Table of Contents

  • KAʿBA-YE ZARDOŠT

    Gerd Gropp

    “Kaʿba of Zoroaster,” an ancient building at Naqš-e Rostam near Persepolis.

  • KABĀB

    Etrat Elahi

    popular dish which traditionally consists of meat cut in cubes, or ground and shaped into balls; these are threaded onto a skewer and broiled over a brazier of charcoal embers.

  • KABIR-KUH

    Majdodin Keyvani

    one of the long ranges of the Zagros mountains, lying between Iran’s two western provinces of Loristan and Ilām.

  • KABISA

    Simone Cristoforetti

    Arabic term used in calendrical context; “intercalary,” “embolismal.” It is applied to several readjustments that occurred in the Iranian solar calendar.

  • KĀBOL MAGAZINE

    Wali Ahmadi

    a monthly magazine with the full title Kābol:ʿElmi, adabi, ejtemāʿi, tariḵi. The periodical was founded by the Kabul Literary Society (Anjoman-e Adabi-e Kābol), 1931-40.

  • KĀBOLI

    Rawan Farhadi and J. R. Perry

    the colloquial Persian spoken in the capital of Afghanistan, Kabul, and its environs. It has been a common and prestigious vernacular for several centuries, since Kabul was long ruled by dynasts of Iran (the Safavids) or India (the Mughals) for whom Persian was the language of culture and administration.

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  • KĀBOLI, ʿAbdallāh Ḵᵛāja

    Maria Szuppe

    (also known as Kāboli Naqšbandi and Heravi), historiographer and poet of the late 16th and early 17th centuries. 

  • KABUL

    Multiple Authors

    (Kābol), capital of Afghanistan, also the name of its province and a river.

  • KABUL i. GEOGRAPHY OF THE PROVINCE

    Andreas Wilde

    Kabul is part of a system of high level basins, the elevation of which varies from 1,500 to 3,600 meters, extends—geographically speaking—beyond the administrative borders of the present-day province.

  • KABUL ii. HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY

    Xavier de Planhol

    Before the period of war and unrest in Afghanistan that started in 1978, almost all the functions concerned with governing the country and directing its international relations were concentrated in Kabul. This primacy among Afghan cities is due to an exceptionally favorable geographical site.

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  • KABUL iii. HISTORY FROM THE 16TH CENTURY TO THE ACCESSION OF MOḤAMMAD ẒĀHER SHAH

    May Schinasi

    Kabul was a small town until the 16th century, when Ẓahir-al-Din Bābor (1483-1530), the first of the Great Mughals, made it his capital.

  • KABUL iv. URBAN POLITICS SINCE ẒĀHER SHAH

    Daniel E. Esser

    The first master plan marked an important attempt to reorganize the spatial structure of the city. A first revision was authorized in 1971.

  • KABUL v. MONUMENTS OF KABUL CITY

    Jonathan Lee

    This article focuses on the major monuments in and around the Old City of Kabul and the most significant Dorrāni dynastic monuments and mausolea.

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  • KABUL LITERARY SOCIETY

    Wali Ahmadi

    (Anjoman-e adabi-e Kābol), the first official academic and cultural association of Afghanistan, 1930-40.

  • KABUL MUSEUM

    Carla Grissmann

    popular name of the National Museum of Afghanistan. A modest collection of artifacts and manuscripts already existed in the time of King Ḥabib-Allāh (r. 1901–19). In 1931 the collection was finally installed in a building in rural Darulaman (Dār-al-amān), eight kilometers south of Kabul City.

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  • KABUL RIVER

    Andreas Wilde

    in eastern Afghanistan. It forms one of Afghanistan’s four major river systems and is the only Afghan river that flows, as tributary of the Indus, into the sea.

  • KĀČI

    Etrat Elahi and Majdodin Keyvani

    a traditional Persian dish generally made of rice flour, cooking oil, sugar diluted in water, and turmeric or saffron with a sprinkling of golāb (rosewater) to give it a pleasant scent.

  • KADAGISTĀN

    Nicholas Sims-Williams

    an eastern province of the Sasanian empire. The clearest evidence for the existence of such a province is provided by a bulla bearing the impression of a seal.

  • ḴĀDEM MIṮĀQ

    Amir Hossein Pourjavady

    (1907-1958), musician, teacher, conductor, and composer.

  • ḴĀDEM-E BESṬĀMI

    Kioumars Ghereghlou

    , Moḥammad Ṭāher b. Ḥasan, local historian, calligrapher, and poet of the reign of Shah ʿAbbās I.

  • KADIMI

    Ramiyar P. Karanjia

    a Zoroastrian sect (Ar. qadim “old, ancient”). The movement emerged in 18th-century India.

  • KADḴODĀ

    Willem Floor and EIr.

    principal meaning “headman,” from Middle Persian kadag-xwadāy, lit. “head of a household."

  • KADPHISES, KUJULA

    Osmund Bopearachchi

    (1st cent. CE), first Kuṣān king, founder of the Kuṣāna dynasty in Central Asia and India, as indicated by the legend written in Gāndhāri and Kharoṣṭhī.

  • KAEMPFER, ENGELBERT

    Detlef Haberland

    German physician and traveler to Russia, the Orient, and the Far East (1651-1716).

  • KAĒTA

    William W. Malandra

    an Avestan word whose approximate meaning is ‘soothsayer.’

  • KAFIR KALA

    Boris Litvinsky

    (Kāfer Qalʿa), ancient settlement and one of the largest archeological monuments of the Vakhsh river valley, on the western outskirts of Kolkhozabad, Tajikistan. The city (šahrestān) together with the citadel form a square, each side 360 m long, oriented approximately to the cardinal points.

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  • ḴAFRI, ŠAMS-AL-DIN

    George Saliba

    , Moḥammad b. Aḥmad-e Kāši, one of the most competent of all the mathematical astronomers and planetary theorists of medieval Islam (d. 956/1550).

  • KAFTARI WARE

    C. A. Petrie

    distinctive ceramic vessels dated to the late 3rd and early 2nd millennia BCE, primarily found in Fārs.

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  • ḴĀGINA

    Etrat Elahi

    a traditional Persian dish; most of the recipes are very similar to those for making a plain omelet.

  • KAHAK

    Farhad Daftary

    Markazi Province, a village located about 35 km northeast of Anjedān and northwest of Maḥallāt in central Iran, with ruins of a fairly large caravanserai.

  • KAIFENG

    Donald D. Leslie

    medieval capital of the Northern Song dynasty (960-1127) and home of a Judeo-Persian community.

  • KAJAKAY DAM

    Siddieq Noorzoy

    dam built on the Helmand River as a part of the multi-faceted projects aimed at the development of the Helmand Valley.

  • KĀK

    Etrat Elahi and Eir.

    a general term applied to several kinds of flat bread or small, often thin, dry cakes variously shaped and made.

  • KĀKAGI

    Arley Loewen

    the customs and characteristics of a kāka—a vagabond or vigilante characterized by the ideals of chivalry, courage, generosity, and loyalty.

  • KĀKĀʾI

    Philip G. Kreyenbroek

    a term used both for a tribal federation and for a religious group in Iraqi Kurdistan. 

  • KĀKĀVAND

    Pierre Oberling

    a Lor tribe of the Delfān group, settled in the Piškuh region of Luristan (Lorestān), as well as west of Qazvin and in the Ṭārom region.

  • ḴĀKI ḴORĀSĀNI, EMĀMQOLI

    S. J. Badakhchani

    Ismaʿili poet and preacher of 17th-century Persia (d. after 1646). He was born in Dizbād, a village in the hills half way between Mashhad and Nišāpur.

  • ḴĀKSĀR

    Zahra Taheri

    a strictly popular order of Persian dervishes, favored by artisans and shopkeepers. The name “Ḵāksār” (lit. ‘dust-like’) was probably chosen to figuratively denote a lowly, humble, and modest person.

  • KĀKUYIDS

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    [KAKWAYHIDS], a dynasty of Deylamite origin that ruled in western Persia, Jebāl, and Kurdistan about 1008-51 as independent princes.

  • ḴALAF B. AḤMAD

    C. E. Bosworth

    b. Moḥammad, Abu Aḥmad (d. 1009), Amir in Sistān of the “second line” of Saffarids, who ruled between 963 and 1003.

  • KALĀNTAR

    Willem Floor

    “chief, leader,” from the late 15th century onwards, particularly the local official (mayor) in charge of the administration of a town.

  • KALĀRESTĀQ

    Habib Borjian

    (or Kalār-rostāq), and Kalārdašt, historical district in western Māzandarān. i. The District and Sub-District.  ii. The Dialect.

  • KALĀRESTĀQ i. The District and Sub-District

    Habib Borjian

    This predominantly mountainous district extends along the Caspian coast from the Namakābrud (Namakāvarud) river on the west to the Čālus river on the east.

  • KALĀRESTĀQ ii. The Dialect

    Habib Borjian

    The Caspian vernaculars spoken in Kalārestāq, together with those of Tonekābon district, may not be properly classified as either Māzandarāni or Gilaki but serve as a transition between these two language groups.

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  • KALĀT-E NĀDERI

    Xavier de Planhol

    Several references to kalāt in the tragic episode of the young Forud in Ferdowsi’s Šāh-nāma are thought to refer to this. Its earliest mention in historical accounts comes from the Mongol period, when the fourth Il-khan of Iran, Arḡun Khan built a defensive work at the south approach that still bears his name (“Gate of Arḡun”).

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  • KALBĀSI

    Hamid Algar

    Ḥāj Moḥammad Ebrāhim (b. Isfahan, 1766; d. Isfahan, 1845), prominent Oṣuli jurist, influential in the affairs of Isfahan during the reigns of Fatḥ-ʿAli Shah and Moḥammad Shah.

  • ḴĀLEDI, Mehdi

    E. Naḵjavāni

    Persian violinist and songwriter (1919-1990). As a violinist, Ḵāledi was known for his command of traditional Persian music and its innovative interpretation. As a composer, he was admired for the range of his rhythmically varied and elegiac songs.

  • KALEMĀT-E MAKNUNA

    Moojan Momen

    (The Hidden Words), a collection of aphorisms (71 in Arabic and 82 in Persian) by Bahāʾ-Allāh on spiritual and moral themes, dating from 1274/1857-58 and considered one of his most important writings.

  • ḴĀLEQI, RUḤ-ALLĀH

    Hormoz Farhat

    Mirzā ʿAbd-Allāh was an amateur musician whose tār teachers included Āqā Ḥosaynqoli Šahnāzi and Ḡolām-Ḥosayn Darviš Khan. Ruḥ-Allāh’s earliest exposure to music was by way of his father’s casual tār performances at home. As a child, he was, however, more fascinated by the sound of Rokn-al-Din Moḵtār’s violin, which he heard on rare occasions.

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  • KALHOR

    Pierre Oberling

    a Kurdish tribe in the southernmost part of Persian Kurdistan. The last of the great Kalhor chiefs was Dāwud Khan, who ruled the tribe in the early 1900s.

  • KALHOR, Mirzā Mohammad-Reżā

    Maryam Ekhtiar

    (1829-1892), one of the most prominent 19th-century Persian calligraphers, often compared to such great masters of nastaʿliq as Mir ʿAli Heravi and Mir ʿEmād Sayfi Qazvini.

  • ḴALIFA SOLṬĀN

    Rudi Matthee

    (1592/93-1654), grand vizier under Shah ʿAbbās I (r. 1588-1629) and then again under Shah ʿAbbās II (r. 1642-66).

  • ḴALIL SOLṬĀN b. MIRĀNŠĀH b. TIMUR

    Beatrice Forbes Manz

    Timurid ruler (1405-09). He became active in the military on the Indian campaign in 1398-99 and played a prominent part in the seven-year campaign of 1399-1404.

  • ḴALIL, MOḤAMMAD EBRĀHIM

    Wali Ahmadi

    Afghan scribe, calligrapher, poet and historian. Ḵalil studied privately with his parents and excelled in the art of calligraphy, especially the nastaʿliq and šekasta styles.

  • ḴALIL-ALLĀH ŠAH

    Nasrollah Pourjavady

    (or Sayyed) BORHĀN-AL-DIN (b. 1373-74, d. 1455-56), the only son of the Sufi master, Šāh Neʿmat-Allāh Wali of Kermān.

  • KALILA WA DEMNA

    Multiple Authors

    collection of didactic animal fables, with the jackals Kalila and Demna as two of the principal characters.  The story cycle originated in India between 500 BCE and 100 BC, and circulated widely in the Near East.

