viii. TRAVELOGUES OF THE 18TH-20TH CENTURIES
18th Century travelogues. After the fall of the Safavids in 1722, Persia was plunged for a long period into political anarchy, civil war, and economic and social insecurity. As a result there were fewer Western residents and visitors to Persia in the latter half of the eighteenth century. On the reign of Nāder Shah (1736-1747), accounts by missionaries, notably those by the Jesuit Père Louis Bazin, chief physician to Nāder Shah from 1746 until the latter’s assassination (Lockhart, pp. 257, 310-11), form useful complements to the Persian sources. Jean Otter, an official envoy to the Persian court in 1738, and a good linguist (Lockhart, pp. 306-7), wrote an account of his journey from Turkey to Isfahan, where he stayed for almost two years and summed up his impressions in these bleak terms: “The city of Isfahan, which suffered considerably during the siege, and even afterwards, was almost deserted. Entire quarters were abandoned, and the houses were falling into ruin. The same was true of the provincial towns,” (Otter, vol. I, p. 224).
About half a century later, in 1783-84, André Michaux explored Hamadān and its surroundings including Mount Alvand and enthused on the pleasures of exploring the mountains and valleys in the east (Bonnerot, p. 17; Gabriel, p. 121). His contemporary, Louis-François Comte de Ferrières-Sauvebšuf, an eyewitness to the civil wars of 1784-85 in Persia, gave an account of the skirmishes as well as the life of the people and of various religious groups. In 1787, the Abbé de Beauchamp, was sent to Rašt by the Académie des Sciences, but failed in his attempt to discover new itineraries (Gabriel, p. 122).
On the eve of the 18th century, Guillaume-Antoine Olivier provides us with a detailed account of his journeys. Sent to the Orient on a scientific and commercial mission (1794), he traveled in Persia in 1796 (Amini, pp. 21-22). Summing up his mission, he states: “a stay of several months at the court [of Āḡā Moḥammad Khan Qājār in Tehran] to carry out a mission of the highest importance provided me with the opportunity to observe the great, to study the people, and to collect interesting material about the history of the internecine wars which have ravaged this empire since the death of Nāder Shah” (Olivier, I, p. ix). In his depiction of cities and monuments, he makes frequent comparisons with what they were like under the reign of the Safavids. “The most flourishing cities under the reign of the Sophis consist of nothing but ruins everywhere: three quarters of the inhabitants have perished or fled to the quiet and fertile regions of Indostan” (Olivier, I, p. 224). He also provides valuable detail about topography, agricultural produce, industry and trade, the army and the navy, and the manners and customs of the people he encounters.
19th Century travelogues. A direct outcome of the perennial rivalries among the great Western nations in the early 19th century was a number of diplomatic missions, particularly French, sent to Persia in the hope of concluding agreements with the shah. Among the first French missions, some were also engaged in research on geographical, economic, political and social aspects. Their findings brought home to the west the realization that Persia was not as highly developed, nor as populated and rich as some 17th century travelogues had led them to believe, and the maps that sometimes accompanied the accounts showed a considerable part of the country as barren and deserted.
The French 19th century travelers to Persia came from different backgrounds and professions. In terms of the motives that led them to travel, they may be divided into three categories:
1. Diplomats and travelers on political or military missions. Pierre-Amédée Jaubert was sent to Persia by Napoleon to seek an alliance against England, and arrived in 1806 (Amini, pp. 71-82). He had already been taught some Persian and Arabic by Sylvestre de Sacy. His account focuses on the political and economic conditions of the country, describing the regions and towns he passses through on his way to the court of Fatḥ-ʿAlī Shah in Tehran. He describes the physical features of the Shah and the conversations he had with him and the Crown Prince ʿAbbās Mīrzā as well as their courtiers (Movassaghi, pp. 70-73; Jaktājī, pp. 101-7).
