i. MAGICAL ELEMENTS IN THE AVESTA AND NÄRANG LITERATURE
The presence of magical elements in the strict sense (i.e., doctrine or formulas supposed to produce a radical modification or a strong impact on physical objects) in Avestan literature has been considered rare. This is in keeping with the basic idea that we cannot include in magic the entire corpus of ideas lying behind the esoteric conception of the ritualof the yasna and its influence on the sacrificer(s) or on the persons who ordered the sacrifice. Nor can we include the speculations concerning the ritual as an extra-temporal dimension in which the priests were able to open a way towards Ahura MazdÄ and the other (Later Avestan) divinities (the so-called “status” of maga-; see Gnoli, 1964; but cf. Kellens, 1994; Schmidt, 1991). We also cannot consider as a patent expression of ancient magic the complex conception of the force stemming from the Avestan ritual and its prayers. A certain prudence is also appropriate in regard to the large block of doctrines and rituals concerning the laws of purifications, which are very significant in the Zoroastrian context (Choksy, 1989), and the related prescriptions against the pollution emerging from corpses, or connected with the presence or influence of demonic beings (Christensen, 1941), in particular with respect to the DruÇ° Nasu (Gray, 1929, p. 211). All these doctrines can be connected with magic only in a few particular cases, which in part presumably belong to Indo-Iranian folklore (Carnoy, 1916, pp. 177-78; see also Henry, 1903).
Although these basic limitations have to be carefully considered, we have to examine the fresh and more detailed approach to the entire problem of Avestan magic that has been investigated by S. K. Pekala (2000). In fact, following the approach of the anthropologists Bronislaw Malinowski and Stanley Tambiah, this scholar documents the frequent use of spells and curses, which are attested to a much greater extent than has been customarily recognized, and concludes that magic in general should be considered as a significant part of the Avestan culture. The various Avestan spells, curses, and exorcisms clearly show the high complexity and strong development of magical practices, with the result that they became central to much of the Mazdean perspective. In particular, Pekala not only gives some evidence for the fact that the belief in witchcraft and sorcery, and other means of defense against the devilish forces, was undoubtedly widespread throughout Avestan literature, but he also maintains that all these protective formulas and performances against the daÄvas (see *DAIVA) should be considered as strictly belonging to the realm of magic.
In the Avesta, besides the strength generally attributed to the mÄ θra- “formula,” which can destroy or repel AÅra Mainyu and the daÄvas, it also possesses a healing power according to early Mazdean medicine (mÄ θrÅ.baÄšaza- “healing with the mÄ θra, Vd. 7.44; see Benveniste, 1945, pp. 7-8) and protects human bodies (see Vd. 20.5-10) from diseases and death. In particular, Yt. 4 (Panaino, 2003) is unusual in that it contains a sequence of mÄ θras (with some allusions to the connected ritual prescriptions); these are directed against the DruÇ° Nasu and other demons. According to Yt. 4.2-3, by one’s invoking HaurvatÄá¹± (see HORDÄD) and the AmÉá¹§a SpÉá¹tas the daÄvas can be smashed; the priest must in fact pronounce a formula which apparently is not transmitted in the text (being probably secret and known by heart), and then he must draw a furrow in the ground (karšÄim kÄraiieiti). Thanks to these acts he would be able to hide his own body (haom tanÅ«m guzaÄta) and (Yt. 4.5) bind (θβÄ mca drujÉmca baá¹dÄmi) and strike down (θβÄ mca drujÉmca niγne) the demon (or demoness) which was reputed to be present and the Lie (Druj) who accompanied him (or her). The reference to the idea of binding a hostile and demonic power is very common in magic (see also below with regard to the NÄrang literature) and is attested also in Yt. 8.55, where Tištrya binds with a great number of bindings the PairikÄ DuÅ¾yÄiryÄ.