  • KALILA WA DEMNA i. Redactions and circulation

    Dagmar Riedel

    The circulation of Kalila wa Demna in Persian literature documents how Iran mediated the diffusion of knowledge between the Indian subcontinent and the Mediterranean. The oldest extant versions of the story cycle are preserved in Syriac and Arabic, and originate from the 6th and 8th century, respectively, as translations of a lost Middle Persian version.

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  • KALILA WA DEMNA ii. The translation by Abu’l-Maʿāli Naṣr-Allāh Monši

    Mahmoud Omidsalar

    Naṣr-Allāh’s Persian version of the Kalila wa Dimna is not a translation in the strict sense of the term, but a literary creation in its own right. 

  • KALILA WA DEMNA iii. ILLUSTRATIONS

    Bernard O’Kane

    a collection of didactic animal fables, with the jackals Kalila and Demna as two of the principal characters.

  • ḴALILI, ʿABBĀS

    Hasan Mirabedini

    After the declaration of a general amnesty in Iraq, Abbas began working as an Arabic translator for Raʿd, a newspaper published by Sayyed Żiāʿ-al-Din Ṭabāṭabāʾi. Afterwards, with the help of Sayyed Żiāʾ, he was put in charge of the Baladiya newspaper. He was also involved with Bahār, a Persian literary, scientific, and political monthly.

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  • ḴALILI, ḴALIL-ALLĀH

    Wali Ahmadi

    Ḵalili was born to Moḥammad Ḥosayn Khan Ḵalili, a state treasurer affiliated with the court of Amir Ḥabib-Allāh Khan. He was greatly interested in scholarship, an interest which he inculcated in his son. Upon the murder of the Amir on 19 February 1919, Mostawfi-al-Mamālek was arrested and swiftly executed, and his land and possessions were confiscated.

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  • KALIM KĀŠĀNI

    Daniela Meneghini

    (b. ca. 1581-85, d. 1651), Persian poet and one of the leading exponents of the “Indian style” (sabk-e hendi).

  • KALIMI

    Amnon Netzer

    the word used to refer to the Jews of Iran in modern Persian usage. The word “kalimi” derives from the Arabic root KLM meaning to address, to speak, but the appellation in this context is derived directly from the specific epithet given to the prophet Moses as Kalim-Allāh.

  • ḴALIQ LĀHURI

    Stefano Pello

     Indo-Persian poet of the 18th-century, probably a Sikh.

  • ḴALḴĀLI, Sayyed ʿAbd-al-Raḥim

    Hushang Ettehad and EIr

    Ḵalḵāli remained, to the end of his life, a loyal member of the democratic current and a close confidant of Sayyed Ḥasan Taqizādeh, the leader of the Social Democratic Party (Ferqa-ye ejtemāʿiyun-e ʿāmmiyun) in the First Majles (1906-08), and later of Iran’s Democrat Party (Ferqa-ye demokrāt-e Irān) in the Second Majles.

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  • ḴĀLKUBI

    Willem Floor

    (or ḵāl kubidankabud zadan “tattooing”), that is, making a permanent mark on the skin by inserting a pigment, is one of the oldest methods of body ornamentation.  The earliest evidence of tattoos in the Iranian culture area is the almost completely tattooed body of a Scythian chief in Pazyryk Mound

  • KALLA-PĀČA

    Etrat Elahi

    a traditional dish made of sheep’s head and trotters and cooked over low heat, usually overnight. The combination of one sheep’s head and four trotters is called a set of kalla-pāča.

  • KALLAJUŠ

    Etrat Elahi & EIr.

    an old Iranian dish, also pronounced kālajuškālājuškaljuš in different parts of Iran. The compound term kāljuš is composed of kālmeaning unripe, connoting cooked rare, and juš (boiling).

  • ḴĀLU

    Pierre Oberling

    a small Turkic tribe of Kermān province.  According to the Iranian Army files (1957), this tribe once lived in the vicinity of Bardsir and Māšiz, southwest of Kermān.

  • KALURAZ

    TADAHIKO OHTSU

    Almost all the objects excavated by Hakemi are now kept in Iran National Museum (Tehran). They are exhibited and open to the public. Since they had been archeologically reported only with photographs, in 2005 Japan-Iran joint researchers carried out new archeological studies for about 50 objects from the Kaluraz site.

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  • KAMĀL ḴOJANDI

    Paul Losensky

    (ca. 1320-1401), Persian poet and Sufi also known as Shaikh Kamāl.

  • KAMĀL PĀŠĀ-ZĀDA, ŠAMS-AL-DIN AḤMAD

    T. Yazici

    (1468-1534), prolific Ottoman scholar, author of several works in and on Persian. A native of Edirne, he studied under the local muftiMollā Loṭfi, and subsequently taught at the madrasas of Edirne, Uskup (Skoplje) and Istanbul.

  • KAMAL, REZA

    Cross-Reference

    (better known as Sharzad), dramatist and translator. See SHARZAD.

  • KAMĀL-AL-DIN EṢFAHĀNI

    David Durand-Guédy

    poet from Isfahan, noted for his mastery of the panegyric. His full name is given by Ebn al-Fowaṭi as Kamāl-al-Din Abu’l-Fażl Esmāʿil b. Abi Moḥammad ʿAbd-Allāh b. ʿAbd-al-Razzāq al-Eṣfahāni.

  • KAMĀL-AL-DIN ḤOSAYN

    Colin Paul Mitchell

    ḤĀFEŻ-E HARAVI, a prominent Safavid calligrapher during the reign of Shah Tˈahmāsp I (r. 1524-76).

  • KAMĀL-AL-MOLK, MOḤAMMAD ḠAFFĀRI

    A. Ashraf with Layla Diba

    (ca. 1859–1940), Iranian painter of the European academic style during the late Qajar and early Pahlavi periods. He descended from a family that had produced a number of artists since the Afsharid period, including his paternal great-grandfather, Mirzā Abu’l-Ḥasan Mostawfi, a court painter during the reign of Nāder Shah Afshar (r. 1736-47) and Karim Khan Zand (r. 1750-79).

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  • KAMĀLI BOḴĀRĀʾI

    Nasrollah Pourjavady

    , ʿAmid Kamāl-al-Din, a court poet, musician, and calligrapher at the court of Sultan Sanjar, the Saljuqid king (r. 1097-1118), during his rule in Khorasan.

  • KAMĀNČA

    Stephen Blum

    The kamānča has a spherical sound cavity of mulberry or walnut wood, covered with sheepskin. Most instruments have four steel strings and are played with a horsehair bow. As the name of the Iraqi joza suggests, its sound cavity is made of coconut, covered with sheepskin or fish skin.

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  • KĀMI AḤMED ÇELEBI

    Osman G. Özgüdenlī

    Ottoman scholar, judge, writer, and translator. He was born in Edirne (his birth date is unknown) and known as Mesnevi-hānzāde (Maṯnawi-ḵvānzāda).

  • KĀMI MEHMED-I KARAMĀNI

    Osman G. Özgüdenlī

    Ottoman scholar, judge, poet, and translator. He was born in Karaman (Qaramān) in central Anatolia.

  • ḴAMĪS DYNASTY

    Cross-Reference

    See ĀL-E ḴAMĪS.

  • KĀMRĀN B. SHAH MAḤMUD

    Christine Nöelle-Karimi

    Sadōzāy ruler of Herat (r. 1826-42). His career coincided with the waning of Sadōzāy power and the rise of the Moḥammadzāy dynasty in the 1820s.

  • KĀMRĀN MIRZĀ

    Sunil Sharma

    In his Haft eqlim, Aḥmad Amin-Rāzi devotes a long section to Kāmrān Mirzā in which he extols the prince’s bravery, generosity, and piety. The historian Badāʾuni also praises him as a courageous and learned man, renowned as a poet, but who was led to ruin by excessive drinking, while Abu’l-Fażl portrays him as a treacherous ingrate.

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  • ḴAMSA OF NEẒĀMI

    Domenico Parrello

    the quintet of narrative poems for which Neẓāmi Ganjavi (1141-1209) is universally acclaimed.

  • ḴAMSA TRIBE

    Pierre Oberling

    a tribal confederacy formed in the 19th century comprising five large tribes in Fārs province.

  • ḴAMSA-ye AMIR ḴOSROW

    Sunil Sharma

    a quintet of poems in the mathnawi form written by Amir Ḵosrow between 1298 and 1302, as a response to Neẓāmi’s immensely popular Panj ganj (Five Treasures).

  • ḴAMSA-ye JAMĀLI

    Paola Orsatti

    a suite of five mathnawis, composed in response to the Ḵamsa by Neẓāmi (1141-1209). This Ḵamsa exists in a unique manuscript in the India Office Library, London.

  • KAMSARAKAN

    C. Toumanoff

    Armenian noble family that was an offshoot of the Kāren Pahlav, one of the seven great houses of Iran claiming Arsacid origin.

  • Ḵān-e Ārezu, Serāj-al-din ʿAli

    Prashant Keshavmurthy

    (1688-1756), a Persian-language philologist, lexicographer, literary critic and poet from North India.

  • ḴĀNĀ QOBĀDI

    Philip G. Kreyenbroek and Parwin Mahmoudweyssi

    (fl. ca.1700-1759 or 1778), Gurāni poet and one of the major members of the school of Gurāni poetry that is said to have been founded by Yusof Yaskā.

  • ḴĀNA-YE EDRISIHĀ

    SOHEILA SAREMI

    Ḵāna-ye Edrisihā is told from the alternating perspectives of four people: Mrs. Edrisi, symbol of a lost aristocracy; her daughter Laqā, trapped in a tangled web of old beliefs, traditions, and customs; her intellectual grandson Vahhāb, living a miserable life in an ocean of books; and Yāvar, the faithful servant, living in past memories.

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  • KANAF

    Bahram Grami

    (Hibiscus cannabinus L.), an annual herbaceous plant of the Malvaceae family, yielding a soft fiber from the stem bark. Its fiber is used primarily for making gunnysacks and burlap. The first gunny mill (guni bāfi) in Persia was established in 1933 in Rašt by the private sector.

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  • ḴĀNAQĀH

    Gerhard Böwering and Matthew Melvin-Koushki

    an Islamic institution and physical establishment, principally reserved for Sufi dervishes to meet, reside, study, and assemble and pray together as a group in the presence of a Sufi master (Arabic, šayḵ, Persian, pir), who is teacher, educator, and leader of the group.

  • KANDAHAR

    Multiple Authors

    the second most important city in the country and the capital of Kandahar province. This entry is divided into seven parts: i. Historical geography to 1979.  ii. Pre-Islamic monuments and remains. iii. Early Islamic period.  iv. From the Mongol invasion through the Safavid era.  v. In the 19th century.  vi. 20th century, 1901-73.  vii. From 1973 to the present.

  • KANDAHAR i. Historical Geography to 1979

    Xavier de Planhol

    The oasis clearly was destined to give rise to a major city that would control these rich lands with their grain fields, orchards, and gardens and manage the irrigation system they required. This urban center naturally was situated near the top of the alluvial cone, where the Arḡandāb river runs from the mountains.

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  • KANDAHAR ii. Pre-Islamic Monuments and Remains

    Gérard Fussman

    The ancient city of Kandahar lay along the Qaytul ridge, west of the modern city and was emptied of its population by Nāder Shah in 1738.

  • KANDAHAR iii. Early Islamic Period

    Minoru Inaba

    Kandahar and its surroundings have been an important junction connecting Iran and India since ancient times.

  • KANDAHAR iv. From The Mongol Invasion Through the Safavid Era

    Rudi Matthee and Hiroyuki Mashita

    There are various reasons why, despite the manifest weaknesses of the Safavid army, Kandahar surrendered to the Safavids.

  • KANDAHAR v. In the 19th Century

    Shah Mahmoud Hanifi

    city in southern Afghanistan (lat 31°36′28″ N, long 65°42′19″ E), the second most important in the country and the capital of Kandahar province.

  • KANDAHAR vi. 20th Century, 1901-73

    M. Jamil Hanifi

    city in southern Afghanistan (lat 31°36′28″ N, long 65°42′19″ E). Kandahar expanded substantially during the second half of the 20th century by attracting rural labor and by developing new residential quarters (šahr-e naw) and public buildings. 

  • KANDAHAR vii. From 1973 to the Present

    Antonio Giustozzi

    Mohammad Daoud Khan took power in July 1973, his ban on party political activities hit Kandahar too.

  • ḴANDAQ

    Michael G. Morony

    a Persian loanword in Arabic meaning a trench or a moat (lit. “dug”), possibly also a wall or an enclosure.