He was followed by General Claude Mathieu de Gardane (q.v.), who arrived in Persia in 1807 as an official representative to set up the details of the cooperation between the two countries. The mission itself ended in failure, but the scientific research carried out by its members, providing a detailed study of the country intended perhaps as a guide in case Napoleon’s plans for an invasion of India materialized, remains its lasting contribution. Thus J. M. Tancoigne took an interest in the behavior and habits of Persian women, a subject he illustrated with some fine drawings and also made topographical observations, referring to Tehran in 1807 as “a rectangular enclosure surrounded by wide brick walls,” (Scarce, p. 917, ref. to Tancoigne, Letter XX, pp. 179-80). Adrien Dupré, who acted as a dragoman to Trézel in their journey to Baghdad and to Persia (Movassaghi, pp. 75-76) provided a vivid geographical, historical, economic and anthropological account. Camille-Alphonse Trézel explored the provinces of Gīlān and Mazandarān. Hilarion Truilhier, studied problems of water supply and irrigation, and also wrote on Yazd, describing its local cotton and silk industry and its Jewish and Zoroastrian minorities. Joseph Rousseau, traveled in western Persia and noted its archaeological sites, including the Ṭāq-e Bostān monument.
In 1825, the scholar Charles Bélanger, a botanist attached to the Ministry of Marine, gave an account of city life, the army, and the position of the British and Russians in Persia and their relations with the Persians. The position of the British and the commercial interests of France in the Persian Gulf were also discussed by Victor Fontanier, sent as an envoy to the Persian Gulf in 1834. The same considerations must have underlined the goodwill mission (“mission de courtoisie,” de Sercey, p. 29) of Édouard Comte de Sercey, sent to Persia as ambassador extraordinary by Louis Philippe in 1839-40. A failure in terms of its political objectives, the mission was highly successful from an artistic point of view. It included Eugène Flandin and Pascal-Xavier Coste (see FLANDIN AND COSTE), who succeeded in exploring most of Persia (1839-41) and produced their magnificent oeuvre on its archaeological monuments. When Comte de Sercey arrived in Persia, he was welcomed by Eugène Boré, another pupil of de Sacy a generation after Jaubert (Movassaghi, pp. 73-75) and Charles Texier, who were engaged in restoring archaeological monuments and bas reliefs. They also took a wide interest in the political, economic, and cultural conditions of the country.
In 1845, Charles de Gatines who had accompanied the Comte de Sartige in his mission to the Persian court, wrote an account of his return journey, describing among other things the art of professional dancers and the fabrication of forged medallions by Jews in Hamadān. Two years later, in l847, Xavier Hommaire de Hell embarked on a study of topics relating to astrological lore, geography and geology of Persia but he died suddenly in August 1848 in Isfahan (Jaktājī, pp. 91-96). His companion Jules Laurens continued his mission and produced some of the finest drawings ever made of the country. Joseph Arthur Comte de Gobineau (q.v.) arrived in Persia on his first visit in 1855. An admirer of Persia, he was responsible, even more than Montesquieu, for the appearance of Persia and motifs taken from Persian literature in French literature (Boissel 1973, pp. 81-113). During the years 1858-61, Émile Duhousset, a military adviser to the army, wrote not only about wild life and hunting in Persia but also made detailed anthropometric measurements of members of a regiment in Solṭānīya in his anthropological research. During his long stay in Persia, Julien Comte de Rochechouart, who took over the French legation in 1863 from Gobineau, made a grand tour of the country studying its architecture, pottery and ceramics production, as well as other handicraft and the conditions of merchants and artisans (Jaktājī, pp. 136-37). A decade later, Jules Patenôtre spent three years (1873-76) in the north of the country and described the silk and carpet markets in northern Persia, as well as the route from Rašt to Tehran. Other travelers of the period included Gabriel Bonvalot, who traveled in the north of Persia in 1885 on his way to a geographical mission to India and wrote about music and medicine; and Albert Develay and Georges Pisson, who studied different aspects of Kurdish life in 1890. But perhaps the most important single account of the last years of the century was that of Dr. Jean-Baptiste Feuvrier (q.v.), an army doctor and the shah’s physician in ordinary (1889-92), who gave a vivid account of the court, the personality of the shah, as well as the events surrounding the debacle of the Tobacco Régie.
2.Travelers on archaeological missions. After the diplomats, the archaeologists held pride of place. The Third Republic (1870-1944) confirmed the policy of French colonial expansion, adding to it a keen enthusiasm for archaeology. The remarkable surveys carried out by Charles Texier, Coste, Flandin, Laurens, and subsequently Henri Binder in Kurdistan (1885) were followed by other important missions, including those of the Dieulafoys (qq.v.) in 1884-86, and Jacques de Morgan (q.v.) from 1897 to 1912. It should be noted that the contributions made by Jane Dieulafoy (q.v.) and those of the engineer Charles Babin and botanist Frédéric Houssay who accompanied the Dieulafoys transcend the realm of archaeology and delve into other aspects of life in Persia including the nomadic life of the Baḵtīārī (see DÉLÉGATIONS ARCHÉOLOGIQUES FRANÇAISES).
