EMMERICK, RONALD ERIC, (b. Sydney, 9 March 1937; d. Hamburg, 31 August 2001), distinguished Australian scholar of the ancient civilizations and languages of Iran, India, and Tibet (FIGURE 1). He was the only son of Eric Steward Emmerick (1905-67) and Myrtle Caroline Emmerick, née Smith (1908-72). Prompted by his keen interest in languages and their history, he studied Latin, Greek, French, and German at Sydney University (1955-58), where he also attended an unofficial Sanskrit course offered by the classicist and linguist Athanasius Pryor Treweek. He took his B.A. degree with First Class Honors and received the University Medal for Classics with a thesis on “Mycenaean Morphology.” Subsequently he was appointed as a teaching fellow in the Latin department in 1959. His choice to write his thesis on Mycenaean Greek, whose script, Linear B, had only been deciphered in 1953, attests to his intellectual curiosity and shows how he was attracted by little explored subjects whose study could open up new vistas and deepen our knowledge of history in general. His chosen field of research, however, to which he devoted most of his life, was to be the Khotanese language and texts. He first heard of this language when, in Sydney, at the age of twenty-two, he read Harold Walter Bailey’s 1938 inaugural lecture, “The Content of Indian and Iranian Studies.” He was so impressed by this lecture that he decided to study Khotanese with Bailey at Cambridge University. There, he first completed his studies in Classics and was instructed in Iranian and Indian studies by Bailey, receiving the Brotherton Sanskrit Prize, the Bhaonagar Medal for Sanskrit and the Rapson Scholarship. Then, in the years 1963-65, he wrote his doctoral dissertation entitled “Indo-Iranian Studies: Saka Grammar” and took his M.A. and Ph.D. degrees in 1965. In the meantime, he had been elected research fellow at St. John’s College, Cambridge (1964-67) and lecturer in Iranian Studies at the School of Oriental and African Studies of the University of London (1964-71). In addition, he taught Sanskrit at Cambridge while Bailey was on a sabbatical leave (1965-66). He subsequently revised and enlarged his dissertation and published it under the title Saka Grammatical Studies (1968f), which became an indispensable reference work for both ancient and modern Iranian studies.
Emmerick paid meticulous attention to the texts and the sources available for the historical study of languages, with an eye on detail, but without ever losing sight of the wider perspective. Thus, his Saka Grammatical Studies were based not only on the reading of a large number of Old and Late Khotanese texts, but also on a careful scrutiny of the Book of Zambasta, the longest extant Old Khotanese text, in order to provide a firm basis for the grammatical study of Khotanese. Research on this text was carried out jointly by him and Bailey. In 1965, a facsimile edition of most of the preserved folios of the main manuscript of the work was published in Moscow (Vorob’ëv-Desjatovskij and Vorob’ëva-Desjatovskaja, 1965). This contained additional material that had not been used by Ernst Leumann in his editio princeps and translation (Leumann, 1933-36). Emmerick immediately published a review article of the book (“Notes on the ‘Tale of Bhadra’,” 1967b) and devoted two articles to a preliminary edition with translation and glossary of the new material (“The Nine New Fragments from the Book of Zambasta,” 1966a; and “The Ten New Folios of Khotanese,” 1967d). The collaboration between Emmerick and his teacher subsequently resulted in Bailey’s Prolexis to the Book of Zambasta (Bailey, 1967), dealing with the vocabulary and reviewed in detail by Emmerick (“Notes on The book of Zambasta,” 1969c), and in Emmerick’s new edition and translation of the text (The Book of Zambasta, 1968a). In connection with the study of the The Book of Zambasta, he also put forward a not altogether successful theory on Old Khotanese metrics (“Khotanese Metrics,” 1968b), which overestimated the role of stress and gave rise to a debate with Manu Leumann, who defended the quantitative theory of his father Ernst Leumann (Leumann, 1971; Emmerick, 1973a and 1973c).
Prior to his two 1968 books on Khotanese, Emmerick had already published Tibetan Texts Concerning Khotan (1967e) and a couple of articles (“Names from Central Asia,” 1968c, pp. 89-91; and “Notes on the Prophecy of the Arhat Saṃghavardhana,” 1968d). These were the outcome of research prompted by his need for historical information on Khotan. He began learning Tibetan in 1962, shortly after the appearance of John Brough’s edition of the Gāndhārī Dharmapada (Brough, 1962; see GĀNDHĀRĪ LANGUAGE), in order to compare the Middle Indian text with the Tibetan parallels provided in that edition. The following year he had the opportunity to spend several weeks with Tenzin Namdak (bstan ’dzin rnam dag), a learned lama who had been abbot at the Sman ri monastery. He had come to Britain thanks to a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation in 1963 and had been invited to Cambridge by Bailey. With Namdak, Emmerick read, among other texts, the whole of the Li yul lung bstan pa (“The Prophecy of the Khotan Country”), which was to become part of his Tibetan Texts Concerning Khotan. Taking advantage of the presence of a Tibetan native speaker, he also studied Namdak’s spoken Tibetan with John L. Trim, who was at that time lecturer in Phonetics at Cambridge.