After this ritual for invisibility, the priest (Yt. 4.6), in a similar ritual, must trace an increasing series of furrows (three, six, and finally nine) on the ground, and at the same time invoke the name of the person to be protected. It is to be noted that this kind of triadic repetition is similar in its structure to the procedure for the construction of Yima’s vara (Vd. 2.30, 38) as well as for the laying out of the baršnumá¸¡ah (Vd. 9.1-57, in particular 9.9-11; see Panaino, 1997). According to Yt. 4.7 the mÄ θra- can be used against “the names of these Lies, those who cut up corpses;” and it works in order to strike down at will the Karapans (nÄmËÉni aÄšÄ m drujinÄ m, nasÅ«m.kÉrÉta paiti janaiti, jata karapanÅ ...) and the devilish creatures of hell. This formula of purification goes on in Yt. 4.8 with the mention of a special ritual, performed after sunset (pasca hÅ« frÄšmÅ.dÄitÄ«m), against the northern direction, i.e., the dangerous side of the demons. This side has in fact to be stricken (apÄxÉδra.naÄmÉm janaiti); then, before the new dawn the Nasu will be smitten. In Yt. 4.9 we find a direct reference to the line of transmission of this mÄ θra- (resulting to be a sort of paralyzing weapon against demons); it must be taught from the father to (his) son, from the brother to (his) uterine brother, from the priest to (his) disciple (θrÄiiavan-, masc., lit. “student attending a *θrÄya-, i.e., a triple course of studies during three years,” Gershevitch, 1967, pp. 209-10; cf. already Darmesteter, 1892, II, p. 361, n. 30).
This mÄ θra- is referred to also in Yt. 14.46, after the revelation of another, apparently magical, ritual. This should be enacted (Yt. 14.44) by arranging “four feathers” (if cataÅrÅ pÉrÉtÅ means this, but see Humbach, 1976, who gives a different interpretation of the passage: “four full hands [of libations]”) on the way in order to secure victory over the enemies through a sacrifice; that should be immediately offered to VÉrÉθraγna, before the performance of the yasna which might be offered by the opposing army. However, the interpretation of this passage remains open to question.
In Yt. 10.19-21, which is not properly a magical text, a kind of malediction against the miθrÅ.druj- (“one who is false to the contract”) is attested, whose horses cannot stir from their places and are not able to draw the chariot, and whose spears are carried off by the wind. In fact, the evil spells of the Antimiθra (auui.miθra-) produce such a bad result (Gershevitch, 1967, pp. 82-85).
The kinds of restrictions noted above in the transmission of the mÄ θra- and in the performance of the ritual were probably obligatory because, according to Vd. 9.47-48, if an unqualified person would try to perform the purification, Nasu would be strengthened. According to Yt. 14.46, this very spell can even save a person whose head is forfeit and repel the arm ready to strike a blow. In Yt. 14.35, Ahura MazdÄ explains how the possession of the feather of a falcon (the bird vÄrÉnjina- [Bartholomae, 1904, col. 1411, s.v. vÄrÉn-gan-], elsewhere vÄrÉ-gan- [ibid., col. 1412]) allows the pious Mazdean to counter-curse his opponents, while according to Yt. 14.36, whoever carries a bone or a feather of this bird cannot be harmed or driven away (Lommel, 1927, pp. 139-40; Malandra, 1983, pp. 85, 86). Such a feather in fact brings him respect and strength, and can be considered a sort of amulet.
