Table of Contents


    Keith Hitchins

    (Mošfeqi, ʿAbd-al-Raḥmān), Tajik poet (1525-1588).


    Yoshihiro Nishiaki

    an early Pottery Neolithic site in Fars Province, southwest Iran. Located approximately 11 km southeast of Persepolis, this eponymous site for the Mushki culture forms a small and low mound.

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  • MUSIC HISTORY i. Pre-Islamic Iran

    Bo Lawergren

    The documentation is largely archeological with a sprinkling of textual sources, and some evidence is here assembled to outline Iran’s pre-Islamic music history.

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  • MUSIC HISTORY ii. CA. 650 TO 1370 CE

    Eckhard Neubauer

    When in 31/651 Yazdgerd III, the last Sasanian king, left Iran, fleeing from the Arab troops, he took with him “1,000 cooks and 1,000 musicians.”


    Rüdiger Schmitt

    (1834-1898), Austrian scholar of linguistics and ethnography. He was the founder and main advocate of the so-called “linguistic ethnography.” He worked on a genealogical classification and a description of all the languages around the globe known at his time (and often examined for the first time by himself). He presented a classification of both all the languages and all the human races.

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  • MÜLLER, Friedrich W. K.

    Desmond Durkin-Meisterernst

    (1863-1930), scholar of oriental cultures and languages, a major contribution to the establishment of the philological and historical study of texts in Middle Iranian and Old Turkish.



    list of all the figure and plate images in the letter M entries.