ĀÇINA, an Old Persian name beginning with *āç- “fire;” cf. Hašina and Atrinā/Ašina, which are respectively the Elamite and Akkadian forms of the name attested in the Behistun (Bīsotūn) inscription. The same name in the form Hašina is also attested for officials of the royal administration in the Elamite Persepolis fortification tablets.
Āçina, son of Upadarma, was a rebel against Darius I. According to the Behistun inscription, he was an Elamite, though not only his personal name but also the patronymic are Iranian. Elamites declared their independence under his leadership, and he became their king for a brief period. The exact date of the rebellion is unknown but, to judge by the same inscription (I.74-77, 81-83; IV.10-11), it started almost immediately upon Darius’ accession to the throne on 29 September 522 B.C. Darius sent a royal messenger to Elam; frightened Elamites bound their leader and brought him to Darius, who executed him. Āçina is pictured on the Behistun relief among nine rebellious kings, immediately after Gaumāta.
R. T. Hallock, Persepolis Fortification Tablets, Chicago, 1969, p. 693.
W. Hinz, Darius und die Perser I, Baden-Baden, 1976, photo, p. 146.
Kent, Old Persian, p. 166.
A. T. Olmstead, History of the Persian Empire, Chicago, 1948, pp. 111-12.
R. Schmitt apud M. Mayrhofer, Onomastica Persepolitana, Vienna, 1973, p. 290 (with previous literature).
E. von Voigtlander, The Bisitun Inscription of Darius the Great. Babylonian version, II, pt. 1, vol. II/1, London, 1978, pp. 19, 55.
(M. A. Dandamayev)
Originally Published: December 15, 1983
Last Updated: July 22, 2011
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