The magical force of the act of binding (Eliade, 1947-48), attested also in Yt. 8.55, where Tištrya binds the PairikÄ DuÅ¾yÄiryÄ (see Panaino, Tištrya I, p. 78, and s.v. DuÅ¾yÄirya), has been adapted into the later doctrine of the binding of the planetary demons by the stars (Panaino, 1997) in the context of the astral battle between Ahuric stars and Planets (also called parÄ«á¸¡an). This struggle represents a Sasanian modernization of the Avestan fight between stars and falling stars (stÄrÅ kÉrÉmå, lit. “starred worms,” or PairikÄs; see Panaino, Tištrya II, pp. 68, 75-78). PairikÄs (Pahl. parÄ«g) “witches” and YÄtus (Pahl. Ç°adÅ«g) “wizards” (cf. Ved. yÄtu- and yÄtudhÄna-; see Henry, 1903, pp. 158-59) are frequently mentioned in Avestan literature, and they can probably be considered as experts of demonic and Ahrimanian magic. The strong Avestan polemics against the Kavis and Karapans probably involve a complete refusal of their ritual considered as demonic.
It is to be noted that the names of the divinities, in particular that of Ahura MazdÄ are given a special strength that, like a mÄ θra-, can destroy the demons and any kind of demonic beings, as shown in Yt. 1, and in particular in the list of names of Ohrmazd (Yt. 1.7-8, 12-15; see Panaino, 2002, pp. 15-27 and passim). These names are in fact considered a support and a fortification against the DruÇ° and AÅra Mainiiu (Yt. 1.19; see AHRIMAN).
Vd. 21 preserves a special incantation against death and was probably recited in order to counter any danger connected with childbirth (Darmesteter, 1892, pp. 281-87; for the ancient Indian traditions, see Henry, 1903, pp. 138-44).
The seminal idea that the mÄ θra- had an inner, anti-demonic power had a strong impact on the development of a special class of texts, called in Pahlavi nÄrang “incantations, charms,” which are mostly attested in Pahlavi, PÄzand, and New Persian (see Dhalla, 1938, p. 383; Modi, 1911b, 1911c, 1924; Carnoy, 1916, pp. 182-84), in some cases also on amulets (Modi, 1901, 1911b). These texts frequently develop Avestan traditions, in particular when they are recited against the DruÇ°s, the xrafstras (Hampel, 1974, pp. 20-21; Mirza, 1992, pp. 79), the ParÄ«á¸¡an, and the Kavis and Karapans. FrÄdÅn (or FarÄ«dÅ«n in PÄzand texts), the first physician (Av, ΘraÄtaona) is frequently mentioned because of his healing power (Carnoy, 1916, pp. 184-185; Skjaervø, 1995, pp. 189, 208-12) in order “to tie” (bastan) fewer or other diseases (see e.g., Kanga, 1900, pp. 142-43). His name is invoked also in a Manichean Middle Persian magical text (M 781) edited by Henning (1947, pp. 39-40 = 1977, pp. 273-74). Sometimes the names of some divine astral beings are mentioned (Tištar, SadwÄs, Wanand, HaftÅring), but it is peculiar that the planets, which are usually demons, can also be invoked (see EIr. II/8, 1987, p. 867). These spells are also used against evil mouths and evil eye that can be tied (Kanga, 1900, pp. 144-45), as an exorcism against demonic possession, in order to remove barrenness in women, to repel witchcraft but also robbers.
Although not strictly linked to the nÄrang literature, it is worthwhile to mention the existence of some omina texts (in New Persian) based on (1) the sighting of snakes in the different days of the month, such as the MÄr-nÄma, which refers to a kind of “ophiomancy” known also by al-Biruni in the Chronology of the Ancient Nations (see Sachau, 1879, p. 218), and (2) the observation of the various phases of the moon in the twelve zodiacal signs, such as the Borj-nÄma. Both texts were embedded in the Persian RivÄyats of Dastur DÄrÄb HormazdyÄr (Unvala, 1922, II, pp. 164-92, 194; Dhabhar, 1932, p. 579), but are surely older. These omina are ultimately of Mesopotamian origin (Gray, 1909-10, 1918; cf. Modi, 1911a; Panaino, 2004, 2005), because they follow the same patterns of the Babylonian hemerologies, a genre which is attested, in a very simple form, also in Pahlavi texts such as the appendix to the Handarz Ä« anÅšag-ruwÄn AdurbÄd Ä« MÄraspandÄn (Jamasp-Asana, 1913, pp. 69-71; Zaehner, 1972, pp. 107-9).