  • KANGA, MANECK FARDOONJI

    Firoze M. Kotwal and Jamsheed K. Choksy

    (1908-1988), Parsi scholar of Zoroastrianism and Iranian languages. He held the position of Secretary of the K. R. Cama Oriental Institute in Bombay for 15 years and edited its Journal. He served as Professor of Avestan Studies at the University of Bombay. Kanga was also a member of the board of Ancient Studies at the University of Allahabad, and of the Vaidika Saṁśodhana Maṇḍala (Vedic Research Institute) at Pune.

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  • KANGARLU

    P. OBERLING

    a Turkic tribe of Azerbaijan and the Qom-Verāmin region of central Persia. 

  • KANGAVAR

    Wolfram Kleiss

    town in eastern Kermanshah Province, on the modern road from Hamadan to Kermanshah, identical with a trace of the silk road. Isidorus of Charax (1st century CE) referred to it as Congobar and mentioned a temple of Anāhitā (Anaitis) there. The site has ruins of debated date and nature.

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  • KANGDEZ

    Pavel Lurje

    (lit. “Fortress of Kang,”), a mythical, paradise-like fortress in Iranian folklore. There are different and often contradictory descriptions of Kang, Kangdež and several similar place names in Pahlavi literature and the epics of the Islamic period.

  • KANI, ḤĀJ MOLLĀ ʿALI

    Hamid Algar

    Shiʿi scholar whose power and prominence in the affairs of Tehran for more than four decades earned him the semi-official title of raʾis al-mojtahedin (“chief of the mojtaheds”), as well as accusations of inordinate greed.

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  • KANJAKI

    Nicholas Sims-Williams

    language mentioned in the 11th-century Turkish lexicon of Maḥmud al-Kāšḡari as being spoken in the villages near Kāšḡar.

  • ḴĀNOM

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    a title for highborn women in the pre-modern Turkish and Persian worlds. In early Islamic Turkish, it was used for a khan’s wife or a princess, hence as a higher title than begüm.

  • KĀNUN-E PARVAREŠ-E FEKRI-E KUDAKĀN VA NOWJAVĀNĀN

    Fereydoun Moezi Moghadam

    an institute with a wide range of cultural, artistic, and educational activities for children and adolescents, founded in December 1965.

  • KĀNUN-E PARVAREŠ-E FEKRI-E KUDAKĀN VA NOWJAVĀNĀN i. Establishment of Kanun

    Fereydoun Moezi Moghadam

    Kanun’s goal was to produce and offer support and services for children in better settings than the grim and austere school classrooms, namely, in newly built and colorful centers where children would be welcomed by their own specialized librarians and artistic guides. Here children could study or borrow books, view movies, and take art classes.

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  • KĀNUN-E PARVAREŠ-E FEKRI-E KUDAKĀN VA NOWJAVĀNĀN ii. Libraries

    Fereydoun Moezi Moghadam

    A children’s library, conceived by the founders of Kanun as a pilot project for future libraries, was approved, and construction began in 1965.

  • KĀNUN-E PARVAREŠ-E FEKRI-E KUDAKĀN VA NOWJAVĀNĀN ii. Libraries

    Fereydoun Moezi Moghadam

    an institute with a wide range of cultural, artistic, and educational activities for children and adolescents, founded under the patronage of Queen (Shahbanou) Farah Pahlavi in December 1965.

  • KĀNUN-E PARVAREŠ-E FEKRI-E KUDAKĀN VA NOWJAVĀNĀN iii. Book Publishing

    Fereydoun Moezi Moghadam

    Shirvanlu, rightly convinced that the few already known children’s writers were not the sole answer to Kanun’s children’s book project, approached many writers of adult literature—novelists, translators, dramatists, essayists in social sciences, and scholars in humanities—and invited them to try their hand in this new field.

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  • KĀNUN-E PARVAREŠ-E FEKRI-E KUDAKĀN VA NOWJAVĀNĀN iv. International Film Festivals

    Fereydoun Moezi Moghadam

    Many world-renowned puppet, animation, mixed live and animation style, feature, and documentary film artists and masters such as Hermina Tirlova, Raoul Serve, Saul Bass, Karel Zeman, Burt Hanstra, Jacques Tati, John Halas, Richard Williams, and Jiri Skolimovski were invited to include their films in competition or to participate as International Jury members for the festivals.

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  • KĀNUN-E PARVAREŠ-E FEKRI-E KUDAKĀN VA NOWJAVĀNĀN v. Film Production: 1970-77

    Fereydoun Moezi Moghadam

    Kanun productions were the first experience of film direction for a number of today’s best-known Iranian directors, including Abbas Kiarostami, Bahrām Beyzāʾi, Sohrab Šahid-ṯāleṯ, Moḥammad-Reżā Aṣlāni, Nāṣer Taqvāʾi, and Amir Nāderi. All internationally recognized Iranian animation film directors started their work at Kanun, and many have continued to cooperate with it.

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  • KĀNUN-E PARVAREŠ-E FEKRI-E KUDAKĀN VA NOWJAVĀNĀN vi. Music and Sound Production

    Fereydoun Moezi Moghadam

    In less than eight years, thanks in no small part to the talent and perseverance of Aḥmadi and his small team, the Center for the Production of Records and Cassettes for Children and Young Adults (Markaz-e tahiye-ye navār va ṣafḥ-e barā-ye kudakān va nowjavānān) produced five collections of quality recordings.

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  • KĀNUN-E PARVAREŠ-E FEKRI-E KUDAKĀN VA NOWJAVĀNĀN vii. Visual Arts Training Center

    Fereydoun Moezi Moghadam

    The impact of the Visual Arts Training Center on the preparation of youngsters who were interested in artistic domains should not be underestimated. Through this initiative, after the Revolution, an array of young artists were introduced to the Iranian public, and the work of many of them has been praised worldwide.

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  • KĀNUN-E PARVAREŠ-E FEKRI-E KUDAKĀN VA NOWJAVĀNĀN viii. The Pioneers and Promoters

    Fereydoun Moezi Moghadam

    Aḥmad-Reżā Aḥmadi, avant-garde poet, started as a writer for Kanun with the book “I have something to say that only you children would believe,” 1971. He was appointed as manager of the sound recording production section at the encouragement and behest of Kanun’s managing director in 1970. He became an promoter for Kanun’s music collections.

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  • KĀNUN-E PARVAREŠ-E FEKRI-E KUDAKĀN VA NOWJAVĀNĀN ix. From 1979 to 2009: An Overview

    Fereydoun Moezi Moghadam

    Due to Iran’s rapid urbanization and in order to cope with the increasing demands for cultural centers, Kanun needed to develop and to expand its centers.

  • KAPADIA, DINSHAH DORABJI

    Burzine K. Waghmar

    Parsi scholar and educator. He was promoted in 1919 as a commissioner of the Indian Educational Service and taught mathematics in Poona and Bombay.

  • ḴĀQĀNI ŠERVĀNI

    Anna Livia Beelaert

    a major Persian poet and prose writer (b. Šervān, ca. 521/1127; d. Tabriz, between 582/1186-87 and 595/1199).

  • ḴĀQĀNI ŠERVĀNI i. Life

    Anna Livia Beelaert

    (1127-1186/1199), major Persian poet and prose writer.

  • ḴĀQĀNI ŠERVĀNI ii. Works

    Anna Livia Beelaert

    a major Persian poet and prose writer (b. Šervān, ca. 521/1127; d. Tabriz, between 582/1186-87 and 595/1199). Ḵāqāni’s fame rests on his qaṣidas, of which, in Żiāʾ-al-Din Sajjādi’s edition, there are one hundred and thirty-two.

  • KĀR-NĀMA-YE BALḴ

    J. T . P. de Bruijn

    a short maṯnavi by Sanāʾi of Ghazna (d. 1131), containing panegyric as well as satirical verses addressed to, or describing, people from various layers of Ghaznavid society.

  • KĀR-NĀMAG Ī ARDAŠĪR Ī PĀBAGĀN

    C. G. CERETI

    short prose work written in Middle Persian. It narrates the Sasanian king Ardašīr I’s life story—his rise to the throne, battle against the Parthian king Ardawān, and conquest of the empire. 

  • KARABALGASUN

    Toshio Hayashi, Y. Yoshida

    or Khar Balgas “Black ruined city” in Mongolian. This entry consists of two sections: i. The site  ii. The inscription.

  • KARABALGASUN i. The Site

    Toshio Hayashi

    archeological site of a capital of the Uighur Khaghanate (second half of the 8th century to first half of the 9th century). Karabalgasun is located in the Orkhon valley, 320 km west of Ulan Bator (Ulaanbaatar), 30 km north of Karakorum.

  • KARABALGASUN ii. The Inscription

    Y. Yoshida

    The trilingual inscription at Karabalgasun, in Old Turkic, Sogdian, and Chinese, of the eighth Uighur qaghan in Mongolia commemorates the qaghan’s (Old Turkic ḵaḡan, qaḡan) own military achievements and those of his predecessors.

  • KARAFTO CAVES

    Hubertus von Gall

    an ensemble of artificially cut rock chambers dated to the 4th or 3rd century BCE, in Kordestān Province, 20 km west of Takab. The site is of considerable importance because of its Greek inscription, one of the very few examples preserved in situ in Persia.

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  • KARĀʾI

    P. Oberling

    a Turkic-speaking tribe of Azerbaijan, Khorasan, Kermān and Fārs.

  • KARAJ

    Multiple Authors

    a town in Tehran province, located 36 km west of the city of Tehran on the western bank of the Karaj River (lat 35° 46ʹ N, long 50° 49ʹ E; elev., 1,360 m).

  • KARAJ i. Modern City

    Bernard Hourcade

    The area of Karaj has been inhabited since the Bronze Age at Tepe Khurvin, and the Iron Age at Kalāk on the left bank of the Karaj River.

  • KARAJ ii. Population

    Habibollah Zanjani

    Since the 1976 census, when Tehran was no longer counted within the boundaries of Central (Markazi) province and formed its own province, Karaj has been one of its sub-provinces. Originally a relatively large sub-province, Karaj was reduced to its current size when its former townships of Sāvojbolāq, Šahriār, Rebāṭ Karim, and Naẓarābād gradually separated.

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  • KARAJ DAM

    Cross-reference

    See AMIR KABIR DAM (forthcoming online).

  • KARAJ RIVER

    Bernard Hourade

    the second major permanent river of the central Iranian plateau after the Zāyandarud river.

  • KARAKI

    Rula Jurdi Abisaab

    Nur-al-Din Abu’l-Ḥasan ʿAli b. Ḥosayn b. ʿAbd-al-ʿĀli, known as Moḥaqqeq al-Ṯāni or Moḥaqqeq ʿAli (1464-1533), a major Imamite jurist.

  • KARĀMA

    Erik S. Ohlander

    “(saintly) marvel, wonder, or miracle” in Arabic (pl. karāmāt).

  • KARAPAN

    William Malandra

    (or Karpan), designation of members of a class of daivic priests opposed to the religion of Zarathustra.

  • KARBALA

    Meir Litvak

    a city in Iraq, situated about 90 km southwest of Baghdad. It is one of the four Shiʿite shrine cities (with Najaf, Kāẓemayn, and Sāmarrāʾ) in Iraq known in Shʿite Islam as ʿatabāt-e ʿaliāt or ʿatabāt-e moqaddasa.

  • KÁRDAKES

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    the name of a Persian military unit mentioned several times by Greek and Roman authors, nearly always in relation to the Achaemenid period (cf. Huyse, p. 199, n. 6).

  • KĀRGĀNRUD

    Cross-Reference

    the northernmost and largest of the five traditional Ṭāleš khanates (Ḵamsa-ye Ṭavāleš) in western Gilān.

  • KARGAR, DARIUSH

    Forogh Hashabeiky and Behrooz Sheyda

    (1953-2012), Iranist, fiction writer, and journalist. Kargar’s later works of fiction, written in Sweden, participate in the more modern spectrum of writing in the twentieth century and are characterized by his experimentations with disrupted chronology, non-linear plots, and interrupted language reminiscent of stream of consciousness.

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  • KĀRGOZĀR

    Morteza Nouraei

    a term used from the early 19th century until the abolishment of capitulation (kāpitulāsion) in 1927 to refer specifically to an agent of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, who was charged with regulating relations between Iranian subjects and foreigners.

  • KARIM DEVONA

    Keith Hitchins

    pen-name of Abdul-Karim Qurbon, Tajik folk poet (1878-1918).

  • KARIM KHAN ZAND

    John R. Perry

    (ca. 1705-1779), “The Wakil,” ruler of Persia (except Khorasan) from Shiraz during 1751-79. The Zand were a pastoral tribe of the Lak branch of the northern Lors, ranging between the inner Zagros and the Hamadān plains, centered on the villages of Pari and Kamāzān in the vicinity of Malāyer.

