Table of Contents

  • MUGH, MOUNT

    Gregory Semenov

    site of the 7th-8th-century refuge of the rulers of Penjikent in Sogdiana, where an important archive of documents written in Sogdian was discovered in the 1930s.

  • MUHAMMADIEV, Fazliddin

    Keith Hitchins

    Tajik writer (1928-1986). Numerous works of his were translated into Russian and other languages of the Soviet Union and of Eastern Europe.

  • MUNICH, PERSIAN ART IN

    Avinoam Shalem

    The collecting of Persian art in Munich goes back at least to the reign of Duke Albrecht V (r. 1516-75). Artifacts of oriental origin were mainly registered as exotica. For example, between 1545 and 1550, Hans Mielich (1516-73), the court painter of Albrecht V, provided the duke with an illustrated inventory of the varied treasures in the court, among which is depicted an Ottoman vessel decorated with precious stones.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • MUSĀ YABḠU

    Osman G. Özgüdenli

    the eponymous strongman of a Ḡozz clan, whose nephew Toḡrel founded the Saljuq dynasty.

  • MUSHFIQI, ABDURAHMON

    Keith Hitchins

    (Mošfeqi, ʿAbd-al-Raḥmān), Tajik poet (1525-1588).

  • MUSHKI, TALL-E

    Yoshihiro Nishiaki

    an early Pottery Neolithic site in Fars Province, southwest Iran. Located approximately 11 km southeast of Persepolis, this eponymous site for the Mushki culture forms a small and low mound.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • MUSIC HISTORY i. Pre-Islamic Iran

    Bo Lawergren

    The documentation is largely archeological with a sprinkling of textual sources, and some evidence is here assembled to outline Iran’s pre-Islamic music history.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • MUSIC HISTORY ii. CA. 650 TO 1370 CE

    Eckhard Neubauer

    When in 31/651 Yazdgerd III, the last Sasanian king, left Iran, fleeing from the Arab troops, he took with him “1,000 cooks and 1,000 musicians.”

  • MÜLLER, FRIEDRICH

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    (1834-1898), Austrian scholar of linguistics and ethnography. He was the founder and main advocate of the so-called “linguistic ethnography.” He worked on a genealogical classification and a description of all the languages around the globe known at his time (and often examined for the first time by himself). He presented a classification of both all the languages and all the human races.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • MÜLLER, Friedrich W. K.

    Desmond Durkin-Meisterernst

    (1863-1930), scholar of oriental cultures and languages, a major contribution to the establishment of the philological and historical study of texts in Middle Iranian and Old Turkish.