In the 1960s and early 1970s Emmerick also devoted several articles to Iranian languages other than Khotanese, in particular to Avestan (“Some Reinterpretations in the Avesta,” 1966c; “Postscript to ‘Some Reinterpretations in the Avesta’,” 1967c; “Avestan āδū Again,” 1969a; and “Avestan vaδre yaona,” 1971a), Sogdian (“‘Old Age’ in Sogdian,” 1969d), Choresmian (“Some Chorasmian and Khotanese Etymologies,” 1970d), and Persian (“The Beginnings of Iranian Comparative Philology,” 1974b). In fact, in a few years he had acquired a deep knowledge of Khotanese and other Iranian languages as well as of Sanskrit and Tibetan, which produced a number of outstanding publications, imbued by his creativity and showing his customary accuracy. In recognition of his achievements, he was invited to the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago as visiting associate professor of Old and Middle Iranian in 1967-68; and after the publication of two further monographs (The Khotanese Śūraṅgamasamādhisūtra, 1970b; and The Sūtra of Golden Light, 1970f), he became, in 1971, Professor of Iranian Philology at Hamburg University, a position he held until his untimely death.
Emmerick’s teaching, to which he was as thoroughly devoted as he was to his academic research, was centered on languages and covered the history of the Iranian languages and all Old and Middle and some New Iranian languages and literatures (Avestan, Old Persian, Khotanese, Tumshuqese, Sogdian, Middle Persian, Parthian, Choresmian, Bactrian, Ossetic, Pashto, Pamir languages, Tajiki, and Kurdish), as well as Iranian religions in so far as they were required to interpret the source material. He was also visiting professor in several universities and at the Collège de France, where he gave a course on the Khotanese Rāmāyaṇa in March 1988. His fame attracted students who came to him not only from Germany and elsewhere in Europe, but also from Asia and America. Some of them wrote their doctoral dissertations under his guidance and now hold university positions around the world. Emmerick was constantly ready to advise all those who sought his opinion, particularly his students, with kindness and discretion, but he would always leave them free to make their own choice, a quality he himself attributed to his teacher Harold Bailey. It may be mentioned that the Late Khotanese Aparimitāyuḥsūtra and the Old Khotanese Saṅghāṭasūtra were edited and interpreted in detail by two of Emmerick’s students, Duan Qing (1992) and Giotto Canevascini (1993) respectively, and that Mauro Maggi’s editions of the Old Khotanese Karmavibhaṅga and the so-called Love Story in Late Khotanese (1995 and 1997) were stimulated by him: all three of them made full use of suggestions proposed by Emmerick himself. Prods Oktor Skjærvø spent the academic year 1977-78 studying the Suvarṇabhāsottamasūtra with him (2004). Another important work that originated as a doctoral dissertation under his guidance was the thorough study of Khotanese suffixes by Almuth Degener (1989), which was conceived as a further contribution to the detailed grammar of Khotanese launched with the Saka Grammatical Studies.
When Emmerick entered the field of Khotanese studies, not all the texts contained in the large number of Khotanese manuscripts that had been recovered by expeditions from the West and from Japan between the end of the nineteenth and the first decades of the twentieth century had been satisfactorily interpreted, notwithstanding pioneering work done chiefly by A. F. Rudolf Hoernle, Ernst Leumann, Sten Konow, and Harold Bailey. Although Bailey’s monumental editions had made available most of the material, most Khotanese texts were in need of accurate editions and a number of extensive texts had not even been translated. Emmerick applied himself to their study, producing a large number of articles and a series of invaluable books. These include, besides the aforementioned works, facsimile and text editions and translations of texts in Khotanese and Tumshuqese (The Khotanese Śūraṅgamasamādhisūtra, 1970b; Saka Documents V-VI, 1971-73; The Tumshuqese Karmavācanā Text, 1985d; Saka Documents VII: the St. Petersburg Collections, 1993d, with Margarita I. Vorob’ëva-Desjatovskaja; Saka Documents Text Volume III: the St. Petersburg Collections, 1995c, with Vorob’ëva-Desjatovskaja), studies on the Khotanese lexicon and phonology (Studies in the Vocabulary of Khotanese I-III, 1982-97, with Prods O. Skjærvø; A Chinese Text in Central Asian Brahmi Script, 1993b, with Edwin G. Pulleyblank), an introduction to Khotanese studies (A Guide to the Literature of Khotan, 1979b; cf. Emmerick, 1984e), a posthumous introduction to the Khotanese language (forthcoming), and editions and translations of Sanskrit and Tibetan texts that were meant as preliminary work toward the interpretation of important Khotanese texts (The Sūtra of Golden Light, 1970f; The Siddhasāra of Ravigupta I: The Sanskrit Text, 1980c, and II: The Tibetan Version with Facing English Translation, 1982c; Vāgbhaṭa’s Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā, Groningen 1998c, with Rahul P. Das).
