art,” in Richard Ettinghausen, ed., Islamic Art in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 1972, pp. 73-86.

Idem, “Rothschild and Binney Collections: Persian and Mughal Arts of the Book,” in idem, Persian and Mughal Art, Catalogue of an Exhibition Held at Colnaghi’s, London, 1976a.

Idem, Persian Paintings in the India Office Library: A Descriptive Catalogue, London, 1976b.

F. Sarre and E. Mittwoch, Die Zeichnung von Riza ʿAbbasi, Munich, 1914.

Eric Schroeder, Persian Miniatures in the Fogg Museum of Art, Cambridge, Mass., 1941.

Eleanor Sims, “A Dispersed Late-Safavid Copy of the Tārīkh-i jahāngushā-yi Khāqān-e Ṣāḥibqirān,” in Sheila R. Canby, ed., Safavid Art and Architecture, London, 2002, pp. 54-57.

Abolala Soudavar, Art of the Persian Courts: Selections from the Art and History Trust Collection, New York, 1992.

Ivan Stchoukine, Les Peintures des Manuscrits de Shāh ʿAbbās Ier à la fin des Safavis, Paris, 1964.

C. A. Storey, Persian Literature. A Bio-Bibliographical Survey I, Part 2, London, 1972.

University of Texas, Treasures of Persian Art after Islam, The Mahboubian Collection, Catalogue of An Exhibition Held at the University of Texas Art Museum, Austin, 1970.

Anthony Welch, Collection of Islamic Art: Prince Sadruddin Aga Khan['s Collection], 2 vols., Geneva, 1972.

Idem, Shah ʿAbbas and the Arts of Isfahan, New York, 1973.

Idem, Collection of Islamic Art [of] Prince Sadruddin Aga Khan IV, Geneva, 1978.

Anthony Welch and Stuart Cary Welch, Arts of the Islamic Book: The Collection of Prince Sadruddin Aga Khan, Ithaca and London, 1982.

Gaston Wiet, L’exposition persane de 1931 (in London), Cairo, 1933.

(Robert Eng)

Originally Published: May 19, 2016

Last Updated: May 19, 2016

Cite this entry:

Robert Eng, “MOʿIN-E MOṢAVVER,” Encyclopædia Iranica, online edition, 2016, available at (accessed on 19 May 2016).