FAŻLĪ NAMANGĀNĪ, ʿABD-AL-KARĪM

 

FAŻLĪ NAMANGĀNĪ, ʿABD-AL-KARĪM (d. after 1237/1822), Central Asian bilingual poet (Persian and Chaghatay), taḏkera compiler, and historian. Fażlī spent his childhood and youth in poverty. For a time he was an official in his birthplace, Namangān, and in Tōraqōrḡān, apparently before joining the court of the ruler of Ḵōqand, Moḥammad ʿOmar Khan Mīng (ca. 1225-37/1810-22). Twice banished from the court, he succeeded finally to rank as its poet laureate (malek al-šoʿarāʾ). After the khan’s death (1822), Fażlī returned to Namangān, where he spent the rest of his life (Mošref Esfaragī,fol. 27a-b; Qayumov, pp. 65-66; Maḵmūr, p. 21).

The only known manuscript of Fażlī’s dīvān, compiled during his lifetime (copied in Bukhara in 1226/1811; see Mirzoev et al., IV, pp. 113-14, no. 1347), contains in its twenty-six folios only a few of his azals,qeṭʿas, robāʿīs, and several short maṯnawīs. (Three works entitled Dīvān-e Fażlī as listed in Monzawī, Nosḵahā III, p. 2467, apparently are not copies of the dīvān of Fażlī Namangānī.) The known corpus of his poetry, however, consists of a greater number of ḡazals and poems in forms of qaṣīda, moḵammas, mošāʿera, and specifically Turkic tuyuḡs (pun rhyme quatrains).

Both the Persian and Chaghatay poetry of Fażlī are lucid and relatively simple in style. This feature caused a number of his ḡazals to be set to the tunes of the šaš maqām (see CENTRAL ASIA xvi). The enormous popularity of Fażlī in the 19th to early 20th centuries is evidenced by the presence of a large number of his ḡazals in Central Asian bayāżes (q.v.; anthologies) of that period (e.g., 42 items are listed in Mirzoev et al., V, passim; cf. indices, pp. 398, 425; the Fażlī mentioned on p. 13, no. 1500/16 is not Fażlī Namangānī).

Fażlī’s ʿOmar-nāma, finished in 1237/1822, is a versified narrative whose main topic is the history of the rule of ʿOmar Khan (about 120 folios out of 158). The evidently unique manuscript of it, lacking the end folio(s), is kept in the St. Petersburg branch of the Institute of Oriental Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences (no. C24670; see Akimushkin, p. 146; idem et al., p. 625, no. 58; Storey-Bregel, II, pp. 1187-88, no. 1052). It is a maṯnawī of about five thousand bayts in the motaqāreb-e moṯamman-e maḥḏūf/maqṣūr meter. ʿOmar-nāma became the basis for Mīrzā Qalandar Mošref Esfaragī’s prose Šāh-nāma-ye ʿOmar-ḵānī.

Another major work by Fażlī is his Majmūʿat al-šoʿarāʾ, a taḏkera which he finished in Rabīʿ II 1237/December 1821-January 1822 (mistakenly Rabīʿ II 1227/April-May 1812 in Mirzoev et al., II, p. 26, no. 308; for other manuscripts of this taḏkera see ibid., p. 26, no. 309; Semyonov et al., II, pp. 336-40, nos. 1637-41; VII, p. 113; Akimushkin et al., pp. 530-31, nos. 3930-31; Monzawī, Nosḵahā IV, p. 3170, no. 34534; litho. ed., Tashkent, 1320/1902). It includes Persian and Chaghatay poems of 101 poets, 75 of whom are introduced by Fayżī in Persian maṯnawī, also in the motaqāreb-e moṯamman-e maḥḏūf/maqṣūr meter. The taḏkera is a major source for the study of literary life in the Ḵōqand Khanate of the early 19th century. It served as the main source for Raḥmat-Allāh Wāżeḥ’s Toḥfat al-aḥbāb fī taḏkerat al-aṣḥāb.

 

Bibliography (for cited works not given in detail, see “Short References”):

M. Aĭbek, ed., Antologiya uzbekskoĭ poèzii (Anthology of Uzbek Poetry), Moscow, 1950, pp. 226-30, 237-38.

O. F. Akimushkin, “Novye postupleniya persidskikh rukopiseĭ v Rukopisnyĭ otdel Instituta narodov Azii AN SSSR” (New acquisitions of Persian manuscripts at the Manuscript Department of the Institute of Peoples of Asia, Academy of Sciences, USSR), in V. V. Struve et al., eds., Éllinisticheskiĭ Blizhniĭ Vostok, Vizantiya i Iran: Istoriya i filologiya, Sbornik v chest’. . . N. B. Pigulevskoĭ, Moscow, 1967, pp. 144-56.