C. Bartholomae, Altiranisches Wörterbuch, Strasburg, 1904.
E. Benveniste, “La doctrine médicale des Indo-Européens,” RHR 130, 1945, pp. 5-12.
A. Carnoy, “La magie dans l’Iran,” Le Muséon, Troisième serie, Tome I, 2, 1916, pp. 171-88.
J. K. Choksy, Purity and Pollution in Zoroastrianism, Austin, 1989.
A. Christensen, Essai sur la démonologie iranienne, Copenhagen, 1941.
B. N. Dhabhar, The Persian Rivayats of Hormazyar Framarz and Others, Bombay, 1932.
M. N. Dhalla, History of Zoroastrianism, New York, 1938; repr. 1963.
J. Darmesteter, Le Zend-Avesta II, Paris, 1892.
M. Eliade, “Le Å¾Dieu lieur’ et le symbolisme des noeuds,” RHR 134, 1947-48, pp. 5-36.
L. H. Gray, “The ParsÄ«-Persian BurÇ°-NÄmah: or, the Book of Omens of the Moon,” JAOS 10, 1909-10, pp. 336-42.
Idem, “Alleged Zoroastrian Ophiomancy and its Possible Origin,” in The Dastur Hoshang Memorial Volume,Bombay, 1918, pp. 454-64.
Idem, The Foundations of the Iranian Religions, Bombay, 1929.
I. Gershevitch, The Avestan Hymn to Mithra, Cambridge, 1959; 2nd ed., 1967. Gh. Gnoli, “Lo stato di Å¾maga’,” AION, N.S. 16, 1965, pp. 105-17.
J. Hampel, Die kopenhagener Handschrift Cod. 27, Göttinger Orientforschung, III. Reihe, Iranica. Band 2., Wiesbaden, 1974.
W.B Henning, “Two Manichean Magical Texts, with an Excursus on the Parthian ending -ÄndÄh,” BSOAS 12, 1947, pp. 39-66.
Idem, Selected Papers, 2 vols, Acta Iranica 14-15, Tehran and Liège, 1977.
V. Henry, La magie dans l’Inde antique, Paris 1903.
H. Humbach, “Das awestische Federorakel,” in YÄdá¸¡arnÄme-ye PÅ«rdÄvÅ«d (Miscellanea in Honorem Ibrahim Purdavud), Tehran, 1976, pp. 58-63.
K. E. Kanga, “King Faridûn and a few of his Amulets and Charms,” in Cama Memorial Volume, Bombay 1900, pp. 141-45.
J. M. Jamasp-Asana, The Pahlavi Texts contained in the Codex MK copied in 1322 A. C. by the Scribe Mehr-ÄwÄn Kai-KhÅ«srÅ« II, Bombay, 1913.
J. Kellens, “Le rituel spéculatif du mazdéisme ancien,” in C. Herrenschmidt and J. Kellens, “La question du rituel dans le mazdéisme ancien et achémenide,” Archives de Sciences sociales des Religions 85, 1994, pp. 45-67 (47-56).
H. Lommel, Die Yäšt’s des Awesta übersetzt und eingeleitet, Göttingen and Leipzig, 1927.
W. M. Malandra, An Introduction to Ancient Iranian Religion, Minneapolis, 1983.
H. K. Mirza, The Copenhagen Manuscript K27, Bombay 1992.
J. J. Modi, Two Amulets of Ancient Persia, two Papers read before the Anthropological Society of Bombay in July-October, 1900, Bombay, 1901.
Idem, “The Persian Mâr-Nâmeh or, The Book for Taking Omens from Snakes,” in Idem, Anthropological Papers (mostly on Parsee Subjects) read before the Anthropological Society of Bombay. Pars I, Bombay, 1911a, pp. 34-42.