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  • KĀRIZ i. Terminology

    Xavier de Planhol

    underground irrigation canals, also called qanāt. The kārēz conducts water from the level of an aquifer to the open air by means of simple gravity in order to distribute it to lower areas.

  • KĀRIZ ii. Technology

    Xavier de Planhol

    The technology of kārēz exploits a difference in grade between a tunnel and the groundwater table. The grade of the tunnel is less steep than the grade of the water table, so that the tunnel ends at an elevation distinctly higher than that of the water table. In Iran the average grade may be around 0.5 percent.

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  • KĀRIZ iii. Economic and Social Contexts

    Xavier de Planhol

    The major significance of the kārēz lies in its continuous discharge throughout the year. In contrast, irrigation systems that rely on surface water runoff can completely cease to discharge water during the dry season. The continuous discharge, however, needs be distinguished from a constant discharge. Significant seasonal variations can be observed.

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  • KĀRIZ iv. Origin and Dissemination

    Xavier de Planhol

    One very common technique is an underflow channel in a river valley. The underflow channel captures water from the shallow aquifer formed by seepage from the watercourse, whether it be intermittent or continuous. This technique is always subject to significant variations, because it depends on the surface flow.

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  • KĀRIZ v. Kārēz in the Late 20th Century and Their Prospects

    Xavier de Planhol

    In 1990 it was estimated that the kārēz technique supplied water to around 1.5 million hectares of the planet’s total irrigated surface area, which constituted only the minor portion of approximately 0.6 percent.

  • KARḴEH RIVER

    Eckart Ehlers

    the third longest river in Iran after the rivers Karun and Safidrud, flowing in the western provinces of the country. It rises from the Zagros mountain range. 

  • KARNĀ

    Stephen Blum

    designation of three types of musical instrument, the most prestigious being long trumpets made of brass, gold, silver, or other metals. Two regional instruments of Iran are also called karnā. Like the metal karnā, the long reed trumpet of Gilān and Māzandarān (also known as derāznāy “long reed”) lacks fingerholes and can produce only partials of the fundamental tone. 

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  • KARRĀMIYA

    Aron Zysow

    the adherents to a theological and legal movement with a broad following in Khorasan and Afghanistan from the 10th to the 13th centuries, with its intellectual center in Nishapur (Nišāpur). 

  • KARSĀSP

    Prods Oktor Skjærvø

    Avestan dragon-slayer, son of Sāma, and eschatological hero. In the Pahlavi and Zoroastrian Persian traditions, several heroic feats are connected with him.

  • KARSĪVAZ

    Prods Oktor Skjærvø, Mahmoud Omidsalar

    in the old Iranian epic tradition the brother of the Turanian king, Afrāsiāb, and the man most responsible for the murder of the Iranian prince Siāvaš. 

  • KART DYNASTY

    Cross-Reference

    See ĀL-E KART.

  • KARTIR

    Prods Oktor Skjærvø

    a prominent Zoroastrian priest  in the second half of the 3rd century CE, known from his inscriptions and mentioned in Middle Persian, Parthian, and Coptic Manichean texts.

  • KARTLI

    George Sanikidze

    region occupying most of eastern Georgia. The original name of Georgia (Sakartvelo) and the Georgian people (Kartvelebi) derive from Kartli. 

  • KARUN RIVER i. Geography and Hydrology, ii

    Habib Borjian

    the largest river and the only navigable waterway in Iran. It rises in the Baḵtiāri Zagros mountains west of Isfahan, flows out of the central Zagros range, traverses the Khuzestan plain, and joins the Shatt al-Arab. before the latter discharges into the Persian Gulf.

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  • KARUN RIVER iii. The Opening of the Karun

    Shabaz Shahnavaz

    With the intensification of the Anglo-Russian rivalry in the late 1800s over Iran’s geopolitical position and commercial resources, Great Britain began to exert immense pressure on the shah’s government to provide it with access to the Karun trade route. 

  • KĀŠĀNI, ʿABD-AL-RAZZĀQ KHAN

    Mangol Bayat

    18th-century governor of Kashan under the Zand dynasty. 

  • KĀŠĀNI, SAYYED ABU’L-QĀSEM

    Ali Rahnema

    (1877-1962), the leading political cleric during the critical period of 1941-53. Until the departure of Reza Shah in 1941, Kāšāni stayed on the sidelines of domestic Iranian politics. The 21-year-old Mohammad Reza Shah ascended to his father’s throne on 16 September. On 8 October, Kāšāni voiced his grievances to Moḥammad ʿAli Foruḡi, the prime minister. In a letter, Kāšāni emphasized the necessity of applying the “divine laws.”

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  • KĀŠEF ŠIRĀZI

    J. T . P. de Bruijn

    Persian writer on ethics and poet of the Safavid period (b. Karbalā, ca. 1592; d. Ray, ca. 1653). 

  • KĀŠEF-AL-ḠEṬĀʾ, JAʿFAR

    Hamid Algar

    (1743-1812), Shiʿi scholar and jurist, broadly influential in both Iraq and Persia. His cognomen, meaning “remover of the veil,” alludes to one of his best known works.

  • KĀŠEF-AL-ḠEṬĀʾ, MOḤAMMAD ḤOSAYN

    Hamid Algar

    (1877-1954), descendant of the great Shiʿite jurist of the early Qajar period, Sheikh Jaʿfar Kāšef-al-Ḡeṭāʾ, prodigious and versatile author, teacher, and lecturer.

  • KĀŠEF-AL-SALṬANA

    Ranin Kazemi

    also known as Čāykār (tea planter), Qajar diplomat, reformer, author, constitutionalist, and promoter of tea cultivation (1865-1929)

  • KĀŠEFI

    Osman G. Özgüdenlı

    (d. 15th century), author of the epic poem Ḡazā-nāma-ye Rum on the lives of the Ottoman sultans Morād II (r. 1421-44 and 1446-51) and Moḥammad II (r. 1444-46 and 1451-81).

  • KĀŠEFI, KAMĀL-AL-DIN ḤOSAYN WĀʿEẒ

    M. E . Subtelny

    prolific prose-stylist of the Timurid era, religious scholar, Sufi figure, and influential preacher (b. Sabzavār, ca. 1436-37; d. Herat, 1504-5).

  • KĀSEMI, NOṢRAT-ALLĀH

    Mostafa Alamouti and EIr.

    (1908-1996), physician, poet, writer, orator, and politician.

  • KAŠF AL-ASRĀR

    Cross-reference

    wa ʿoddat al-abrār of Abu’l-Fażl Rašid-al-Dīn Meybodi. See MEYBODI.

  • KAŠF AL-LOḠĀT WA’L-EṢṬELĀḤĀT

    Solomon Bayevsky

    (Revealing [of the meaning] of words and terminology), title of a Persian dictionary compiled in India before 1608.

  • KAŠF AL-MAḤJUB of Hojviri

    Jawid Mojaddedi

    the only surviving work of Abu’l-Ḥasan ʿAli b. ʿOṯmān Hojviri (d. between 1073 and 1077) and the oldest surviving independent manual of Sufism written in Persian.

  • KAŠF AL-MAḤJUB of Sejzi

    Hermann Landolt

    (“Unveiling the hidden”), the Persian version of an Ismaʿili treatise originally written in Arabic by the 10th century dāʾi. 

  • KAŠF AL-ẒONUN

    Kioumars Ghereghlou

    (“Unveiling of suppositions”), a major bibliographical dictionary in Arabic, composed by Kāteb Čelebi Moṣṭafā b. ʿAbd-Allāh, also known as Ḥāji Ḵalifa (1609-57).

  • KAŠF O ŠOHUD

    Cyrus Ali Zargar

    (“unveiling and witnessing”), terms commonly used by Muslim mystics to describe the acquisition of esoteric knowledge and the constant first-hand encountering of the divine presence. 

  • KAŠF-E ḤEJĀB

    Cross-reference

    See VEILING AND UNVEILING. Forthcoming.

  • KAŠFI, MIR MOḤAMMAD ṢĀLEḤ ḤOSAYNI

    Sunil Sharma

    (d. 1651), calligrapher and poet in Mughal India. Authored several works in verse and prose.

  • KĀŠḠARI, SAʿD-AL-DIN

    Hamid Algar

    (d. 1456), propagator of the Naqšbandi order in Timurid Herat, noteworthy primarily as the initiator ofʿAbd-al-Ramān Jāmi into the path.

  • KASHAN

    Multiple Authors

    historical city and a sub-province of the province of Isfahan on the north-south axial route of central Iran (lat 33° 59ʹ 30ʹʹ N, long 51° 27ʹ 00ʹʹ E; elev. 950 m).

  • KASHAN i. GEOGRAPHY

    Habibollah Zanjani and EIr.

    Kashan is poor in flora and fauna. The most typical plants are bushes and shrubs spreading over the steppes, but the landscape becomes richer with increased elevation. Characteristic trees are pine, cypress, black poplar, elm, and ash. Most of the highland’s small forests are already extinct, as the trees have been burned for charcoal.

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  • KASHAN ii. HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY

    Xavier de Planhol

    Geographic foundations and the origins of the urban area. To the northeast of the well-watered mountain ranges of western and southern Iran, a line of bountiful oases which have given rise to important urban areas stretches along the piedmont bordering the desert basins of central and southeastern Iran.

  • KASHAN iii. HISTORY

    Pending

    Pending online.

  • KASHAN iv. POPULATION

    Habibollah Zanjani

    In terms of the distribution of population, in line with the general trends in Iran’s demography, the urban population in Kashan has continued to increase, while the rural population has steadily decreased. Such trends have been more significantly felt in Kashan Sub-province than the rest of the country.

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  • KASHAN v. ARCHITECTURE (1) URBAN DESIGN

    Mohammad- Reza Haeri and EIr.

    The city of Kashan, similar to other older Iranian cities, preserved its traditional architectural features and urban design into the early 20th century.

  • KASHAN v. ARCHITECTURE (2) HISTORICAL MONUMENT

    Mohammad- Reza Haeri and EIr.

    The Zayn-al-Din Minaret is a rare Kashan landmark surviving from the Saljuqid period, built by Ḵᵛāja Zayn-al-Din. Despite its historical significance, the minaret has suffered from lack of proper maintenance. Its height, which is recorded at one time to have reached 47 meters, is now only about 22 meters.

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  • KASHAN v. ARCHITECTURE (3) TRADITIONAL ARCHITECTURE

    Mohammad- Reza Haeri and EIr.

    In line with the trend towards modernization in Iran’s recent history, most residential houses built by the middle classes in Kashan since 1950 comprise all or some of the following units: entrance, courtyard, living room, reception room, kitchen, lavatory, bath, bedroom, storage, staircase, and hall.

  • KASHAN v. ARCHITECTURE (4) HISTORIC MANSIONS

    EIr.

    The city of Kashan boasts at least nineteen historic mansions that are well preserved; they are presented in the first volume of the Ganjnameh devoted to these structures. The design and major components of historic mansions follow the general pattern of traditional architecture, but with larger spaces and more detailed architectural craftsmanship and luxurious elements.

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  • KASHAN vi. THE ESBANDI FESTIVAL

    Habib Borjian

    An elaborate festival held in the Kashan region on the eve of the month Esfand.

  • KASHAN vii. KASHAN WARE

    Pending

    Kashan ware will be discussed in a future online entry.

  • KASHAN viii. RELIGIOUS COMMUNITIES (1) JEWISH COMMUNITY

    Mehrdad Amanat

    This sub-entry is devided into two sections: (1) Jewish community. (2) Bahai community.

  • KASHAN viii. RELIGIOUS COMMUNITIES (2) BAHAI COMMUNITY

    Mehrdad Amanat

    Like many Bahai communities in Iran, Kashan Bahais can trace their roots to the early years of the Babi movement.

  • KASHAN ix. THE MEDIAN DIALECTS OF KASHAN

    Habib Borjian

    In the past few decades, rural Kashan has rapidly been shifting to Persian. Most villages have already been partly or entirely persianized, and practically all Rāji speakers are bilingual. A distribution of the Rāji-speaking places is known from a survey conducted in the 1970s for individual rural districts of Isfahan Province.

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  • KASHAN ix. THE MEDIAN DIALECTS OF KASHAN (2) URBAN JEWISH DIALECT

    Habib Borjian

    Kashan may be characterized as exclusively Persian speaking and Muslim from the time when the city was abandoned by its Jewry, who spoke a variety of Central dialects.

  • KASHGAR

    Pavel Lurje

    (Kāšḡar), town in Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region in northwestern China, in the westernmost extremity of the Tarim Basin.

  • KASHMIR

    Multiple Authors

    This entry is divided into five articles: i. Introduction. ii. Persian language in Kashmir. iii. Persian language in the state administration. iv. Persian elements in Kashmiri. v. Persian influence on Kashmiri art.