Idem et al., Persidskie i tadzhikskie rukopisi Instituta narodov Azii AN SSSR: Kratkiĭ alfavitnyĭ katalog (Persian and Tajik manuscripts at the Institute of Peoples of Asia, Academy of Sciences, USSR: Short alphabetical catalogue), pt. 1, Moscow, 1964.

S. Bakhrushin et al., eds., Istoriya narodov Uzbekistana II: Ot obrazovaniya gosudarstva Sheĭbanidov do Velikoĭ Oktyabr’skoĭ sotzialisticheskoĭ revoliyutsii (History of the Uzbekistan Peoples: From the formation of the Shaybanid state to the Great October Socialist Revolution), Tashkent, 1947, pp. 178f.

A. Boboev (Bābāyev), “Majmūat-uš-šuaro,” in Īntsiklopediyai sovetii tojik IV, Dushanbe, 1983, pp. 312f.

Idem, “Fazlii Namangonī,” Īntsiklopediyai sovetii tojik VII, Dushanbe, 1987, p. 512.

I. Braginskiĭ, “Uzbekskaya literatura” (Uzbek literature), in M. I. Bogdanova, ed., Istoriya literatur narodov Sredneĭ Azii i Kazakhstana, Moscow, 1960, pp. 143 f., 146.

“Fazliĭ,” in Ūzbek sovet èntsiklopediyasi XI, Tashkent, 1978, p. 651.

B. I. Iskandarov and A. M. Mukhtarov (Moḵtārov), eds., Istoriya tadzhikskogo naroda II/2: Pozdniĭ feodalizm, XVII v.-1917 g. (History of the Tajik people: Late feudalism, 18th c. to 1917), Moscow, 1964, pp. 114-16, 120.

Kh. Korogly, Uzbekskaya literatura, Moscow, 1968, pp. 92-94.

M. Maḵmūr, Tanlangan asarlar, Tashkent, 1951.

N. Mallaev, Uzbek adabiyoti tarikhi, Tashkent, 1953, pp. 160, 163f.

A. M. Mirzoev et al., Katalog vostochnykh rukopiseĭ Akademii nauk Tadzhikskoĭ SSR (Catalogue of Eastern Manuscripts at the Academy of Sciences, Tajik SSR), 6 vols., Stalinabad/Dushanbe, 1960–88.

Ḵ. Mirzozoda (Mīrzāzāda), Materialho az ta’riḵi adabiyoti tojik, asrhoi XVI-XIX va ibtidoi asri XX (Materīalhā az taʾrīḵ-e adabīyāt-e tājīk, ʿaṣrhā-ye XVI-XIX wa ebtedā-ye ʿaṣr-e XX), Stalinabad, 1950, pp. 176-78, 180f., 183f.

Moḥammad Ḥakīm Khan, Montaḵab at-tawārīḵ, ed. M. Moḵtārov, 2 vols., Dushanbe, 1983-85, II, p. 400.

Mīrzā Qalandar Mošref Esfaragī, Šāh-nāma-ye ʿOmar-ḵānī, MS St. Petersburg, Institute of Oriental Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences, no. C471 (574a bis ggc).

S. Nettleton, “Ruler, Patron, Poet: Umar Khan and the Blossoming of the Khanate of Qoqan, 1800-1820,” International Journal of Turkish Studies 2/2, 1981–82, pp. 127–40.

A. Qayumov, Qūqon adabiy muhiti (XVIII-XIX asrlar), Tashkent, 1961, pp. 64-70.

O. Šarafuddinov, Uzbek adabiyoti tarikhi khrestomatiyasi II: XV-XIX asrlar, Tashkent, 1945, pp. 191-92, 198-99.

A. Semyonov et al., eds., Sobranie vostochnykh rukopiseĭ Akademii nauk Uzbekskoĭ SSR (Collection of Eastern manuscripts at the Academy of Sciences, Uzbek SSR), 11 vols., Tashkent, 1952-87.

O. P. Shcheglova, Katalog litografirovannykh knig na persidskom yazyke v sobranii Leningradskogo otdeleniya Instituta vostokovedeniya AN SSSR (Catalogue of lithograph books in the Persian language in the collection of the Leningrad branch of Institute of Oriental Studies, Academy of Sciences of the USSR), 2 vols., Moscow, 1975, II, p. 535, no. 1440 (erroneously names Fażlī Mošref as the compiler of Majmūʿat al-šoʿarāʾ). Ūzbek adabiyoti III, Tashkent, 1959, pp. 594-95.

A. Valitova, “Fazli,” Kratkaya literaturnaya èntsiklopediya VII, Moscow, 1972, col. 879.

(Michael Zand)

Originally Published: December 15, 1999

Last Updated: January 24, 2012

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Vol. IX, Fasc. 5, pp. 466-467