3. Soldiers of fortune and tourists. The development of steamships, especially after 1850, and the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869, led to more rapid voyages to the Black Sea and the Persian Gulf. Moreover, the Romantic movement in literature permeated western culture in general and introduced a vogue for journeys to lands regarded as exotic. There was thus a ready market for books by travelers, frequently accompanied by fine illustrations.
Persia was very much part of this general trend and was a coveted destination for European travelers in search of adventure. Major Gaspard Drouville’s well-known account of manners and customs of Persian society, including marriage, divorce and religious ceremonies, and the army, its weapons and organization as witnessed in 1812-13, contains fine engravings (Jaktājī, pp. 54-56). Other narratives include those of Joseph-Pierre Ferrier, a military envoy who sporadically traveled over most parts of the country between 1839 and 1846; and Henri de Coulibšuf de Blocqueville, who had been captured and kept a prisoner by the Turcomans for over a year while on a punitive expedition against them.
Among the scientists who visited Persia, one can single out Rémi Aucher-Éloy who collected botanical and zoological specimens in 1835-37.
Among the tourists, the most observant were: Jules-Charles Teule (1841), E. Guilliny (1858), the Comte de Panisse (1865), Ferdinand Méchin (1867), Ernest Orsolle (1882; Jaktājī, pp. 127-29), Jean de Pontevès de Sabran (1888), Carle Lefèvre-Pontalis (1892), Auguste Lacoin de Vilmorin (1894; Jaktājī, pp. 158-61) and George Grillières (1899). Most of these travelers kept to well-trodden routes and their accounts are often replete with inaccurate and superficial judgments. However, some of them broached original topics and relatively unexplored aspects of their contemporary scene including the description of local male and female costumes in Gīlān (Guilliny, p. 91), incidents of drunkenness, prostitution, and homosexuality in Tehran (Panisse, pp. 117-120), the royal palace of Negārestān and salacious reports about its slide used for erotic purposes (de Pontevès de Sabran, pp. 138-40), and the Zoroastrian community in Yazd (Méchin).
20th Century travelogues. The rapid development in both the means of transport and communication in the 20th century meant that although the number of foreign visitors to Persia increased dramatically, the reasons and the urge to compose narratives of journeys in the manner of the previous centuries had disappeared. Nevertheless, until the outbreak of the First World War, one still finds narratives of journeys, like those of Pierre Loti, Claude Anet (Jaktājī, pp. 14-15) and Henry-René d’Allemagne (Jaktājī, pp. 3-13) which as well as describing the manners and customs of the people, also report on archaeological finds and provide detailed accounts of local handicrafts. To these could be added accounts given by some members of the French archaeological delegation such as Georges Bondoux, the botanist Louis-Charles Watelin and Émile André. Certain French observers also wrote about the major political upheavals of the time, such as the Constitutional Revolution (EugèneAubin, Jaktājī, pp. 16-20 ) or the Anglo-Russian rivalries in Persia (Jouannin, Bouillane de Lacoste).
The political and social upheavals after the First World War induced some travelers, including the orientalist Henri Massé and H. Weaver of the International Bureau of Labor in Geneva and the special correspondent Maurice Pernot to analyze the process of modernization in Persia, including, in the case of Weaver, the condition of labor in newly established industries. After the Second World War and indeed up to the present, French academics and researchers visiting Persia have continued this tradition of informing the French reading public at home through a mixture of personal narrative and direct observation against their own background of reading and analysis of Persian history and culture.
Travelogues and reports written in French by travelers and observers of other nationalities like Nicolas de Khanikoff (Chanykov), and Chodźko (q.v.), Carla Serena, and Henri Moser are not included here.
H.-R. d’Allemagne, Du Khorassan au pays des Backhtiaris: trois mois de voyage en Perse, 4 vols., Paris, 1911. I. Amini, Napoléon et la Perse, Paris, l995.
É. André, “Impressions de voyage en Perse,” Société de la Géographie de l’Est 22, N.S.,1901, pp. 139-66.