  • KASHMIR i. INTRODUCTION

    Siegfried Weber

    Iranian influence in and beyond the region of Kashmir is a long-term phenomenon. Inscriptions in Sogdian, Parthian, and Middle Persian demonstrate pre-Islamic contacts there with Iranian-speakers.

  • KASHMIR ii. PERSIAN LANGUAGE IN KASHMIR

    Siegfried Weber

    Persian was the basis of administrations all over western Asia and the highly prestigious language at the courts. Hence, Persian learning radiated into Kashmir and found a fertile soil after the initial impulse.

  • KASHMIR iii. PERSIAN LANGUAGE IN THE STATE ADMINISTRATION

    Siegfried Weber

    Officially Persian became the court language in Kashmir during the 14th and 15th centuries.

  • KASHMIR iv. Persian Elements in Kashmiri

    Omkar N. Koul

    With the establishment of Muslim rule in Northwest India in the 11th century, Perso-Arabic words seeped into native Indian vocabulary. Kashmir is said to have had cultural and trade relations with Persia from ancient times, but the influence of Persian language and culture did not dominate until the introduction of Islam during the 14th century.

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  • KASHMIR v. PERSIAN INFLUENCE ON KASHMIRI ART

    Mehrdad Shokoohy

    The Iranian influence on the art and architecture of Kashmir is indirect, appearing in ancient times via Hellenistic and Kushan culture and later through Muslim India. 

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  • KASHTARITI

    M. Dandamayev

    (kaš-ta-ri-ti, Old Iranian Khshathrita), a city lord of Karkashshi in the Central Zagros mountains. during the reign of the Assyrian king Esarhaddon (680–669 BCE).

  • KĀŠI

    Cross-Reference

    and Kāšisāzi. See CERAMICS xiv. THE ISLAMIC PERIOD, 11TH-15TH CENTURIES.

  • KĀŠI, ḠIĀṮ-AL-DIN

    George Saliba

    ḠIĀṮ-AL-DIN JAMŠID B. MASʿUD B. MOḤAMMAD (ca. 1386-1429), mathematician, astronomer, and scientific instrument-maker of the highest rank.

  • KĀŠI, MUSĀ KHAN

    Houman Sarshar

    Jewish master of Persian classical music, teacher, and innovative kamānča player also known for his mellow singing voice.

  • ḴAṢIBI

    Yaron Friedman

    (d. 969), founder of Noṣayrism. The mystical Shiʿite sect whose present-day followers in Syria and southern Turkey call themselves ʿAlawis.

  • KAŠK

    Francoise Aubaile-Sallenave

    (Ar. kešk, Turk. keşk), Persian term used primarily for a popular processed dairy food but also applied to various grain products, both in Iran and widely in the Middle East.

  • KAŠKUL

    Pending

    an oval-shaped bowl carried by dervishes. Forthcoming online.

  • KAŠKUL-E ŠAYḴ BAHĀʾI

    Devin J. Stewart

    the title of a large literary anthology compiled by Shaikh Bahāʾ-al-Din Moḥammad ʿĀmeli, commonly known as Shaikh Bahāʾi, the gifted polymath and leading jurist of the Safavid empire during most of the reign of Shah ʿAbbās I (r. 1587-1629).

  • KAŠKULI BOZORG

    Pierre Oberling

    one of the five major tribes of the Qashqāʾi (Qašqāʾi) tribal confederacy of Fārs province.

  • KASMĀʾI, MIRZĀ ḤOSAYN

    Pezhmann Dailami

    (1862-1921), a constitutionalist active in the revolutionary movement in Gilan (1915-20), led by Mirzā Kuček Khan Jangali.

  • KAŠMIRI, BADR-AL-DIN

    Devin Deweese

    a prolific writer active in Central Asia during the second half of the 16th century; he was closely linked with the eminent Juybāri shaikhs of Boḵārā.

  • KASRAVI, AḤMAD

    Multiple Authors

    influential social thinker, prominent historian, a pioneer of Iran’s linguistic studies, well-known social and religious reformer with a sense of prophetic mission, and prolific author.

  • KASRAVI, AḤMAD i. LIFE AND WORK

    Ali Reżā Manafzadeh

    born in Ḥokmāvār, a poor rural quarter in the suburbs of Tabriz, to Ḥāji Mir Qāsem, a small merchant in a family of religious functionaries.

  • KASRAVI, AḤMAD ii. ASSASSINATION

    Moḥammad Amini

    The surge in activities of Islamic groups and the intensification of the rhetoric of mullahs at mosques coincided with the escalation and sharpening of Kasravi’s criticism of the foundation of Shiʿite concepts and values.

  • KASRAVI, AḤMAD iii. AS HISTORIAN

    Alireza Manafzadeh

    At the time when Kasravi began to write history, most historical research in Iran was carried out within the framework of political historiography with a nationalist purpose.

  • KASRAVI, AḤMAD iv. AS LINGUIST

    Pending

    Pending online.

  • KASRAVI, AḤMAD v. AS SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS REFORMER

    Mohammad Amini

    Kasravi founded the “Society of Free Men” (Bāhamād-e āzādegān), announced his call for pākdini (pure faith)—born out of his sense of prophetic mission—and became the most outspoken intellectual against religious superstition and illusion. 

  • KASRAVI, AḤMAD vi. ON MYSTICISM AND PERSIAN SUFI POETRY

    Lloyd Ridgeon

    By the turn of the 20th century the Sufi tradition in Iran no longer enjoyed the popularity and following that it attracted in previous centuries.

  • KASRAVI, AḤMAD vii. A BIBLIOGRAPHICAL SURVEY

    EIr. and M. Amini

    Aḥmad Kasravi was a prolific writer. From the age of 25, when he began to write in Tabriz in 1915, until his assassination 30 years later in 1946.

  • KASRA’I, HOSAYN SIAVASH

    Hušang Ettehād

    (1939-2003), painter.

  • KASRA’I, Siavash

    Kāmyār ʿĀbedi

    While still in high school, Kasra’i made friends with such political figures as Moḥsen Pezeškpur and Dāriuš Foruhar, and was influenced by their nationalistic sentiments. As a college student, however, he became enthralled by the ideals of a just and classless society based on Marxist doctrines, and became a loyal member of the Tudeh Party.

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  • ḴĀṢṢ BEG

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    ARSLĀN B. PALANG-ERI, Turkish ḡolām who became the ḥājeb “chamberlain” and court favorite of the Great Saljuq Sultan Masʿud b. Moḥammad b. Malek Šāh (r. 1134-52).

  • ḴĀṢṢ O ʿĀM

    Cross-Reference

    See CLASS SYSTEM iv. MEDIEVAL PERIOD.

  • ḴĀṢṢA

    Willem Floor

    The so-called ḵāleṣa or public crown lands (confiscated or abandoned land) was part of the ḵāṣṣa holdings, and often the dividing line between the two was blurred. Both stood in contrast to amlāk-e divāni or mamālek, which referred to state lands. During the 18th century the term ḵāṣṣa, as well as divāni and mamālek, fell into disuse.

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  • KAŠŠI, ABU ʿAMR MOḤAMMAD

    Liyakat Takim

    an Imami traditionist and an important figure in Shiʿite biographical literature (rejāl).

  • KASSITES

    Ran Zadok

    a people who probably originated in the Zagros and who ruled Babylonia in the 16th-12th centuries BCE.

  • KAŠVĀD

    Mahmoud Omidsalar

    the name of the ancestor of the Gōdarziān clan of heroes in the Šāh-nāma.

  • KĀṮ

    Habib Borjian

    the old capital of Chorasmia, situated by the Oxus/Āmu Daryā river. Kāṯ owes both its glory and demise to the Oxus, an unending source of sustenance as well as destruction in human history.

  • KATA

    Etrat Elahi and EIr

    a simple, everyday rice dish characteristic for the Caspian provinces, Gilan and Mazanderan.

  • KATĀYUN

    Mahnaz Moazami

    a mythological figure in the Šāh-nāma and in the Bundahišn. In the Šāh-nāma, Katāyun is the daughter of the emperor of Rum who marries Goštāsp while he is in exile.

  • KĀTEB

    Cross-Reference

    "secretary, scribe." See DABIR.

  • ḴAṬIB

    Cross-Reference

    See ḴOTBA, EMĀM-E JOMʿA.

  • ḴAṬIB ROSTAM DEDE

    Osman G. Özgüdenli

    Ottoman Sufi, writer, and poet, author of the Wasila al-maqāṣed elā aḥsan al-marāṣed, a Persian-Turkish dictionary.

  • KATIBA

    Cross-Reference

    "inscription." See CALLIGRAPHY.

  • KAṮĪR DYNASTY

    Cross-Reference

    See ĀL-E KAṮĪR.

  • KATIRĀ

    Cross-reference

    See TRAGACANTH (pending).

  • ḴATM AL-ḠARĀʾEB

    Anna Livia Beelaert

    the only maṯnawi written by the poet Ḵāqāni Šervāni; its final version dates from 552/1157. 

  • ḴAṬMI

    Ahmad Aryavand and Bahram Grami

    (or ḵeṭmi), “marshmallow,” Althaea officinalis L. of the family Malvaceae (the mallow family), an important pharmaceutical plant.

  • ḴATNA

    Cross-reference

    See CIRCUMCISION.

  • KATPATUKA

    Cross-reference

    See CAPPADOCIA.

  • ḴAṬṬ-E FĀRSI

    Cross-reference

    See IRAN vi. IRANIAN LANGUAGES AND SCRIPTS. (3) WRITING SYSTEMS.

  • ḴAṬṬ-E MIḴI

    Cross-reference

    See CUNEIFORM SCRIPT.

  • ḴAṬṬĀBIYA

    Mohammad Ali Amir-Moezzi

    an extremist Shiʿite sect named after Abu’l-Ḵaṭṭāb al-Asadi (killed ca. 755) who for some time was an authorized representative of Imam Jaʿfar al-Ṣādeq (d. ca. 765) in Kufa.

  • ḴATTĀʾI, ʿALI-AKBAR

    Cross-reference

    See ḴETTĀʾI, ʿALI-AKBAR (pending).

  • KATTĀN

    Cross-reference

    See LINEN (pending).

  • ḴAṬṬĀTI

    Cross-reference

    See CALLIGRAPHY.

  • ḴĀTUN

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    a title of high-born women in the pre-modern Turkish and Persian worlds.

  • ḴĀTUNI, ABU ṬĀHER

    cross-reference

    See ABU ṬĀHER ḴĀTUNI.

  • KĀVA

    Mahmud Omidsalar

    the name of a heroic blacksmith in the Šāhnāma who rebels against the tyrant Żaḥḥāk and helps Ferēdun wrest the kingdom from him.

  • KĀVA NEWSPAPER

    Iraj Afšār

    In this period, Germany, with no apparent interests in Iran, was favored by nationalist Iranians, who believed that it was the one that could free Iran from the political and economic domination of Great Britain and Russia.  The name of the paper recalled Kāva, the legendary hero who rose against Żaḥḥāk, the bloodthirsty tyrant.

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  • ḴĀVARĀN-NĀMA

    Cross-reference

    See KHAVARAN-NAMA (pending).

  • ḴĀVARI KĀŠĀNI

    Mehrdad Amanat

    preacher, poet, journalist, and constitutional activist. Ḵāvari learned the fundamentals of traditional learning from his preacher father, Sayyed Hāšem Wāʿeẓ.

  • KAVI

    cross-reference

    See KAYĀNIĀN.

  • ḴĀVIĀR

    Cross-reference

    See CAVIAR.

  • KAVIR

    Cross-Reference

    Persian word meaning "desert." See DESERT.

  • KĀVUS

    Cross-reference

    See KAYĀNIĀN.

  • KAWĀD I

    Nikolaus Schindel

    Sasanian king, son of Pērōz I. This entry is divided into two sections:  i. Reign. ii. Coinage.

  • KAWĀD I i. Reign

    Nikolaus Schindel

    The reign of Kawād I, lasting with an interruption of some three years from 488 to 531, is a turning point in Sasanian history.

  • KAWĀD I ii. Coinage

    Nikolaus Schindel

    Since the reign of Jāmāsp interrupts the two regnal periods of Kawād I, and because of marked differences between the two, they should be treated separately. Kawād employs only one obverse and one reverse type during his first reign. The obverse shows the king’s bust to the right wearing a crown consisting of a crescent and two mural elements, which corresponds to the second crown of Pērōz (457-84).

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  • KAWĀD II

    Cross-Reference

    Sasanian king (r. 628), son of  ḴOSROW II.   See ŠIRUYA (entry pending).

