xii. TRANSLATIONS OF PERSIAN WORKS INTO JAPANESE
Japanese scholars in the late 19th century began to embark on Oriental studies outside the traditional fields (out of fashion after the Meiji Restoration of 1868) of Chinese literature and Confucian learning. Some were attracted to Persia, initially by its literary heritage. Thus Japanese readers were introduced to the Persian classics with translations of ʿOmar Ḵayyām’s Robāʿiyāt and Ferdowisi’s Šāh-nāma, and these works still serve as the primary representatives in Japan of the field of Iranian literature.
Classical Persian literature. The Robāʿiyāt attributed to ʿOmar Ḵayyām was first introduced to Japanese academia by the teacher and scholar Lafcadio Hearn (1850-1904), the celebrated Japanologist and author of many works on Japan and Japanese subjects, in a lecture at Imperial University of Tokyo in September 1896 (cf. the school lecture in Hearn, 1926). Kambara Ariake, who was present at the lecture, was so fascinated and moved by the Robāʿiyāt that he translated into Japanese six pieces from Edward FitzGerald’s (1809-83, q.v.) version of the quatrains and published them in 1908. Another translation of FitzGerald, by Shun Ōsumi and Shōfu Ōsumi, was published the same year in Tokyo. There followed other translations, mostly based on FitzGerald, by Bunkichi Katano (1914), Shigeru Araki (1920), Sofu Taketomo (1921 and 1947), Hōjin Yano (1935 and 1938), Ryō Mori (1941 and 1948), Ryōho Horii (1947), Ryōsaku Ogawa (1948), Tetsuo Nagiri (1949), Eizō Sawa (1960), Reiichi Gamō (1964, 1973, and 1983), Tsuneo Kuroyanagi (1973), Toshihiko Ōgata (1984), Riō Mori (1986), Katsuyaki Yamaji (1988), and Toshinaga Ida (1989). Katano rendered the Robāʿiyāt in Japanese from the English translation of Justin H. McCarthy (Rubaiyat, London, 1889). Ogawa was the first to translate the Robāʿiyāt from the original Persian, and this version is admired for its eloquence and beautiful expression. Yano in his translations rendered the quatrains with beautiful and poetic expression in the tanka form of classical Japanese verse (five lines, 5 + 7 + 5 + 7 + 7 syllables). Ryō Mori used a simpler, more easily understandable language in the second translation. Taketomo’s translation became the source of several quotations in the works of the popular novelist Osamu Dazai (1909-48).
Ferdowsi (q.v.) was the next Persian poet to attract the attention of Japanese writers and authors. A number of translations were made of sections of his Šāh-nāma (Ō-sho in Japanese), beginning with those that were readily available in 19th-century English, French, German, and Italian versions (on which, see s.v. ŠĀH-NĀMA at iranica.com). The first and most frequently treated episode was the tragedy of Rostam o Sohrāb. The heroes of the Šāh-nāma, with their adventures and tragic fates, hold an appeal for the Japanese, who can find in them a close similarity to the ill-fated heroes of their own mythology and history. The Šāh-nāma was introduced to the literary world of Japan in 1916, when Bunmei Tsuchiya (1891-1990), himself a poet, published an abridged translation from English versions. This work, Perushia shinwa (Legends of Persia), served as a model for Akijirō Soma’s Perushia no densetsu to rekishi (Legends and history of Persia, 1922) and Masaharu Higuchi’s translation of Rostam o Sohrāb (1941). Tsuneo Kuroyanagi was the first to publish abridged tales of the Šāh-nāma translated directly from Persian (1969), followed by Emiko Okada’s similar work (1999). Abridged translations of stories from the Šāh-nāma are also found in Shigeru Araki’s literary history of Persia (1922).
Saʿdi, like Ḵayyām and Ferdowsi, has attracted a number of Japanese scholars, who have worked primarily on the Golestān (in Japanese, Bara-en “Rose garden”). Among them, Gamō and Sawa are notable for the elegance of their translations. Araki (1922) quoted excerpts of Saʿdi’s works. Asatori (Chōka) Katō rendered the Golestān in beautiful Japanese (1922); Katō is known as one of the first Japanese who converted to Islam and made a pilgrimage to Mecca. Kowashi Takase’s translation of Golestān was published in 1948. Ryōtan Tokuzawa’s Iran monogatari (Stories of Iran, 1948) contains an introduction to, and translations of, parts of the Golestān (pp. 137-55). Sawa produced an authentic and beautiful, but abridged, translation of it. R. Gamō, having previously published excerpts of his translation of the Golestān in several literary journals, was the first scholar to produce a complete translation (1963); it has since been reprinted many times. Gamō’s abridged translation of Saʿdi’s Bustān was published in 1964. Kuroyanagi’s translation of Golestān was published in 1985.
