Table of Contents

  • SEBEOS

    James Howard-Johnston

    a seventh-century Armenian historian. The Armenian history traditionally attributed to Sebeos is an important source for the history of the Sasanian empire from the last years of Hormozd IV to the death of Yazdegerd III. 

  • SEBÜKTEGIN

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    a slave commander of the Samanids and the founder of the Ghaznavid dynasty in eastern Afghanistan.

  • SEFIDRUD

    Cross-Reference

    See Safidrud.

  • ŠEHĀB-AL-DIN ŠĀH ḤOSAYNI

    Farhad Daftary

    the forty-seventh imam of the Nezāri Ismaʿilis was a high dignitary and author in the 19th century.

  • SELEUCIA

    Cross-Reference

    For Seleucia on the Tigris, see  s.v.  CTESIPHON.

  • SELEUCID ECONOMY

    G. G. Aperghis

    Economic activity was based mainly on agriculture. Trade and industry tended to be local. Conversion from commodity-based revenue, as practiced by the Achaemenids, to coin-based was achieved through urbanization.

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  • SELEUCID EMPIRE

    Rolf Strootman

    founded in 312/311 BCE by Seleucus I Nicator, formerly a general in the army of Alexander the Great. Adopting the titles “King of Asia” and “Great King,” the Macedonian rulers of the Seleucid dynasty laid claim to the territory of the former Achaemenid empire during the Hellenistic period.

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  • SELEUCID ERA

    Rolf Strootman

    the first system of continuous year numbering, introduced in the Middle East by the Seleucids, and the direct forerunner of the Christian, Islamic, and Jewish years. As the formal time reckoning system of the Seleucid empire, the era was adopted throughout the Middle East.

  • SELEUCUS

    Rolf Strootman

    (Greek: Seleukos), name of seven kings of the Seleucid empire. Seleucus I Nicator (r. 312-281 BCE), was founder of the Seleucid empire and succeeded in re-uniting the greater part of the former Achaemenid empire after the death of Alexander the Great.

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  • SEMINO, Barthélémy

    Shireen Mahdavi

    French general, engineer, and linguist in the service of the Qajars in Persia.