C. Anet, Les Roses d’Ispahan: La Perse en automobile à travers la Russie et le Caucase, Paris, 1906.
Idem, Feuilles persanes, Paris, 1924.
E. Aubin, La Perse d’aujourd’hui, Iran, Mésopotamie, Paris, l908.
R. Aucher-Éloy, Relations de voyages en Orient de 1830 à 1838, ed. Comte Jaubert, 2 vols., Paris, 1843.
Ch. Babin and F. Houssay, “A travers la Perse méridionale,” Le Tour du Monde 2, 1892, pp. 65-128.
L. Bazin, “Mémoires sur les dernières années du règne de Thamas Kouli-Khan et sur sa mort tragique,” Lettres édifiantes et curieuses IV, 1780, pp. 277-321.
Idem, “Seconde lettre contenant les révolutions qui suivrent la mort de Thamas Kouli-Khan,” Lettres édifiantes et curieuses IV, 1780, pp. 322-64.
Abbé de Beauchamp, “Voyage en Perse,” Journal des savants, 1790, pp. 726-48.
Ch. Bélanger, Voyage aux Indes orientales par le nord de l’Europe, les provinces du Caucase, la Géorgie, l’Arménie et la Perse (1825-29), 7 vols., Paris, 1834-38.
H. Binder, Au Kurdistan, en Mésopotamie et en Perse, Paris, 1887.
Idem, “Mésopotamie et Perse,” Bulletin de la Société de Géographie Commerciale de Paris 10, 1887-88, pp. 509-17.
J. Boissel, Gobineau, l’Orient, et l’Iran I, Paris, l973 (only one vol. published to date).
Idem, Gobineau biographie, mythes et réalité, Paris, l993.
G. Bondoux, “Un voyage en Perse,” Bulletin de la Société de Géographie Commerciale de Paris 27, 1905, pp. 262-73.
O. H. Bonnerot, La Perse dans la littérature et la pensée françaises au XVIIIe siècle, Paris, l988.
G. Bonvalot, Du Caucase aux Indes à travers le Pamir, Paris, 1889.
E. Boré, Correspondance et mémoires d’un voyageur en Orient, 2 vols., Paris, 1840.
Idem, “Lettre sur quelques antiquités de la Perse,” JA, April 1842, pp. 327-35.
H. de Bouillane de Lacoste, Autour de l’Afghanistan aux frontières interdites, Paris, 1908.
H. Castonnet des Fosses, A travers la Perse, Lille, 1891.
H. de Coulibšuf de Blocqueville, Quatorze mois de captivité chez les Turcomans aux frontières du Turkestan et de la Perse (1860-1861), Paris, 1866.
A. Develay and G. Pisson, “De Trébizonde à Téhéran,” Bulletin de la Société de Géographie Commerciale de Paris 14, 1891-2, pp. 97-124.
J. Dieulafoy, La Perse, la Chaldée et la Susiane 1881-1882, Paris, l887; repr. 2 vols. (with illustrations) as Une amazone en Orient. Du Caucase à Persépolis (vol.1); L’Orient sous le voile. De Chiraz à Bagdad (vol.2), Paris, l989; tr. ʿA.-M. Farahvašī as Safar-nāma-ye Mādām Dīūlāfūā, Tehran 1332 Š./ 1953.
G. Drouville, Voyage en Perse pendant les années 1812 et 1813, 2 vols., St. Petersburg, 1819; 2nd. ed., Paris, 1825.
E. Duhousset, “Les chasses en Perse,” Le Tour du Monde, l862, pt. 2, pp. 113-28.
Idem, Etudes sur les populations de la Perse et pays limitrophes pendant trois années de séjour en Asie, Paris, 1863.
A. Dupré, Voyage en Perse, fait dans les années 1807, 1808, 1809 en traversant la Natolie et la Mésopotamie, 2 vols., Paris, 1819.
J.-P. Ferrier, Voyages en Perse, dans l’Afghanistan, le Bélouchistan et le Turkestan, 2 vols., Paris, 1860, tr. into Eng. from the original unpublished ms. by W. Jesse as Caravan Journeys and Wanderings in Persia, Afghanistan, Turkistan, and Beloochistan, ed. H. D. Seymour, London, l857, repr. with intr. by G. Hambly, Karachi, l976.
