Table of Contents

  • ACKERMAN, PHYLLIS

    Cornelia Montgomery

    (b. Oakland, California, 1893; d. Shiraz, 25 January 1977), author, editor, teacher and translator in the fields of Persian textiles, European tapestries, Chinese bronzes, iconography, and symbolism.

  • ACTA ARCHELAI

    Cross-Reference

    See ARCHELAUS.

  • ACTS OF ĀDUR-HORMIZD AND OF ANĀHĪD

    J. P. Asmussen

    Syriac martyrological texts.  Their events are set in the year 446 A.D., during the reign of Yazdegerd II; and they were apparently recorded not long afterward. They offer more detailed data on Zoroastrianism and Zurvanism, even though in a somewhat corrupted form, than is commonly found in the records of the Christian martyrs of the Sasanian empire. 

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  • ACTS OF THE PERSIAN MARTYRS

    A. Vööbus

    a collection of the acts of martyrdom under Šāpūr II (309-79 CE). The author tells something about his own work. He states that the text is not a free composition for glorification of the martyrs, but rather rests on information he gathered from those close to the actual happenings—even eyewitnesses. He asserts that he was an eyewitness to the more recent martyrdoms reported in his collection. 

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  • ĀDĀ

    J. Duchesne-Guillemin

    “requital” in Avestan.

  • ADAB

    Multiple Authors

    Term applied to a genre of literature as well as to refined and well-mannered conduct; in Persian it is often synonymous with farhang.

  • ADAB i. Adab in Iran

    Dj. Khaleghi-Motlagh

    Apart from a genre of literature (see section ii), adab in Persian means education, culture, good behavior, politeness, proper demeanor; thus it is closely linked with the concept of ethics.

  • ADAB ii. Adab in Arabic Literature

    Ch. Pellat

    In modern Arabic usage the term adab (plur. ādāb) denotes “literature,” but in classical Islam it was applied only to a limited range of literary works.

  • ĀDĀB AL-ḤARB WA’L-ŠAJĀʿA

    C. E. Bosworth

    (“The correct usages of war and bravery”), a treatise in a straightforward Persian prose style in the “Mirror for Princes” genre, written by Faḵr-al-dīn Moḥammad b. Manṣūr Mobārakšāh, called Faḵr-e Modabber.

  • ADAB AL-KABĪR

    I. Abbas

    an Arabic work by Ebn al-Moqalia ž dealing largely with Persian manners and court etiquette.