Table of Contents

  • ABĪVARD

    C. E. Bosworth

     a town in medieval northern Khorasan.

  • ABĪVARDĪ, ABU’L-MOẒAFFAR

    L. A. Giffen

    poet, historian, and writer on genealogy (d. 1113).

  • ABĪVARDĪ, ḤOSĀM-AL-DĪN

    L. A. Giffen

    jurisconsult, mathematician and logician (d. 1413).

  • ABJAD

    G. Krotkoff

     “alphabet,” a word formed from the first four letters of the Semitic alphabet.

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  • ABJADĪ

    M. Baqir

    Poetical name of MĪR MOḤAMMAD ESMĀʿĪL KHAN, 18th century south-Indian poet of Persian and Urdu.

  • ABḴĀZ

    Dzh. Giunashvili

    (also APSUA, APSNI), ethnic group of the Caucasus.

  • ABLUTION, ISLAMIC

    I. K. Poonawala

    (vożūʾ), the minor ritual purification performed before prayers.

  • ABLUTION, ZOROASTRIAN

    Cross-Reference

    See PADYĀB.

  • ABNĀʾ

    C. E. Bosworth

    "sons," term for the offspring of Persian soldiers and officials in the Yemen and of Arab mothers.

  • ABOULITES

    C. J. Brunner

    satrap of Susiana under Darius III, at the time of the Achaemenid collapse.

  • ABRADATAS

    C. J. Brunner

     a fictional king of Susa in Xenophon’s fictional, didactic life of Cyrus (Cyropaedia, books 5-7).

  • ABRAHAM

    Cross-Reference

    See EBRĀHĪM.

  • ABRAHAM OF CRETE

    George A. Bournoutian

    (Kretatsʾi; b. Kandia, Crete, ?- d. Ejmiatsin, 18 April 1737), a leader of the Armenian Church and the author of a chronicle about Nāder Shah Afšār.

  • ABRAHAM OF EREVAN

    George A. Bournoutian

    the author of a history of the wars in Armenian at the time of Nāder Shah Afšār.

  • ABRAHAMIAN, ROUBEN

    Jennifer Manoukian

    Armenian Iranist, linguist, and translator. One of the first teachers of Pahlavi language at University of Tehran.

  • ABRĀZ

    C. J. Brunner

    Middle Persian “high, superior, height,” old Iranian *uparyānk- “above, high.”

  • ABRĪŠAM

    W. Eilers, M. Bazin and C. Bromberger, D. Thompson

    Abrīšam appears as a loan word from Iranian in Armenian aprišum, aprešum, Syriac/Mandean ʾbryšwm, and Arabic ebrīsam. The NPers. rēšam/rīšam is evidently only a shortened form of abrēšam. In dialects one also finds čolla (borrowed in Turkic dialects as čille), from *čullak, arabicized as ṣollaǰ, properly speaking, “very fine cotton.”

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  • ĀBRĪZAGĀN

    M. Boyce

    “the pouring of water,” name for a Zoroastrian feast; the term could be used for Tīragān and probably also for the name-day festival of Hordād, both of which were celebrated by people sprinkling one another joyfully with water.

  • ĀšBRĪZĀN

    Cross-Reference

    See TĪRAGĀN.

  • ABROCOMAS

    M. Dandamayev

    Persian satrap of Syria and commander under Artaxerxes II.