Gamō was the first scholar to publish (1955) a general survey on the life and time of Hafez (q.v.) and his work, with many references to selected verses of his poems. He was followed by Sawa, who translated selected pieces of the work (1966). Gamō’s main source was the Divān of Hafez edited by Ḥosayn Pežmān-e Baḵtiāri (Tehran, 1936). He also refers to a Ḥayāt-e Ḥāfez (in Urdu?) by Šebli Noʿmāni as well as E. G. Browne’s A Literary History of Persia. Gamō makes further reference to Hafez in his work on Persian lyric poetry (1964). Kuroyanagi published a complete translation of the Divān of Hafez in 1976, basing his rendering on a more authentic edition of the work by Moḥammad Qazvini and Qāsem Ḡani (Tehran, 1941). In 1988 he published a more elaborate translation of selected ḡazals of Hafez, with annotations.
Of Islamic, mystical, and philosophical works, translations by the scholar of Islam and other Eastern religions, Toshihiko Izutsu (1914-93), stand out for their authenticity and elegance; those of Jalāl-al-Din Moḥammad Rumi’s Fihi mā fihi and Mollā Ṣadrā’s Ketāb al-mašāʾer (both in 1978) are notable. R. Gamō was first to publish an introduction to the Maṯnawi with examples of its contents (1964). Akiro Matsumoto produced an elaborate translation of ʿAbd-al-Raḥmān Jāmi’s Lawāyeḥ and Šarif Jorjāni’s Resālat al-wojud (2002). Kazuo Morimoto of Tokyo University published (2007) a translation of Moḥammad-Ḥosayn Ṭabāṭabāʾi’s Šiʿa dar Eslām, together with the appendices of Seyyed Hossein Nasr’s English translation. Kazuo Morimoto of Tokyo University published his annotated translation of Nāṣer-e Ḵosrow’s Safar-nāma in four parts in issues of the Scientific Journal (Shihō) of Hokkaido University (2005 and 2006). In the area of wisdom literature (andarz, q.v.), Neẓāmi Arużi’s Čahār maqāla and ʿOnṣor-al-Maʿāli Keykāvus b. Eskandar’s Qābus-nāma were translated by Kuroyanagi and published together (1969).
The name of Emiko Okada is associated with translations of lyrical poetry, and she has also produced several elegant examples of the romantic narratives of Neẓāmi Ganjavi’s Ḵosrow o Širin (1977) and Layli o Majnun (1981), and Faḵr-al-Din Asʿad Gorgāni’s Vis o Rāmin (1990). Translations of Neẓāmi’s Haft peykar (q.v.) were published by Takeo Nono (1962) and Kuroyanagi (1971).
Many selections from Persian classics have been translated and included in Japanese textbooks for Persian language study, for example, those by Kuroyanagi. Persian proverbs and maxims were introduced, with annotations and examples of their usage, by Takeshi Katsufuji and Hashem Rajabzadeh (1993).
Contemporary Persian literature. Interest in Persian contemporary literature, especially among younger generations, is increasing in Japan, although that interest may often be driven more by current events than by pursuit of literary values. Translation from Persian into Japanese, with its different way of expression, remains difficult. But there is promise in an emerging generation well versed in Persian as well as Japanese, who are open-minded and positive, and who appreciate and enjoy their acquaintance with the works of Iranian writers.
