ERUANDAŠAT (Eruand-a-šat, “Joy of Ervand”), a city in Armenia located on a rocky hill at the juncture of the Akhurean and Araxes (q.v.; Aras) rivers. Founded by King Eruand (Orontes) of the Eruanduni (Orontid) Dynasty ca. 200 B.C.E. (Moses of Khorene, 2.39; tr. Thomson, pp. 181-82), Eruandašat remained the capital of Armenia until the royal residence was moved to the new center of Artašat (Artaxata, q.v.) by its founder King Artašēs (Artaxias, ca. 189-61 B.C.E., q.v.) and Eruandašat was briefly renamed Marmēt or Artamet (Moses of Khorene, 2.46; tr. Thomson, p. 187). Besides being strongly fortified with ramparts and a citadel, Eruandašat had a certain commercial importance (Manandyan, 1965, pp. 37-38, 96, 155) but, although we know that it had a considerable Jewish population, there is no firm evidence that it was a Hellenistic center and it is unknown to classical authors. In the 4th century C.E., Eruandašat was given by King Trdat the Great (Tiridates, 298-ca. 330) to the house of Kamsarakan, a branch of the Arsacid royal house of Armenia and, as such, was the center of the district of Aršarunikʿ (Moses of Khorene 3.31; tr. Thomson, pp. 287-88). The city was destroyed by Šāpūr II during the Persian invasion around 364 C.E. and its population (supposedly 20,000 Armenian families and 30,000 Jewish) deported to Persia (ps.-Faustus, 4.55). Eruandašat still existed in the seventh century, but never recovered its former importance. Its ruins lie unexcavated between the modern villages of Bakhchalar and Kherbeklu (Eremyan, p. 51).
S. T. Eremyan, Hayastanē ēst “Ašzarhacʿoycʿ"-i, Erevan, 1963.
ps.-Faustus of Byzantium, Buzanadran Patmutʿiwnk, tr. N. G. Garsoïan as Epic histories, Cambridge, MA, 1989.
H. Hübschmann, Die altarmenischen Ortsnamen, Strassbourg, 1904; repr. Amsterdam, 1969.
H. Mandandyan, O Torgovle i gorodakh Armenii v sviazi s mirovoĭ torgovlei drevnikh vremen, 2nd ed., Erevan, 1954; tr. N.G. Garsoïan as Trade and Cities of Armenia in Relation to Ancient World Trade, Lisbon, 1965.
(Robert H. Hewsen)
Originally Published: December 15, 1998
Last Updated: January 19, 2012
This article is available in print.
Vol. VIII, Fasc. 6, p. 562