  • ḴAWARNAQ

    Renate Würsch

    a medieval castle built in the vicinity of the ancient city of al-Ḥira by Lamid rulers of Iraq to whose name frequent references has been made in pre-modern Persian literary works.

  • KAY

    Cross-reference

    See KAYĀNIĀN.

  • KAY KĀVUS

    Cross-reference

    See KAYĀNIĀN.

  • KAY ḴOSROW

    Cross-reference

    See KAYĀNIĀN.

  • KAY-ḴOSROW KHAN

    Hirotake Maeda

    (1674-1711), Georgian royal prince of the Kartlian branch, also known as Ḵosrow Khan.

  • KAY QOBĀD

    Cross-reference

    See KAYĀNIĀN.

  • ḴAYĀL, Mir Moḥammad-Taqi

    Mohammad Sohayb Arshad

    (d. 1759), Indian author of a collection of historical and fictitious stories composed in Persian in fifteen volumes over fourteen years and titled Bustān-e ḵayāl.

  • KAYĀNIĀN

    Prods Oktor Skjærvø

    (Kayanids), in the early Persian epic tradition a dynasty that ruled Iran before the Achaemenids, all of whom bore names prefixed by Kay from Avestan kauui.

  • KAYĀNIĀN i. Kavi: Avestan kauui, Pahlavi kay

    Prods Oktor Skjærvø

    Kavi is the Indo-Iranian term for “(visionary) poet.”  The term may be older than Indo-Iranian, if Lydian kaveś and the Samothracean title cited by Hesychius as koíēs or kóēs are related.

  • KAYĀNIĀN ii. The Kayanids as a Group

    Prods Oktor Skjærvø

    References to the kauuis in the Avesta are found in the yašts in the lists of heroes who sacrificed to various deities for certain rewards.

  • KAYĀNIĀN iii. Kauui Kauuāta, Kay Kawād, Kay Kobād (Qobād)

    Prods Oktor Skjærvø

    Kauui Kauuāta has no epithets in the Avesta to describe him, and the descriptions in the Pahlavi sources are mostly vague. His seed is from the xwarrah; he was the first to establish kingship in Iran; he was godfearing and a good ruler. According to a notice in the Šahrestānīhā ī Ērānšahr, he may have married Wan, daughter of Gulaxš.

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  • KAYĀNIĀN iv. “Minor” Kayanids

    Prods Oktor Skjærvø

    The Avesta contains no information on Aipi.vahu, Aršan, Pisinah, and Biiaršan, but, according to the Pahlavi tradition, Abīweh was the son of Kawād and the father of Arš, Biyarš (spelled <byʾlš>), Pisīn, and Kāyus.

  • KAYĀNIĀN v. Kauui Usan, Kay-Us, Kay Kāvus

    Prods Oktor Skjærvø

    The story of Kay Us’s madness is found in two versions. According to the Bundahišn, his mind was disturbed so that he tried to go up and do battle with the sky, but he fell down and the xwarrah was stolen from him; he devastated the world with his army, until they caught and bound him by deception in the land of Šambarān.

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  • KAYĀNIĀN vi. Siiāuuaršan, Siyāwaxš, Siāvaš

    Prods Oktor Skjærvø

    Siiāuuaršan, “the one with black stallions,” is listed in the Avesta in Yašt 13.132 as a kauui and the third with a name containing aršan “male.” 

  • KAYĀNIĀN vii. Kauui Haosrauuah, Kay Husrōy, Kay Ḵosrow

    Prods Oktor Skjærvø

    According to Ṯaʿālebi, having brought order to the earth, worrying that he might be subjected to hubris like several of his predecessors, Kay Ḵosrow withdrew from the world. After having appointed his successor, Kay Lohrāsb, he left to wander throughout the world, and no one heard any more from him.

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  • KAYĀNIĀN viii. Kay Luhrāsp, Kay Lohrāsb

    Prods Oktor Skjærvø

    In the Avesta, Vištāspa’s father is Auruuaṯ.aspa, who is mentioned only once, when Zarathustra asks Anāhitā for the ability to make Vištāspa, son of Auruuaṯ.aspa, help the daēnā along with thoughts, words, and deeds, a wish he is granted. Elsewhere, auruuaṯ.aspa “having fleet horses” is an epithet, most often of the sun.

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  • KAYĀNIĀN ix. Kauui Vištāspa, Kay Wištāsp, Kay Beštāsb/Goštāsb

    Prods Oktor Skjærvø

    The name Vištāspa presumably means “he who gives the horses free rein” (víṣitāso áśvāḥ “horses let loose or given free rein”), which agrees with the description of Vištāspa as the prototypical winner of the chariot race in Yašt 5.132.

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  • KAYĀNIĀN x. The End of the Kayanids

    Prods Oktor Skjærvø

    In the Pahlavi texts. The Bundahišn only records that, when Wahman, son of Spandyād, came to the throne, Iran was a wasteland, and the Iranians were quarreling with one another.

  • KAYĀNIĀN xi. The Kayanids and the Kang-dez

    Prods Oktor Skjærvø

    According to the Pahlavi texts, Kay Siāwaxš built the Kang castle (Kang-diz) by miraculous power (Pahlavi Rivāyat: with his own hands, by means of the [Kavian] xwarrah and the might of Ohrmazd and the Amahrspands).

  • KAYĀNIĀN xii. The Kavian XVARƎNAH

    Prods Oktor Skjærvø

    The nature of the Avestan xᵛarənah and its three subtypes, the Aryan (airiiana), the “unseizable” (? axᵛarəta), and the Kavian (kāuuaiia).

  • KAYĀNIĀN xiii. Synchronism of the Kayanids and Near Eastern History

    Prods Oktor Skjærvø

    The desire of the medieval historians to fit all the ancient narratives into one and the same chronological description of world history from the creation led them to coordinate the Biblical, Classical, and Iranian sources.

  • KAYĀNIĀN xiv. The Kayanids in Western Historiography

    Prods Oktor Skjærvø

    Henry C. Rawlinson contrasted the “distorted and incomplete allusions to Jemshíd and the Kayanian monarchs which are found in the Vendidád Sadé and in the ancient hymns,” with “authentic history,” and Friedrich Spiegel called the Kayanids, including Vištāspa, partly purely mythical, partly legendary, without a trace of anything historical.

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  • KAYĀNSĪH

    A. Panaino

    Pahlavi form of the name of a mythical sea, Av. Kąsaoiia-, connected in tradition with the Hāmun lake. According to Later Av. sources it is from the Kąsaoiia that the Saošiiaṇt Astuuat̰.ərəta- will rise. 

  • KAYFI SABZAVĀRI

    Sunil Sharma

    Persian poet, also known as Kayfi Sistāni and Kayfi Now-Mosalmān.

  • KAYHAN

    EIr.

    Since the Islamic Revolution of 1979, Kayhan has been published under the patronage of the Islamic Republic’s supreme leader. Kayhan of London also was founded by Meṣbāḥzādeh in 1984 as a weekly newspaper; it has been published by his confidants as a monarchist newspaper for Iranians in Diaspora. Kayhan was a semi-official daily newspaper.

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  • KAYKĀVUS B. ESKANDAR

    J.T.P. de Bruijn

    author of a famous Mirror for Princes, best known as the Qābus-nāma, although other, more general titles such as Naṣiḥat-nāma, or Pand-nāma, also occur in the sources. 

  • KAYKĀVUS B. HAZĀRASP

    Cross-reference

    See BADUSPANIDS.

  • ḴAYMA

    Cross-reference

    See TENTS.

  • KAYOMARṮ

    Cross-reference

    See GAYŌMART.

  • ḴAYRḴᵛĀH HERĀTI

    Farhad Daftary

    Nezāri Ismaʿili dāʿi, author, and poet (15th-16th centuries).

  • KAYSĀNIYA

    Sean W. Anthony

    occasionally referred to also as Moḵtāriya, the Shiʿite sectarian movement(s) emerging from the Kufan revolt of Moḵtār b. Abi ʿObayd Ṯaqafi in 66-67/685-87.

  • ḴAZʿAL KHAN

    Shahbaz Shahnavaz

    (Shaikh Ḵazʿal, also known as Moʿez-al-Salṭana, Sardār Aqdas), chieftain of the Banu Kaʿb tribe of Khuzestan (1861-1936).

  • KĀZARUNIYA

    Hamid Algar

    a Sufi order (ṭariqat) so named after Abu Esḥāq Kāzaruni, alternatively designated as Esḥāqiya, especially in Turkey, or more rarely as Moršediya.

  • KĀẒEM RAŠTI

    Armin Eschraghi

    (d. 1844), student and successor of Shaikh Aḥmad b. Zayn-al-Din Aḥsāʾi and head of the Šayḵi movement.  The main sources for Rašti’s biography are some of his own works which contain autobiographical information.

  • KĀẒEM RAŠTI, MALEK-AL-AṬEBBĀʾ

    Hormoz Ebrahimnejad

    one of the high-ranking traditional physicians in 19th-century Iran.

  • KĀẒEM, MUSĀ

    Cross-reference

    , Imam. See MUSĀ B. JAʿFAR (pending).

  • KAZEMAYN

    Meir Litvak

    a suburban town in the northwest of Baghdad and one of the four Shiʿite shrine cities in Iraq, known in Shiʿi Islam as ʿatabāt-e ʿāliāt.

  • KĀẒEMI, ḤOSAYN

    Vida Nassehi-Behnam

    (1924-1996), painter. He was part of a group of painters who started a modern movement in painting in Persia. They opened the first art gallery, Apādānā, in Tehran (1949) where they offered courses in painting and organized lectures and exhibitions. It became also a meeting place for artists and intellectuals.

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  • ḴĀZENI, ABU’L-FATḤ

    Faiza Bancel

    astronomer, mathematician, and mechanist originally from the city of Marv in Khorasan.

  • KAZERUN

    Multiple Authors

    city and sub-province in the province of Fars, west of Shiraz. This entry is divided into the following three sections: i. Geography. ii. History. iii. Old Kazerun dialect.

  • KAZERUN i. Geography

    Jean Calmard

    Kazerun is located in the southwestern Zagros range, which is oriented northwest-southeast in the normal folding zone and is seismically active.  Kazerun comprises contrasting climates; there is a cold zone in the mountainous north, with summits up to 3,000 m, and a warm zone in the south, with elevations less than 2,000 m.

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  • KAZERUN ii. History

    Jean Calmard

    From late Safavid times, European travelers provided valuable information on Kazerun (variously spelled) and its region. 

  • KAZERUN iii. Old Kazerun Dialect

    ʿAlī Ašraf Ṣādeqī

    The old dialect of the city of Kazerun was commonly used by the local people up to around the 14th-15th centuries. 

  • KĀZERUNI FAMILY

    Habib Borjian

    Kāzeruni’s fortune was made through his investments in the textile industry, which had long been a major industry in Isfahan but had lost ground to British and Russian cotton imports.  Kāzeruni stood out among the nationalist merchants and landowners who launched new campaigns to revive Isfahan’s cotton production and textile industry.

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  • ḴAZINADĀR

    Willem Floor

    title of the royal treasurer since the early Islamic period.

  • KĒD

    NICHOLAS SIMS-WILLIAMS

    Pahlavi and Bactrian word with meanings ranging from “soothsayer” to “priest,” probably derived from OIran.

  • KÉGL, SÁNDOR

    Miklos Sarkozy

    Kegl was encouraged and supported by Vámbéry’s letters of recommendation, including one addressed to Nāṣer-al-Din Shah. Kégl traveled on a study trip to Iran in October 1889 in order to collect books and to enhance his practical knowledge of Persian and thus prepare for the teaching career of his choice.

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  • KELĀRDAŠT

    Cross-reference

    (or Kalārdašt), see KALĀRESTĀQ.

  • ḴELʿAT

    Willem Floor

    (Ar. ḵelʿa, pl. ḵelaʿ), term used in Iran, India, Central Asia for gifts, but in particular a robe of honor.

  • KELIDAR

    Mohammad Reza Ghanoonparvar

    (1978-1984), a monumental novel of nearly three thousand pages in five volumes consisting of ten books by Mamud Dawlatābādi (b. 1940), the noted novelist.

  • Kent, Roland Grubb

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    American scholar of Indo-European studies, who specialized also in Old Persian studies. He went to Berlin and Munich universities to continue for two years his classical studies, including (apart from the languages) Greek epigraphy, history, and archeology.

  • KÉPES, GÉZA

    András Bodrogligeti

    (1909-1989), Hungarian poet and translator of Persian poetry. He was the son of a blacksmith and proud of his origins, claiming that the legacy of his father’s craftsmanship as a skilled artisan.