In the category of the novel and short story, Bozorg ʿAlawi’s Ḵāʾen was among the first to be translated (Ichirō Nono, 1959). Several works of Jalāl Āl-e Aḥmad (q.v.), including Nefrin-e zamin and Jašn-e farḵonda, have been introduced to Japanese readers. Sādeq Hedāyat’s Buf-e kur was first translated by Eishō Horii in 1976. In the 1970s and 1980s more than twenty works of Hedāyat were translated by Kiminori Nakamura and published in several literally journals, starting with Āyena-ye šekasta (1977 and 1983). Nakamura published his translations of selected works of Hedāyat in one volume in 1984. Moḥammad-ʿAli Jamālzāda (q.v.) is also among Nakamura’s favorite writers, from whom he translated Fārsi šekar ast and Rajol-e siāsi (1980), followed by a collection of his selected works (1987). Other translators of Hedāyat’s works include E. Okada (with Dāwūd-e gužpošt, 1977) and Sachiko Takayasu (Ābji Ḵānom, 1982). A translation of Ṣamad Behrangi’s Pesarak-e labuforūš by Takashi Iwami was published in 1983. Yuko Fujimoto of Osaka University of Foreign Studies published translations of a number of contemporary literary works, including Ṣamad Behrangi’s Bist o čahār sāʿat dar ḵvāb o bidāri (1983) and Māhi-e siāh-e kučulu (1984), Simin Dānešvar’s Šahri čon behešt (1984), and Goli Taraqqi’s Bozorg-bānu-ye ruḥ-e man (1991). Her latest published translation is Zoyā Pirzād’s "Hastahā-ye ālbālu” (2007).
Modern Persian poetry has been introduced by a few works of some literary figures including Aḥmad Šāmlū and Foruḡ Farroḵzād (Kiminori Nakamura, tr., 1984). Kimie Maeda (Onuma) has introduced several works of Šāmlu and Sohrāb Sepehri.
Other translations. Kametarō Yagi (1908-86)’s translation of the book Jang, written in the last years of Reẓā Shah (1938) by Aḥmad Naḵjavān, a deputy in the Ministry of War, shows a parallelism between the political cultures of Iran and Japan in the years leading up to World War II. The author tries to justify war as an unavoidable means to provide mankind with qualifications to achieve perfection and a real civilization. He sees the world as a scene of continuous struggle among nation states for hegemony and national goals in which relations are regulated by power and strength and not by fairness and justice (pp. 4-5).
In the field of folklore, translations of Ṣādeq Hedāyat’s Neyrangestān (tr. Shunsuke Okunishi) and Ḵvansari’s (d. 1713) ʿAqāyed al-nesāʾ (tr. E. Okada) were published in one volume (1999). Translations of Persian folktales have mainly introduced the work of Abu’l-Qāsem Enjavi Širāzi, including pieces of his Qeṣṣahā-ye irāni (tr. Okunishi and Yuko Hamahata, 1983-86). Other such translations include Jamšid Šāh by Mehrdād Bahār (1979) and F. Ṭāyerfar’s Mājarā-ye Aḥmad o Sārā (2006), the fourth of a series translated by Keiko Ikuo. In historical linguistics, Kazuya Yamauchi published a translation (1997) of Aḥmad Tafażżoli and Žāla Āmuzgār’s Pahlavi; adabiyāt wa dastur-e ān.
Another work dealing with Persian culture is Yoshifusa Seki’s beautiful translation into Japanese of Golestān-e ḵiāl (Flower garden of imagination, Iranian Cultural Heritage Organization, Tehran, 1988), titled Yume no hanazono (Tehran, 1997). The book displays selected works of painting and miniature art, book decoration, calligraphy, wood carving, tiles, glazed vases and vessels, coins, and other art objects preserved in Iranian museums and other public collections.
Classical literature; religion and philosophy. Shigeru Araki, Perushia bungakushi-kō (Survey of the literary history of Iran), Tokyo, 1922.
Ferdowsi, Šāh-nāma, selections tr. Bunmei Tsuchiya as Perushiya shinwa (Legends of Persia), Tokyo, 1916; tr. Akijirō Soma as Perushiya no densetsu to rekishi (Legends and history of Persia), Tokyo, 1922; tr. Masaharu Higuchi (Rostam o Sohrāb as Rostam to Sohrab), Tokyo, 1941; tr. Reiichi Gamō, in Iran no rekishi to bunka (Iran’s history and culture), Tokyo, 1941; abridged tr. Tsuneo Kuroyanagi as Ō-sho (Shā-nāme), Tokyo, 1969; tr. Ts. Kuroyanagi (Rostam o Sohrāb as Rostam to Sohrab), Tokyo, 1987, and Perushia no shinwa: Ō-sho (Shā-nāme) yori (Persian legends from the Šāh-nāma), Tokyo, 1989; selections tr. Emiko Okada as Ō-sho. Kodai Perushiya no shinwa densetsu (Šāh-nāma. Ancient myths and legends of Iran), Tokyo, 1999; selection (Sām va Zāl) tr. Okada in Perushia no yottsu no monogatari (Four stories of Iran), Tokyo, 2004.
