Table of Contents

  • TUP

    F. Farrokh

    (tr. by Fariydoun Farrokh as The Cannon, Washington D. C., 2009), the first full-length novel by Gholam-Hosayn Sa’edi.

  • ṬURĀN

    C. E. Bosworth

    (ṬOVARĀN), the mediaeval Islamic name for the mountainous district of east-central Baluchistan lying to the north of the mediaeval coastal region of Makrān, what was in recent centuries, until 1947, the Aḥmadzay Khanate of Kalat.

  • TURFAN EXPEDITIONS

    Werner Sundermann

    Turfan (also Uigur Turpan, Chin. Tulufan) in Xinjiang (Chinese Turkestan) is the largest oasis (ca. 170 square kilometers) on the ancient northern Silk Road.

  • TURKEY

    Cross-Reference

    See BŪQALAMŪN.

  • TURKIC LANGUAGES OF PERSIA: AN OVERVIEW

    Michael Knüppel

    Only in few other regions (Caucasus and Southern Siberia) one can find a nearly comparable diversity of Turkic languages as in Persia. The number of their speakers varies from several thousands to several millions.

  • TURKIC LOANWORDS IN PERSIAN

    Michael Knüppel

    Turkic-Iranian language contacts, as well as reciprocal loaning/borrowing of words, go back to the era of the Old Turkic language. 

  • TURKIC-IRANIAN CONTACTS i. LINGUISTIC CONTACTS

    John R. Perry

    Speakers of Iranian and Turkic languages have been in contact since pre-Islamic times, notably along the Inner Asian commercial corridors known collectively as the Silk Road.

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  • TURKIC-IRANIAN CONTACTS ii. CHAGHATAY

    Andras J. E. Bodrogligeti

    Chaghatay has been strongly influenced by Islamic prestige languages, especially Persian and Arabic, in all segments: phonetics, morphology, syntax, vocabulary, and cultural content. In the hands of the educated elite it became a tool wielded impressively to create exquisite literary works that won the admiration of contemporary Iranian and Arab men of letters.

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  • TURKMENS OF PERSIA ii. LANGUAGE

    Michael Knüppel

    Geographical location and the “tribal affiliation” of the speakers form the background of the dialectal variety. The dialects of Turkmen are spoken in their respective areas, where the members of the corresponding “tribes” live. For example, the Sarık dialect is spoken in Turkmenistan, as well as in Persia and Afghanistan.

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  • TURKO-SOGDIAN COINAGE

    Larissa Baratova

    issues of the khaqans (ḵāqāns) of the Western Turkic khanate in Central Asia between the 6th and 8th centuries CE, so called because the Turkic rulers issued them with Sogdian inscriptions.