  • KERIYA

    Alain Cariou

    Because of the Chinese government program for urban development, Uighur neighborhoods are consistently demolished to make way for straight avenues and modern banal buildings.  Moreover, the Chinese government is promoting the migration of Han Chinese through offering housing, education, and jobs in the administrative sector.

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  • KERMAN

    Multiple Authors

    province of Iran located between Fars and Sistan va Balucestan; also the name of its principal city and capital.

  • KERMAN i. Geography

    Habib Borjian

    Kerman Province is situated in southeast Iran. It is divided into two distinct macroclimates, sardsir (cold) in the upland north and garmsir (warm) in the lowland south, generally speaking.

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  • KERMAN ii. Historical Geography

    Xavier de Planhol and Bernard Hourcade

    The Kerman basin, in which Kerman City is situated, is located at an elevation of about 1,700 m with land sloping very gently from northwest to southeast.  It is entirely surrounded by a series of high massifs.

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  • KERMAN iv. From the Islamic Conquest to the Coming of the Mongols

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    The Armenian geography written in the second half of the 8th century and traditionally attributed to Moses of Khoren places Kerman in the southern quarter of the Sasanian empire.

  • KERMAN v. In the Safavid Period

    Rudi Matthee

    Kerman is one of the few places in Iran that had long generated local Persian-language chronicles, and the 17th century was no exception. 

  • ḴERQA

    Erik S. Ohlander

    term for the tattered cloak, robe, or overshirt traditionally worn by the Sufis as a symbol of wayfaring on the mystical path.

  • KEŠ

    Pavel Lurje

    (Kešš, Kašš), an important ancient and medieval city, located in the upper Kaškā-daryā valley, now Shahrisabz, Uzbekistan.

  • Kesāʾi Marvazi

    J. T. P. de Bruijn

    (also vocalized Kasāʾi), 10th-century Persian poet.

  • ḴEṢĀLI ČELEBI

    Osman G. Özgüdenli

    Ḥosayn, Ottoman poet and writer born in Budapest at an unknown date.  His divān is the only source of information about his life.

  • KETĀB AL-FOTUḤ

    ELTON L. DANIEL

    an important early Arabic historical text by Ebn Aʿṯam Kufi (d. 314/926?), which was translated, at least in part, into Persian towards the end of the 6th/12th century.

  • KETĀB-E IQĀN

    Sholeh Quinn and Stephen N. Lambden

    a major work of Mirzā Ḥosayn-ʿAli Nuri Bahāʾ-Allāh (d. 1892) in defense of the religious claims of Sayyed ʿAli-Moḥammad the Bāb.

  • KETĀBḴĀNA-YE MELLI-E TĀJIKESTĀN

    Evelin Grassi

    (Taj. Kitobḵonai millii Tojikiston), the National Library of Tajikistan, located in Dushanbe and established in 1933. With its 28-stack rooms, the library has a capacity for ten million books. The range of the manuscript holdings of the library spans seven centuries (13th-19th centuries) and includes the works of outstanding Persian classical authors.

  • ḴEṬĀY-NĀMA

    RALPH KAUZ

    Book on China, written by Seyyed ʿAlī Akbar eṭāʾī in Istanbul.

  • KEYVĀNLU TRIBE

    Pierre Oberling

    a Kudish tribe of Khorasan. It was one of those Kurdish tribes that Shah ʿAbbās I forced to migrate from western Persia around 1600 for the purpose of fighting off the incursions of the Uzbeks.

  • KHACHIKIAN, Samuel

    Jamsheed Akrami

    Khachikian’s first film was Bāzgašt (The Return), a romantic melodrama that pitted a hardworking village boy serving an affluent family in the city against the family’s spoiled son in a rivalry over a young woman. The mawkish story shared formula of Iranian films of the period, but was technically more polished and fast-paced.

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  • KHADEMI, Ali Mohammad

    Chapour Rassekh

    Khademi joined the Air Force in 1938, and continued pilot training. He was the first Iranian to receive a commercial pilot license from the British Civil Aviation Authority in 1948, and in 1957 he completed a training course at the U.S. Air Force University in Montgomery, Alabama.

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  • KHAKSAR, Mansur

    Khosrow Davami

    poet, writer, editor and political activist. Khaksar completed his primary and secondary education in Abadan, and had two eminent Persian poets, Maḥmud Mošref Tehrāni and Ḥassan Pastā, as his teachers in the last two years of high school. In 1959, his first poem was published in Omid-e Irān, a noted weekly journal published by Moḥammad Āṣemi in Tehran.

  • KHALAJ

    Multiple Authors

    The Khalaj are usually referred to as Turks, but Josef Marquart (pp. 251-54) claimed that they were remnants of the Hephthalite confederation. This entry is divided into two sections: i. Tribe Originating in Turkistan.  ii. Language.

  • KHALAJ i. TRIBE ORIGINATING IN TURKISTAN

    Pierre Oberling

    tribe originating from Turkistan, generally referred to as Turks but possibly Indo-Iranian.

  • KHALAJ ii. Language

    Michael Knüppel

    spoken by the inhabitants of Khalaj, located approximately 250 km to the southwest of Tehran.

  • KHALCHAYAN

    Lolita Nehru

    in Surxondaryo prov., southern Uzbekistan, site of a settlement and palace of the nomad Yuezhi, with paintings and sculptures of the mid-1st century BCE. The Yuezhi, and perhaps other nomad groups, overthrew the Hellenistic Greek dynasty which had ruled there since the mid-3rd century as successor to the post-Achaemenid governments of Alexander and the Seleucids.

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  • KHALILI, Abbas

    Ḥasan Mirʿābedini

    (1895-1971), political activist, journalist, translator, poet, and novelist.

  • KHALKHAL

    Marcel Bazin

    the southeasternmost district of Azerbaijan.  Its main city and administrative center, Heruābād, is located at lat 37°28′ N, long 48°31′ E. 

  • KHANLARI, PARVIZ

    ʿAbd-al-Ḥosayn Āḏarang and EIr

    prominent scholar of Persian language and literature, poet, essayist, translator, literary critic, university professor, and founding editor of the periodical Soḵan.

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  • KHARG ISLAND

    D.T. Potts

    island in the Persian Gulf, situated at about 30 km northwest of Bandar-e Rig and 52 km northwest of Bušehr.

  • KHARIJITES IN PERSIA

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    sect of early Islam which arose out of the conflict between ʿAli b. Abi Ṭāleb (r. 656-61) and Moʿāwiya b. Abi Sufyān (r. 661-80).

  • KHAYYAM, OMAR vi. As Mathematician

    Bijan Vahabzadeh

    Three mathematical treatises of Omar Khayyam have come down to us: (1) a commentary on Euclid’s Elements; (2) an essay on the division of the quadrant of a circle; (3) a treatise on algebra; he also wrote (4) the treatise on the extraction of the nth root of the numbers, which is not extant.

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  • KHAYYAM, OMAR ix. ILLUSTRATIONS OF ENGLISH TRANSLATIONS OF THE RUBAIYAT

    William H. Martin and Sandra Mason

    The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam contain some of the best-known verses in the world. The book is also one of the most frequently and widely illustrated of all literary works. The stimulus to illustrate Khayyam’s Rubaiyat came initially from outside Persia, in response to translations in the West.

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  • KHAYYAM, OMAR x. MUSICAL WORKS BASED ON THE RUBAIYAT

    William H. Martin and Sandra Mason

    The enduring popularity of the verses in the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam is reflected in the large number of musical works they have inspired. Not all the works  were small-scale pieces. One of the best-known large-scale compositions is Sir Granville Bantock’s (1868-1946) ‘Omar Khayyam’ (1908-10) for soloists, chorus and orchestra. It is a three-part work, setting all the 101 quatrains from FitzGerald’s fifth edition.

  • KHAYYAM, OMAR xi. IMPACT ON LITERATURE AND SOCIETY IN THE WEST

    Jos Biegstraaten

    The first scholar outside Persia to study Omar Khayyam was the English orientalist, Thomas Hyde (1636-1703).

  • KHORASAN i. ETHNIC GROUPS

    Pierre Oberling

    The population of Khorasan is extremely varied, consisting principally of Persians, Arabs, Turks, Kurds, Mongols, Baluch, and smaller groups of Jews, Gypsies, and Lors.

  • KHORASANI

    Cross-Reference

    See AḴŪND MOLLĀ MOḤAMMAD-KĀẒEM ḴORĀSĀNĪ.

  • KHORDEH AVESTĀ

    William W. Malandra

    “The Little Avesta,” the name given collections of texts used primarily by the laity for everyday devotions.

  • KHORESH

    Etrat Elahi

    (ḵoreš or ḵorešt), common dish consisting of pieces of meat fried with chopped onion, herbs or vegetables, and other ingredients.

  • KHOTAN

    Multiple Authors

    town (lat 37°06 N, long 79°56 E) and major oasis of the southern Tarim Basin in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China, historically an important kingdom with an Iranian-speaking population. 

  • KHOTAN ii. HISTORY IN THE PRE-ISLAMIC PERIOD

    Hiroshi Kumamoto

    ancient Buddhist oasis/kingdom on the branch of the Silk Road along the southern edge of the Taklamakan Desert in the Tarim basin, in present-day Xinjiang, China.

  • KHOTAN iv. KHOTANESE LITERATURE

    Mauro Maggi

    the body of writings contained in a large number of manuscripts and manuscript folios and fragments written from the 5th to the 10th century in the Khotanese language, the Eastern Middle Iranian language of the Buddhist Saka kingdom of Khotan on the southern branch of the Silk Route (in the present-day Xinjiang-Uygur Autonomous Region of the People’s Republic of China).

  • KHUJAND

    Keith Hitchins

    (Ḵojand), city in northwestern Tajikistan on the middle course of the Syr Daryā River, about 150 km south of Tashkent and near the entrance to the Farḡāna valley.

  • KHUZESTAN viii. Dialects

    Colin MacKinnon

    The dialects spoken by the Iranian folk of the province appear to be of two basic types: Dezfuli-Šuštari, spoken in those two cities, and Baḵtiāri.

  • KHWARAZMSHAHS i. Descendants of the line of Anuštigin

    Clifford Edmund Bosworth

    After the Saljuq takeover in Khwarazm in the early 1040s, the Saljuq Sultans appointed various governors in the province, including several Turkish ḡolām commanders.

  • KIĀ, ṢĀDEQ

    Habib Borjian

    Kiā’s primary achievement was promotion and publicizing of a Persian national identity that embraced the pre-Islamic heritage—not atypical of his contemporaries who had received their formal education during the reign of Reza Shah Pahlavi.  He taught and published, winning him reputation in society and eventually an appointment as the language academy’s president.

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  • KIĀNI, Sayyed NĀDERŠĀH

    S. J. Badakhchani

    (d. 1970), 20th century Ismaʿili poet and writer of Afghanistan, born in Kulāb, southwestern Tajikistan. 

  • KIDARITES

    Frantz Grenet

    a dynasty which ruled Tukharistan and later Gandhāra, probably also part of Sogdiana; the initial date is disputed (ca 390 CE for some modern authors, ca. 420-430 for others).

  • KILIZU

    Antonio Invernizzi

    capital of the Assyrian province of the same name, near the mound Qaṣr Šemāmok in northern Mesopotamia, where a Parthian necropolis was brought to light.

  • KIMIĀ

    Pierre Lory

    “Alchemy.” Externally, the purpose of alchemy was the conversion of base metals like lead into silver or gold by means of long and complicated operations leading to the production of a mysterious substance, the ‘philosopher’s stone,’ able to operate the transmutation. 

  • KING OF THE BENIGHTED

    NASRIN RAHIMIEH & DANIEL RAFINEJAD

    As Milani describes in his afterword to the English translation, Golshiri incrementally sent handwritten pages of the manuscript to Milani in California in the guise of personal letters, “to avoid the ever-watchful gaze of the Islamic censors.” Golshiri requested that the text be translated into English under anonymous authorship.

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  • KIRSTE, Johann Ferdinand Otto

    Michaela Zinko

    Johann Kirste received his primary and secondary education in Graz, and after graduating from high school (Gymnasium) in 1870, he enrolled at the University of Graz to study Latin, Greek, and Sanskrit with Karl Schenkl. From 1872 until 1874, in the traditional manner of the time, Kirste studied at several German universities to broaden his training.

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  • KISH ISLAND

    D. T. Potts

    (Ar. Qeys), small island in the lower Persian Gulf, noted for its palm gardens.

  • KOBRAWIYA i. THE EPONYM

    Hamid Algar

    Abu’l-Jannāb Aḥmad b.ʿOmar Najm-al-Din Kobrā, eponym of the Kobrawiya, was born in Ḵᵛārazm in 1145 or possibly a decade later.

