ETTEFĀQ, title of five Persian newspapers.

1. A constitutionalist newspaper published by Mīrzā Ḥabīb-Allāh Khan ʿAkkās-bāšī in Solṭānābād (later Arāk) in 1326-27/1908-9. It was associated with the Anjoman-e ḥoqūq-e mellī, Šoʿba-ye Ṭehrān (Assembly for National Rights, Tehran Branch) and carried local news in addition to its political features. Its editor was Āqā Asad-Allāh. Issues were undated, and the last known issue is numbered 1/15. Format was eight single-column pages, 11 x 18 cm, and priced at 300 dīnārs, with a subscription rate of 12 qerāns. Copies are accessible at the libraries of Tehran University, Majles I, and the Museum of Reżā ʿAbbāsī in Tehran.

2. A weekly constitutionalist newspaper published in Rašt by Mīr ʿAbd-al-Bāqī and ʿAlī Āqā Nāẓem, the founders of the Ettefāq school in Rašt. Only the first issue, dated 21 Rabīʿ I 1327/12 April 1909, is known to be extant (Browne, Press and Poetry, no. 29). Handwritten with words crossed out, it has four pages, 22 x 35 cm. A copy is accessible at Cambridge University library, the Browne collection.

3. A constitutionalist newspaper said to have been published in Ardabīl at the beginning of the Constitutional Revolution. If so, it was the first newspaper published in Ardabīl (Ṣafarī, p. 227).

4. A weekly typeset newspaper said to have been published in Urmia by Ḥājī Ebrāhīm Afšār (not “Tehrānī” as cited by Browne) in 1328/1910.

5. A newspaper published in Rašt as the organ of the Ferqa-ye ettefāq o taraqqī. The first issue appeared on 16 Jomādā II 1329/14 June 1911, and the last known issue is no. 5, dated 2 Rajab/30 June. It was a weekly for the first two issues, and semi-weekly thereafter. The managing director of the first issue was Ḥ. Jamšīdzāda and of later issues, M. Maʿṣūmzāda Eškavarī. It contained many short features on reformist topics and news articles. Some sources confused this newspaper with no. 2 above. Format was four three-column pages, 31 x 44.5 cm, typeset. Copies are accessible at Cambridge University library, the Browne collection.


Bibliography: (For cited works not given in detail, see “Short References.”)

Browne, Press and Poetry, nos. 28-29.

ʿA. Dehqān, Sarzamīn-e Zartošt, Tehran, 1348 Š./1969, p. 711.

E. Faḵrāʾī, Gīlān dar goḏargāh-e zamān, Tehran, 1354 Š./1975, p. 320.

Idem, Gīlān dar jonbeš-e Mašrūṭīyat, 3rd ed., Tehran, 1356 Š./1977, p. 280.

Rabino, Ṣūrat-e jarāyed-e Īrān, Rašt, 1329/1911, no. 5.

Ṣadr Hāšemī, Jarāʾed o majallāt, nos. 32-34.

B. Ṣafarī, Ardabīl dar goḏargāh-e tārīḵ III, Tehran, 1362 Š./1983, p. 227.

U. Sims-Williams, Union Catalogue of Persian Serials and Newspapers in British Libraries, London, 1985, p. 239.

Tīātr 1/11, 17 Jomādā I 1326/17 June 1908, p. 4.



(Nassereddin Parvin)

Originally Published: December 15, 1998

Last Updated: January 20, 2012

This article is available in print.
Vol. IX, Fasc. 1, p. 54