Table of Contents

  • ʿOTBI, ABU NAṢR MOḤAMMED

    Ali Anooshahr

    (ca. 961-1036 or 1040), secretary, courtier, and author of the Arabic al-Kitāb al-Yamini, an important dynastic history of the Ghaznavids.

  • OTRĀR

    C. E. Bosworth

    medieval town of Transoxania, in a rural district (rostāq) of the middle Jaxartes River (Syr Darya), apparently known in early Islamic times as Fārāb/Pārāb/Bārāb.

  • OTTOMAN-PERSIAN RELATIONS i. UNDER SULTAN SELIM I AND SHAH ESMĀʿIL I

    Osman G. Özgüdenli

     The dynamics of Ottoman-Safavid relations during these almost contemporaneous reigns (1512-20 and 1501-24, respectively) are closely connected with the general socio-political and socio-religious conditions in Anatolia, Persia, and the border regions between the two empires since the second half of the 15th century.

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  • OTTOMAN-PERSIAN RELATIONS ii. AFSHARID AND ZAND PERIODS

    Ernest Tucker

     At the beginning of the eighteenth century, Ottoman conflicts with European powers overshadowed relations with the Safavids.

  • OUPHARIZES

    R. N. Frye

    (Greek name or appellative Wahriz), general of cavalry in the time of Ḵosrow I.

  • OUSELEY, Gore

    Peter Avery and EIr

    (1770-1844), entrepreneur, diplomat, and orientalist.

  • OUSELEY, William

    Peter Avery and EIr

    (1767-1842), officer and orientalist.

  • OWL

    Cross-Reference

    See BŪF.

  • OXATHRES

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    Persian masculine name, attested only in Greek forms, borne by several Achaemenid personages.

  • OXUS RIVER

    Cross-Reference

    See ĀMŪ DARYĀ.