  • KOBRAWIYA ii. THE ORDER

    Hamid Algar

    The crystallization of a given line of Sufi tradition as an “order” should not be understood as imposing on all the spiritual descendants of the eponym a definitive and permanently binding choice of methods and emphases.

  • ḴODĀYDĀDZĀDA, BĀBĀ-YUNOS

    Habib Borjian

    (b. ca. 1870-75, d. 1945), Tajik folk poet and singer. His exceptional skill in singing the Guruḡli stories on the dotār (a long-neck lute) won him great reputation throughout Tajikistan. According to his biographer, his performance would take hours from evening to dawn, with only short breaks to relax and eat, for several nights in a row. 

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  • KOFRI, Moḥammad Kermānšāhi

    Shireen Mahdavi

    (1829-1908), physician and surgeon, the son of Pir Moḥammad Zāreʿ, a merchant.

  • KOH-I-NOOR

    Iradj Amini

    (Kuh-e Nur; lit. “Mountain of Light”), the most celebrated diamond in the world, with rich legendary and historical associations.

  • ḴOJESTĀNI, Aḥmad b. ʿAbd-Allāh

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    (d. 882), commander of the Taherids in Khorasan, and after the Ṣaffarid occupation of Nishapur in 873, a contender for power.

  • KOJUR

    Multiple Authors

    historical district in the central Alborz, northwestern Māzandarān.  i. Historical geography.  ii. Language and culture.

  • KOJUR i. Historical Geography

    Habib Borjian

    The historical district of Kojur covers roughly a quadrangle bounded by the Caspian Sea on the north, the Čālus River on the west, Nur valley on the south, and Suledeh valley on the east. 

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  • KOLAYNI

    Etan Kohlberg

    , Abu Jaʿfar Moḥammad b. Yaʿqub b. Esḥāq Rāzi (d. 941), prominent Imami traditionist.

  • KOLUKJĀNLU

    Pierre Oberling

    a Kurdish tribe in the Ḵalḵāl region of eastern Azerbaijan.

  • KONDORI, MOḤAMMED B. MANṢUR

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    (b. ca. 1024, d. 1064), vizier to Ṭoḡrel Beg (r. 1040-63), the first sultan of the Great Saljuqs, and, briefly, to Ṭoḡrel’s successor Alp Arslān (r. 1063-72).

  • KONOW, STEN

    Fridrik Thordarson

    Konow was an all-around Indologist, whose extensive scholarly work covers most branches of Indian studies. His occupation with Grierson’s Linguistic Survey of India, where he edited half a dozen of volumes on various languages, resulted in a long series of studies of Tibeto-Burman, Munda and Dravidian languages.

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  • KORA-SONNI

    Pierre Oberling

    a tribe in western Persian Azerbaijan.

  • KORK

    Rudi Matthee

    soft wool, also called Kermān wool, used for the manufacture of fine clothing and felt hats.

  • KÖROĞLU i. LITERARY TRADITION

    Hasan Javadi

    early-17th-century folk hero and poet, whose stories are mainly known among the Turkic peoples but have also passed into other folk literatures and circulate in Azerbaijan and Khorasan. Bards usually perform the Köroǧlu/Goroḡli epic to the accompaniment of a string instrument, such as the sāz, the dambura, or the dutār.

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  • KÖROĞLU ii. PERFORMANCE ASPECTS

    Ameneh Youssefzadeh

    The traditional venues for the performance of the Köroǧlu/Goroḡli epic are life-cycle celebrations, private gatherings, and teahouses. In Azerbaijan and northern Khorasan, from the 17th century up to the Islamic Revolution of 1978, teahouses played a pivotal role in the diffusion and the preservation of the epic.

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  • ḴORRAMIS

    Patricia Crone

    adherents of a form of Iranian religion often identified as a survival or revival of the Zoroastrian heresy, Mazdakism.

  • ḴORRAMIS IN BYZANTIUM

    Evangelos Venetis

    Iranians who fought the ʿAbbasid caliph Moʿtaṣem be’llāh (r. 833-41) and enrolled in the Byzantine army of the iconoclast emperor Theophilos I (r. 829-42).

  • ḴORŠĀH B. QOBĀD ḤOSEYNI, NEẒĀM-AL-DIN

    Kioumars Ghereghlou

    a Hyderabad-based diplomat and historian of Iranian descent best known for his composition of a universal chronicle in Persian in the name of the Qoṭbšāhi ruler, Ebrāhim (r. 1550-80).

  • ḴOSROW I i. LIFE AND TIMES

    Multiple Authors

    Sasanian king (r. 531-579). i. Life and Times (forthcoming).

  • ḴOSROW I ii. Reforms

    Zeev Rubin

    a series of reforms in Sasanian taxation and military organization, probably initiated already under Kawāḏ I.

  • ḴOSROW I iii. COINAGE

    Nikolaus Schindel

    The reign of Ḵosrow I (531-79) is generally regarded as the heyday of the Sasanian empire, but his coinage marks the nadir of Sasanian coin art. The most noteworthy features are innovations in reverse typology. In the first type, the assistant figures are shown frontally, a totally new depiction; and they hold what appears to be a spear, an attribute encountered previously under Wahrām II (276-93).

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  • ḴOSROW II

    James Howard-Johnston

    A wide range of non-Muslim texts, lives of saints as well as histories, dating from the seventh-tenth centuries, written in Greek, Armenian, Syriac, Latin and Arabic, provide more detailed information on military operations and diplomatic dealings, as well as helping to flesh out domestic history.

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  • ḴOSROW KHAN GORJI QĀJĀR

    Hirotake Maeda

    (1785/86-1857), an influential eunuch (Ḵᵛāja) of the Qajar era, who lived in the period spanning the reigns Fatḥ-ʿAli Shah (r. 1797-1834) to Nāṣer-al-Din Shah (r. 1848-96).

  • ḴOSROW MALEK

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    the last sultan of the Ghaznavid dynasty, in northwestern India, essentially in the Panjab, with his capital at Lahore. Various honorifics are attributed to him in the historical sources, in the verses of poets eulogizing him, and in the legends of his coins in the collections of the British Museum and Lahore

  • ḴOSROW O ŠIRIN

    Paola Orsatti

    the second poem of Neẓāmi’s Ḵamsa, recounting the amorous relationship between the Sasanian king Ḵosrow II Parviz (r. 590-628 CE), and the beautiful princess Širin.

  • ḴOSROWŠĀH B. BAHRĀMŠĀH

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    penultimate ruler of the Ghaznavid dynasty, apparently still in Ghazna until the dynasty found its last home at Lahore in northwestern India at a date around or soon after the time of his death.

  • ḴOṬBA

    Tahera Qutbuddin

    (oration, speech, sermon), a formal public address performed in a broad range of contexts by Muslims across the globe, rooted in the extemporaneously composed discourses of pre-Islamic and early Islamic Arabia.

  • ḴOTTAL

    Clifford Edmund Bosworth

    a province of medieval Islamic times on the right bank of the upper Oxus river in modern Tajikistan. A region of lush pastures, Ḵottal was famed for horse-breeding.

  • KRÁMSKÝ, JIRÍ

    Jiri Bečka

    (1913-1991), Czech general linguist who specialized in Persian language studies. He then studied English and Persian (the latter under Professor J. Rypka) at the Charles University, Prague. 

  • Křikavová, Adéla

    Jiri Bečka

    (1938-2002), Czech scholar of Iranian and particularly Kurdish studies.

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  • KRYMSKIĬ, Agfangel Efimovich

    Natalia Chalisova

    (1871-1942) Ukrainian orientalist, author of over 1,000 works on the history and culture of Iran, Arab countries, Turkey, the Khanate of the Crimea, and Azerbaijan.

  • KUFTA

    Etrat Elahi

    popular Persian dish usually made of ground lamb or beef, and more recently, ground chicken or turkey in a mixture of herbs, spices, or other ingredients. There are two kinds of kufta: with rice and without.

  • KUHPĀYA

    Multiple Authors

    piedmont district east of Isfahan province, historically known as Vir.

  • KUHPĀYA i. The District

    Habib Borjian

    Kuhpāya is a large piedmont boluk (3,000 km2) separated from Ardestān on the north and Nāʾin on the east respectively by the Fešārk and Kuhestān chains, extensions of the Karkas range.

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  • KUHPĀYA ii. The Dialect

    Habib Borjian

    The dialects spoken in the Kuhpāya district belong to the Central Dialects, but in a narrower sense they are grouped together with the welāyati “provincial” idioms around the city of Isfahan.

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  • KUKADARU, JAMSHEDJI SORAB

    Michael Stausberg and Ramiyar P. Karanjia

    (1831-1900), Parsi Zoroastrian priest. He was renowned for his spiritual powers, in particular with respect to healing and divination.

  • KULĀB

    Habib Borjian

    or Kōlāb, city and former province (the greater part of medieval Ḵottal[ān]) of Tajikistan.

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  • KUNDA(G)

    Mahnaz Moazami

    a demon in Zoroastrian literature;  in the Avesta, Sraoša or Ātar is implored to cast it into hell; in Middle Persian books, it is the steed of the sorcerers.  

  • KURDISH LANGUAGE i. HISTORY OF THE KURDISH LANGUAGE

    Ludwig Paul

    from Old and Middle Iranian times, no predecessors of the Kurdish language are yet known; the extant Kurdish texts may be traced back to no earlier than the 16th century CE.

  • KURDISH LANGUAGE ii. HISTORY OF KURDISH STUDIES

    Joyce Blau

    The article provides a brief account of Kurdish studies, which is a relatively recent academic field. The earliest studies of the Kurdish language and civilization were carried out by missionaries.

  • KURDISH TRIBES

    Pierre Oberling

    Kurdish tribes are found throughout Persia, eastern Anatolia and northern Iraq, but very few comprehensive lists of them have been published.

  • KURDISH WRITTEN LITERATURE

    Philip G. Kreyenbroek

    Written, “elevated” poetry traditionally played a less prominent role in Kurdish society than folk poetry (q.v.) did. The number of written literary works in Kurdish is far smaller than in the surrounding cultures.

  • KURDOEV, QENĀTĒ

    Joyce Blau

    (1909-1985), Kurdish philologist and university professor.

  • KURGAN TEPE

    Habib Borjian

    (Qūrḡonteppa in Tajik orthography; Kurgan-Tyube in Russian), provincial capital and former province of Tajikistan.

  • KURUNI

    Pierre Oberling

    a Kurdish tribe of Kurdistan and Fārs. Most of the tribe was transplanted from Kurdistan to Fārs by Karim Khan Zand during the 1760s.

  • KUŠ-NĀMA

    Jalal Matini

    part of a mythical history of Iran written between 1108 and 1111, dealing with the eventful life of Kuš the Tusked.

  • KUSA

    Anna Krasnowolska

    a carnival character known to the medieval and modern folklore of central and western Persia.

  • KUSHAN DYNASTY i. Dynastic History

    A. D. H. Bivar

    During the first to mid-third centuries CE, the empire of the Kushans (Mid. Pers. Kušān-šahr) represented a major world power in Central Asia and northern India.

  • ḴᵛĀJANURI, EBRĀHIM B. ḤABIB-ALLĀH

    Majdoddin Keyvani

    lawyer, politician, author, translator, journalist, psychologist, and founder of the popular psychoanalytical center of Panā[h] in Tehran.

  • ḴᵛĀJAVAND

    Pierre Oberling

    a Kurdish tribe in the Caspian province of Māzandarān. According to L. S. Fortescue, the tribe “was originally brought from Garrūs and Kurdistān by Nādir Shāh.”

  • ḴᵛĀJAZĀDA ASʿAD EFENDI

    Tahsin Yazıcı

    (1570-1625), Ottoman šayḵ-al-Eslām, poet, and translator of Saʿdi’s Golestān. He was the second son of Ḵᵛāja Saʿd-al-Din Efendi Eṣfahāni, the famous Ottoman historian, statesman, and šayḵ-al-Eslām.

  • ḴᵛĀJU KERMĀNI

    J. T. P. de Bruijn

    (1290-ca. 1349), Persian poet and mystic. Ḵᵛāju was undoubtedly a versatile poet of great inventiveness and originality.

  • ḴᵛĀNSĀLĀR

    Willem Floor

    title by which the supervisor and other workers of the kitchen department of the royal palace were known in the Ghaznavid and Saljuq periods.

  • ḴᵛĀNSĀR

    Multiple Authors

    historical district and town in Isfahan province.

  • ḴᵛĀNSĀR i. Historical Geography

    Habib Borjian

    historical district and town in Isfahan province.

  • K~ CAPTIONS OF ILLUSTRATIONS

    Cross-Reference

    list of all the figure and plate images in the letter K entries.