Reiichi Gamō, Jojō shijin: Shirāzu no Hafez (The lyric poet; Hafez of Shiraz), Nihon-Iran Kyōkai (Japan-Iran Friendship Society), Tokyo, 1955.
Idem, “Jojōshi” (Lyric poetry), in Arabia-Perushia shū (Arabic-Persian literature), Sekai bungaku Taikei (Literature of the world, Series) 68, Tokyo, 1964, pp. 374-92.
Faḵr al-Din Asʿad Gorgāni, Vis o Rāmin, tr. Emiko Okada as Vīs to Rāmīn. Perushia no koi no monogatari (Vis and Rāmin: a Persian love story), Tokyo, 1990.
Ḥāfeẓ, Divān, tr. Eizō Sawa as “Hafez shishō” (Selected poems of Hāfez), in Sekai meishishū taisei (Compilation of famous poetry of the world) 18. Tōyō (Orient), Tokyo, 1960, pp. 329-44; tr. Tsuneo Kuroyanagi as Hāfizu shishū (Poetic works of Hafez), Tōyō Bunko Series No. 299, Tokyo, 1976; repr. in Perushia Koten Sōsho Series No. 1, Tokyo, 1977; tr. Kuroyanagi as Hāfizu jojō shishō yakuchū (Hāfez; annotated translation of selected lyric poems), Tokyo, 1988.
Nur-al-Din ʿAbd-al-Raḥmān Jāmi, Lawāyeḥ, and Sayyed Šarif Jorjāni, Resālat al-wojud, tr. Akirō Matsumoto as Perushia sonzai issei ronshū (Collection of Persian ontological works), Tokyo, 2002. Sayyed ʿAli Šarif Jorjāni, see Jāmi. Mollā Ṣadrā Širāzi, Ketāb al-mašāʾer, tr. Toshihiko Izutsu as Sonzai-ninshiki no dō—sonzai to honshitsu ni tsuite (The path of apprehending existence. On existence and reality), Tokyo, 1978.
ʿOmar Ḵayyām, Robāʿiyāt, tr. Shun Ōsumi and Shōfu Ōsumi as Rubaiyatto, Tokyo, 1908; tr. Kanbara Ariake, Tokyo, 1908; tr. Bunkichi Katano, Tokyo, 1914; tr. Shigeru Araki, as Omuma Ḫayamu to yon’gyoushi (Rubaiyatto) zenyaku (ʿOmar Ḵayyām and the “Quatrains” [Robāʿiyāt]—full translation), Tokyo, 1920; tr. Sōfu Taketomo, Tokyo, 1921; tr. Hōjin Yano, Tokyo, 1935 and 1938; tr. Ryō Mori, Tokyo, 1941 and 1948; tr. Ryōho Horii, Tokyo, 1947; tr. Sōfu Taketomo, Tokyo, 1947; tr. Ryōsaku Ogawa, Tokyo, 1948; tr. Tetsuo Nāgiri, Tokyo, 1949; tr. Eizō Sawa, Tokyo, 1960; tr. Tsuneo Kuroyanagi and Reiichi Gamō, Tokyo, 1964; tr. Chōbo Hasegawa, Tokyo, 1967; tr. Kuroyanagi, Tokyo, 1973 and 1983; tr. Toshihiko Ogata, Kyoto, 1984; tr. Riō Mori, Tokyo, 1986; tr. Katsuyuki Yamaji, in Kagoshima Keizai Daigaku ronshū, 1988; tr. Toshinaga Ida, Tokyo, 1989.
ʿOnṣor-al-Maʿāli Keykāvus b. Eskandar, Qābus-nāma, tr. Tsuneo Kuroyanagi as Kābūs no sho (Book of Qābus), in Kuroyanagi, Perushia itsuwa-shū: Kābūs no sho; Yottsu no kōwa Tokyo, 1969.
