Table of Contents

  • SHAPUR I i. History

    Shapur Shahbazi

    second Sasanian king of kings (r. 239-70), and author of several rock-reliefs and the trilingual inscription on the walls of the so-called Kaʿba-ye Zardošt.

  • SHAPUR I ii. The Great Statue

    G. R. GAROSI

    With a height of about 6.70 meters and a width across the shoulders of more than 2 meters, the monumental statue of Shapur I can be considered the most impressive extant sculpture dating from the Sasanian period. It is carved out of a huge stalagmite formed in situ.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.

    Touraj Daryaee

    (r. 309-79 CE), longest reigning monarch of the Sasanian dynasty.


    D. T. Potts

    (ŠAṬṬ AL-ʿARAB), combined effluent of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers.



    See GUSFAND.


    Saeid Rezvani

    poet, painter, filmmaker, and dramatist.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • SHIELD in Eastern Iran

    Boris A. Litvinsky

    In Lurestan, a round bronze shield was found, which has a skirting along the edge, an umbo in the center, and relief depictions of fantastic creatures.


    Mohammad Ali Amir-Moezzi

    Shiʿite doctrine is usually considered to be based on five principles. However, to articulate matters of faith in such a manner seems reductionist and late.

  • SHIʿITE DOCTRINE ii. Hierarchy in the Imamiyya

    Rainer Brunner

    The distinction between believers and ulema (ʿolemāʾ “religious scholars”) is known to both Sunnites and Shiʿites, and forms the starting point for internal ranking systems among their ulema.

  • SHIʿITE DOCTRINE iii. Imamite-Sunnite Relations since the Late 19th Century

    Rainer Brunner

    Since the 20th century, sectarian relations have reflected a growing number of attempts to reach, at least to some degree, an understanding and a rapprochement of each other’s views (taqrib, rarely taqārob).