L.-F. Comte de Ferriéres-Sauvebšuf, Mémoires historiques, politiques et géographiques des voyages faits en Turquie, en Perse et en Arabie depuis 1782 jusqu’en 1789, 2 vols., Paris, 1790.
J.-B. Feuvrier, Trois ans à la cour de Perse, Paris, 1900; trans. ʿAbbās Eqbāl Āštīānī as Seh sāl dar darbār-e Īrān, Tehran, 1326 Š./1947.
E. Flandin and P. Coste, Voyage en Perse pendant les années 1840 et 1841, 8 vols., Paris, 1843-54.
P. Frédé, Voyage en Arménie et en Perse, Paris, 1885 (see Jaktājī, pp. 79-80).
Idem, La pêche aux perles en Perse et à Ceylan, Paris, 1887.
V. Fontanier, Voyage dans l’Inde et dans le golfe Persique par l’Égypte et la Mer Rouge, 3 vols., Paris, l844-46.
Idem, Narrative of a Mission to India, London, l844.
A. Gabriel, Die Erforschung Persiens: Die Entwicklung der abenlädischen Kenntnis der Geographie Persiens, Vienna, 1952; tr. F. Ḵᵛāja-nūrī as Taḥqīqāt-e joḡrāfīyāʾī rājeʿ ba Īrān, Tehran, 1348 Š./1969.
A. de Gardane, Mission du Général Gardane en Perse sous le premier empire: Documents historiques publiés par son fils, Paris, 1865.
P.-A. de Gardane, Journal d’un voyage dans la Turquie d’Asie et la Perse, fait en 1807 et 1808, Paris, 1809.
H. Garnier, Voyage en Perse, Arménie, Mésopotamie, Chaldée etc., Tours, l859.
Ch. de Gatines, “Journal d’un voyage en Orient: de Téhéran à Bagdad,” Revue de l’Orient 14, l862, pp. 108-26.
J. A. Comte de Gobineau, Trois ans en Asie (de 1855 à 1858), Paris, 1859.
G. Grillières, “Voyage en Russie et en Perse,” Bulletin de la Société de Géographie Commerciale de Paris 22, 1900, pp. 245-66.
E. Guilliny, “Essai sur le Ghilan,” Bulletin de la Société de Géographie 11, 1866, pp. 81-104.
X. Hommaire de Hell, Voyage en Turquie et en Perse 1846-8, ed. Adèle Hommaire de Hell, 4 vols., Paris, 1854-60 (illustrated by Jules Laurens).
Idem, “De Tauris à Téhéran,” Revue de l’Orient 4, 1856, pp. 1-23.
F. Houssay, “Souvenirs d’un voyage en Perse: l’Arabistan et la montagne des Bakhtyaris; le littoral du golfe Persique et le Fars,” Revue des deux Mondes 79, 1887, pp. 367-91 and pp. 856-83.
Idem, “La structure du sol et son influence sur la vie des hommes: Études sur la Perse méridionale, 1885-6,” Annales de Géographie 3, 1894, pp. 278-95.
P.-A. Jaubert, Voyage en Arménie et en Perse, fait dans les années 1805-1806, Paris, 1821.
M. P. Jaktājī, Fehrest-e towṣīfī-ye safar-nāmahā-ye farānsavī mawjūd dar ketābḵāna-ye mellī-ye Īrān,2535=1356 Š./ 1977.
A. Jouannin, “Sur les rives du golfe Persique, notes de voyage (1903),” Bulletin de la Société de Géographie commerciale de Paris 26, 1904, pp. 62-75.
C. Lefèvre-Pontalis, De Tiflis à Persépolis, Paris, 1894. L. Lockhart, Nadir Shah: A Critical Study Based Mainly Upon Contemporary Sources, London, l938. Pierre Loti, Vers Ispahan, Paris, 1904.
H. Massé, Vers le Khorasan (automne 1934): aux lieux saints de la Perse (automne 1931), Paris, 1935.
F. Méchin, Lettres d’un voyageur en Perse, Bourges, 1867.
A. Michaux, Voyage d’Andre Michaux en Syrie et en Perse (1782-85), ed. E. T. Hamy, Geneva, 1911.
J. de Morgan, “Relation sommaire d’un voyage en Perse et dans le Kurdistan (1889-1891),” Bulletin de la Société de Géographie de Paris 14, 1893, pp. 5-28.