Nāṣer-e Ḵosrow, Safar-nāma, tr. Kiminori Nakamura as “Tabi no sho,” Harubūza, No. 111, 1981, pp. 2-18; tr. Kazuo Morimoto, in Hokkaido Daigaku Shihō, No. 35, February 2003, pp. 1-29, and No. 38, December 2005, pp. 23-50.
Aḥmad Neẓāmi Arużi, Čahār maqāla, tr. Tsuneo Kuroyanagi as Yottsu no kōwa (Four discourses), in Kuroyanagi, Perushia itsuwa-shū: Kābūs no sho; Yottsu no kōwa, Tokyo, 1969.
Neẓāmi Ganjavi, Haft peykar, tr. Takeo Nono, Tokyo, 1962; tr. Tsuneo Kuroyanagi as Shichi ōhi (Seven queens), Tokyo, 1971.
Idem, Ḵosrow o Širin, tr. Emiko Okada as Hosurō to Shīrīn, Tokyo, 1977.
Idem, Layli o Majnun, tr. Okada as Raira to Majnūn, Tokyo, 1981.
Selections, tr. Okada in Perushia no yottsu no monogatari (Four stories of Iran), Tokyo, 2004.
Āgā Jamāl Ḵᵛānsāri, ʿAqāyed al-nesāʾ, tr. Emiko Okada, in Perushia minzoku-shi (Records of Persian folkways), Tokyo, 1999.
Jalāl-al-Din Moḥammad Rumi, Fihi mā fihi, tr. Toshihiko Izutsu as Rūmī goroku (Rumi’s discourses), Tokyo, 1978.
Idem, Maṯnawi-e maʿnawi, the introductory part, tr. Reiichi Gamō as Seishinteki Maṯnawi, in Sekai bungaku taikei: Arabiya-Perushiya shū, Tokyo, 1964, pp. 347-73.
Saʿdi, Bustān, tr. Reiichi Gamō, Tokyo, 1964. Idem, Golestān, tr. Chōka Katō as Bara-en, Tokyo, 1922; tr. Kowashi Takase as Bara no sono, Tokyo, 1948; tr. Eizō Sawa as Goresutān, Tokyo, 1951; tr. Reiichi Gamō as Bara-en, Tokyo, 1953, and Bara-en (Gurisutān): Iran chūsei no kyōyō monogatari (Gulistan: refined tales from Iran’s Middle Ages), Tokyo, 1964; tr. Tsuneo Kuroyanagi as Bara-en, Tokyo, 1985.
Modern literature and folklore. Jalāl Āl-e Aḥmad, “Jašn-e farḵonda,” tr. Sachiko Takayasu as “Medetai shukujitsu,” Harubūza, No. 116, 1981, pp. 2-19.
Idem, Nafrin-e zamin, tr. Minoru Yamada as Chi no majinai, Tokyo, 1981.
Bozorg ʿAlavi, Ḵāʾen, tr. Ichirō Nano as “Mikkokusha,” Shin Nihon bungaku 14/5, 1959, pp. 51-62.
Mehrdād Bahār, Jamšid Šāh, tr. Sachiko Takayasu as “Jamushido Ō,” Harubūza, No. 91, 1979, pp. 2-24.
Ṣamad Behrangi, Bist o čahār sāʿat dar ḵvāb o bidāri, tr. Yuko Fujimoto as “Tehran no nijūyojikan,” in Gendai Ajia seiji ni okeru chiiki to minshū (Osaka University of Foreign Studies), 1983, pp. 251-70.
Idem, Māhi-e siāh-e kučulu, tr. Yuko Fujimoto (Kagawa) as Chisana kuroi sakana, Tokyo, 1984.
Simin Dānešvar, Šahri čon behešt, tr. Yuko Fujimoto (Kagawa) as “Tengoku no yōna machi,” in Gendai Ajia ni okeru chiiki seiji no shosō (Aspects of regional politics in modern Asia), Osaka, 1984, pp. 179-96.
Abu’l-Qāsem Enjavi Širāzi, Qeṣṣahā-ye irāni: tr. Shunsuke Okunishi as “Iran no mukashi-banashi,” Sekai kōshō bungi kenkyū [SKBK], No. 4, 1983, pp. 409-33; tr. Yuko Hamahata: as “Iran no minwa,” in SKBK, No. 5, 1984, pp. 573-95; as “Iran no mukashi-banashi,” SKBK, No. 7, 1986, pp. 339-67, and No. 8, 1986, pp. 157-90.