Idem, “Omens among the Parsees,” in idem, Anthropological Papers (mostly on Parsee Subjects) read before the Anthropological Society of Bombay, Pars I. Bombay, 1911b, pp. 1-6 (repr. from the Journal of the Anthropological Society of Bombay 1/5, 1887, pp. 289-95).
Idem, “Charms or Amulets for some Diseases of the Eye,” in idem, Anthropological Papers (mostly on Parsee Subjects) read before the Anthropological Society of Bombay, Pars I. Bombay 1911c, pp. 43-50 (repr. from the Journal of the Anthropological Society of Bombay 3/6, 1894, pp. 338-45).
Idem, “A Few Parsee Nîrangs (incantations or religious formulae),” in Idem, Anthropological Papers read before the Anthropological Society of Bombay. Pars III, Bombay 1924, pp. 52-71.
Idem, The Religious Ceremonies and Customs of the Parsees, 2nd. ed., Bombay 1937; repr., London, 1995.
A. Panaino, Tištrya. Vol. I. The Avestan Hymn Hymn to Sirius, Rome, 1990.
Idem, Tištrya, Vol. II. The Iranian Myth of the Star Sirius, Rome, 1995.
Idem, “Considerations on the “Mixed Fractions” in Avestan,” in E. Pirart, ed., Syntaxe des langues indo-iraniennes anciennes. Colloque international - Sitges (Barcelona), 4-6 mai 1993,Barcelona, 1997, pp. 91-109.
Idem, Tessere il Cielo, Rome, 1997.
Idem, The Lists of Names of Ahura MazdÄ (Yašt I) and Vayu (Yašt XV), Rome, 2002.
Idem, “Some Remarks upon the Initiatic Transmission in Later Avesta,” in Ätaš-e Dorun. The Fire Within. Jamshid Soroush Sourushian Memorial Volume II, ed. C. G. Cereti and F. Vajifdar, n.p., 2003, pp. 333-42.
Idem, “Two Zoroastrian NÄrangs and the Invocations to the Stars and the Planets,” in The Spirit of Wisdom. [MÄnÅg Ä« Xrad]. Essays in Memory of Ahmad Tafazzoli,ed. T. Daryaee and M. Omidsalar, Costa Mesa, 2004, pp. 196-218.
Idem, “Lunar and Snake Omens among the Zoroastrians,” in Officina Magica: Essays on the Practice of Magic in Antiquity, ed. Sh. Shaked, Leiden, 2005, pp. 73-89 (more information in the following).
S. K. Pekala, “Evil and How to Combat Evil. Magic, Spells, and Curses in the Avesta,” Ph.D. thesis, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 2000.
Éric Pirart, “Commentaire sur le HaftÄn Yašt,” JA 290, 2002, pp. 19-30.
Idem, “L’Ardvahišt Yašt. Présentation, traduction, commentaire et notes,” JA 291, 2003, pp. 97-136.
C. E. Sachau, The Chronology of Ancient Nations, an English Version of the Arabic Text Athâr-ul-Bâkiya of Al Bîrûnî or “Vestiges of the Past”, London, 1879.
H.-P. Schmidt, “Gathic maga and Vedic magha,” in K. R. Cama OrientalInstitute International Congress Proceedings (5th to 8th January, 1989), Bombay 1991, pp. 220-39.
P. O. Skjaervø, “Iranian Epic and the Manichean Book of Giants. Irano-Manichaica III,” in Zsigmond Telegdi Memorial Volume. Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 48/1-2, 1995, pp. 187-223.
M. R. Unvala, Darab Hormazyar’s Rivayat, 2 vols., Bombay, 1922.
R. C. Zaehner, Zurvan, a Zoroastrian Dilemma, Oxford, 1955; 2nd ed., New York, 1972.
April 7, 2008
Originally Published: July 20, 2008
Last Updated: July 20, 2008