A.-M. Movassaghi, “Aptitudes et connaissances linguistiques des voyageurs français en Perse au XIXe siècle,” Luqmān 10/1, Fall-Winter, 1993-94, pp. 69-95.
G.-A. Olivier, Voyage dans l’empire Othoman, l’Égypte et la Perse, 3 vols., Paris, 1801-7.
E. Orsolle, Le Caucase et la Perse, Paris, 1885.
J. Otter, Voyage en Turquie et en Perse avec une Relation des expéditions de Tahmas Kouli-khan, 2 vols., Paris, 1748 (for further bibliographical information see Lockhart, p. 324).
Le Comte de Panisse, La Russie, la Perse, l’Inde, souvenirs de voyage (1865-66), Paris, 1867.
J. Patenôtre, “Les Persans chez eux,” Revue des deux Mondes 8, 1875, pp. 145-68.
M. Pernot, “L’inquiétude de l’Orient: intrigue et politique en Perse,” Revue des deux Mondes, 1 February l927, pp. 618-50.
Idem, “A traverse la Perse,” Revue des deux Mondes, 15 February 1927, pp. 837-70.
G. Pisson, “De Trébizonde à Téhéran,” Bulletin de la Société de Géographie Commerciale de Paris 14, 1891-92, pp. 97-124.
J. de Pontevès de Sabran, Notes de voyage d’un hussard: un raid en Asie, Paris, 1888.
Idem, “Voyage au Caucase, en Perse, au Khoraçan et en Asie centrale,” Bulletin de la Société de Géographie Commerciale 12, Bordeaux, 1889, pp. 88-92.
J. de Rochechouart, Souvenirs d’un voyage en Perse, Paris, 1867.
J. Rousseau, “Extrait de l’itinéraire d’un voyage en Perse par la voie de Bagdad,” Fundgruben des Orients 3, 1813, pp. 85-98.
A. de St. Quentin, Notes d’un voyage dans les montagnes de l’Elbourz et le Mazendhéran, Paris, 1859.
J. Scarce, “The Arts of the Eighteenth to Twentieth Centuries,” Camb. Hist. Iran VII, pp. 890-958.
É. Comte de Sercey, Une ambassade extraordinaire: la Perse en 1839-1840, Paris, 1928.
F. Sicard, Rapport du capitaine Sicard au retour de son voyage en Arabie, Perse, golfe Persique et Mésopotamie, pour la Société franco-orientale, Paris, 1869.
J. M. Tancoigne, Lettres sur la Perse et la Turquie d’Asie, 2 vols., Paris, 1819; tr. into Eng. as A Narrative of a Journey into Persia and Residence at Tehran , London, l820.
J.-C. Teule, Pensées et notes critiques extraites du journal de mes voyages dans l’empire du Sultan de Constantinople, dans les provinces russes, géorgiennes et tatares du Caucase et dans le royaume de Perse, 2 vols., Paris, 1842.
Ch. Texier, Description de l’Arménie, la Perse et la Mésopotamie, 2 vols., Paris, 1842-52.
Idem, “Itinéraires en Arménie, en Kurdistan et en Perse,” Bulletin de la Société de Géographie 20, 2nd series, 1843, pp. 229-52.
H. Truilhier, “Mémoire descriptif de la route de Téhéran à Meched, et de Meched à Jezd reconnue en 1807,” Bulletin de la Société de Géographie 9, 2nd series, 1838, pp 109-45, pp. 249-82, pp. 313-29; 10, also l838, pp. 5-18.
C.-A. Trézel, “Notice sur le Ghilan et le Mazanderan,” in P.-A. Jaubert, Voyage en Arménie et en Perse, pp. 417-63.
C. Vaume, “De Resht à Hamadan par le Karaghan-Dagh,” Compte-Rendu des séances de la Société de Géographie, no. 1, 1887, pp. 19-24.
A. Lacoin de Vilmorin, De Paris à Bombay par la Perse, Paris, 1895.
L.-C. Watelin, La Perse immobile: ses paysages inconnus, ses villes délaisseés. Paris, 1921.
H. Weaver, “Notes sur un voyage en Inde, en Irak, en Perse et en Turquie,” Revue internationale de travail 28, 1933, pp. 491-527.
Originally Published: December 15, 2000
Last Updated: January 31, 2012
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