Forūḡ Farroḵzād, Tawallod-i digar, tr. Kiminori Nakamura, Tokyo, 1984.
Ṣādeq Hedāyat, Buf-e kur, tr. Eishō Hori as “Mōmoku no fukurō,” Gekkān Shiruku-rōdo, 2/8, 1976, pp. 85-129, and in Sekai no bungaku (Literature of the world), Tokyo, 1983.
Idem, Āyena-ye šekasta, tr. Kiminori Nakamura as “Kowareta kagami,” in Iran bungaku 1, 1977.
Idem, selected short stories tr. Nakamura as Mōmoku no fukurō, Tokyo, 1983; tr. Nakamura as Sādeku Hedāyato tampenshū (Short stories of Ṣādeq Hedāyat), Tokyo, 1985; tr. Keiichirō Ishii as Ikiume. Aru hannin no shuki yori (Buried alive. From the notes of a criminal), Tokyo, 2000.
Idem, Neyrangestān, tr. Shunsuke Okunishi, in Perushia minzoku-shi (Records of Persian folkways), Tokyo, 1999.
Moḥammad ʿAli Jamālzāda, Fārsi šekar ast, tr. Kiminori Nakamura as “Perushiago wa sato,” Harubūza, No. 98, 1980, pp. 2-14.
Idem, Rajol-e siāsi, tr. Kiminori Nakamura as “Seijika,” Harubūza, No. 99, 1980, pp. 2-20.
Idem, Jamaruzadei tampenshū (A selection of Ja-mālzadah’s short stories; Persian title: Bargozida-ye āṯār-e Jamālzāda), tr. Kiminori Nakamura, Tokyo, 1987.
Zoyā Pirzād, “Hastahā-ye ālbālu,” tr. Yuko Fujimoto, in Iran kenkyū (Osaka University of Foreign Studies) 3, 2007, pp. 168-207.
Ryōten Tokuzawa, Iran monogatari (Stories from Persia), Tokyo, 1943.
Goli Taraqqi, Bozorg-bānu-ye ruḥ-e man, tr. Yuko Fujimoto, in Asian Studies (Osaka University of Foreign Studies) 1, 1991, pp. 133-47.
F. Ṭāyerfar, Mājarā-ye Aḥmad o Sārā, tr. Keiko Aikō as Ahumado no orusuban, Tokyo, 2006.
Other references. Žāla Āmuzgār and Aḥmad Tafazzoli, Zabān-e Pahlavi: adabiyāt wa dastur-e ān, Tehran, 1974; tr. Kazuya Yamauchi as Pahrabi-go: sono bungaku to bumpō, Institute of Silk Road Studies, Tokyo, 1997.
Lafcadio Hearn, “Edward Fitzgerald and the ‘Rubaiyat’,” in idem, Poets and Poems, comp. Ryuji Tanabé, Tokyo, 1926, pp. 211-32.
Iranian Cultural Heritage Organization, Golestān-e ḵiāl, Tehran, 1988; tr. Yoshifusa Seki as Yume no hanazono (Garden of dreams), Tehran, 1997.
Takeshi Katsufuji and Hashem Rajabzadeh, Perushiago kotowaza yōhō jiten (Dictionary of Persian proverbs and usage), Tokyo, 1993.
Hashem Rajabzadeh (Hāšem Rajabzāda), “Šāh-nāma-šenāsi dar Žāpon,” Āyanda 17/9-19, pp. 675-82.
Moḥammad-Ḥosayn Ṭabāṭabāʾi, Šiʿa dar Eslām; tr. Seyyed Hossein Nasr as Shiʿite Islam, Albany, 1975; tr. Kazuo Morimoto as Shiʿa-hā no jigazō: rekishi shisō kyōgi (Self-portrait of Shiʿism: history, thought, doctrine), Tokyo University, 2007.
Tōyō Bunko (Oriental Library), Nihon ni okeru Chūtō-Isuramu kenkyū bunken mokuroku (Bibliography of Islamic and Middle Eastern studies in Japan [1868-1988]), Tokyo, 1992.
Originally Published: December 15, 2008
Last Updated: April 13, 2012
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Vol. XIV, Fasc. 6, pp. 574-577