Given the wide range of articles written by Ronald Emmerick, it is convenient to group most of them thematically. The numerous articles devoted to the edition and translation of Khotanese texts include those on inscriptions (“Some Khotanese Inscriptions on Objets d’Art,” 1968e; “Note on a Khotanese Inscription in the Bremen Überseemuseum,” 1974d; “Cā tteya khī in the Musée Guimet,” 1984a), colophons (“Some Khotanese Donors,” 1974e), documents (“A New Khotanese Document from China,” 1984d; “Some More Khotanese akṣaras,” 1990e; “A Khotanese Monastic Account Book,” 1996a), the Buddhist text of the Khotanese manuscript Huntington K (1969b), the fragment P 5536 bis (1975b), the Bhaiṣajyagurusūtra (“A Khotanese Version of the Sūtra of the Lord of Healing,” 1985b), the Karmāṃ deśana (“The Confession of Acts,” 1977b), the Mañjuśrīnairātmyāvatārasūtra (“The Concluding Verses of the Khotanese Vajracchedikā,” 1977a; “Three Monsters in Khotan,” 1977d; “Some Verses from the Laṅkāvatārasūtra in Khotanese,” 1988a; “From the Mañjuśrīnairātmyāvatārasūtra,” 1997a; and “More Verses from the Mañjuśrīnairātmyāvatārasūtra,” 1998b), the Nandāvadāna (“Nanda the Merchant,” 1970c; and “Khotanese Glossary to ‘Nanda the Merchant’,” 1973b), the Rāmāyaṇa (“Two Problems in the Khotanese Rāmāyaṇa,” 1997c; and “Polyandry in the Khotanese Rāmāyaṇa,” 2000b), the Sumukhasūtra (“The Khotanese Sumukhasūtra,” 1997-98; cf. Emmerick, 1986a, on a Sanskrit fragment of the text), and the Verses of Prince Tcūṃ-ttehi: (1980d; see also 1982d). For Emmerick’s articles on the Siddhasāra and Jīvakapustaka see below.
Articles on the Khotanese language include those on the syntax of the cases (1965), phonology (“The Vowel Phonemes of Khotanese,” 1979d; “The Consonant Phonemes of Khotanese,” 1981d; “Thoughts on Khotanese e and o,” 1991c, with M. Maggi; “The Dunhuang MS Ch 00120,” 1992a; “Khotanese ei,” 1998a), the auxiliaries and periphrastic tenses (“Auxiliaries in Khotanese,” 1987a), the prohibitive particle ma (“Khotanese ma ‘not’,” 1990b), single lexical items (“Some Khotanese Past Participles,” 1966b; “The Mustard upamā,” 1967a; “Names from Central Asia,” 1968c, pp. 88-89 on the ethnonym hvatana‑ “Khotanese”; “‘Speak’ and ‘prosper’ in Khotanese,” 1970e; “Four Khotanese Words,” 1971b; “Khotanese bihīya Again,” 1981e; “Two Indian Loanwords in Khotanese,” 1981j; “Khotanese bāljse,” 1985a; “Tibetan Loanwords in Khotanese and Khotanese Loanwords in Tibetan,” 1985c; “A Khotanese Nightmare,” 1989b; “Khotanese birre,” 1990a; “Khotanese śśāman- ‘face’,” 1990c; “Two More Khotanese Ghostwords,” 1990f; “Khotanese kīrästānä ‘Christian’?,” 1991a; “‘Boys’ and ‘girls’ in Khotanese,” 1993a; “Khotanese bärätāndä,” 1995a; “On the St. Petersburg Folios of the Khotanese Suvarṇabhāsottamasūtra,” 1995b; “Khotanese mūrahaṃga and Other haṃgas,” 1996b; “Khotanese baṣṣä,” 2000a; “Mount Alborz in Khotanese?,” 2001; see also below on the Khotanese Siddhasāra), the Khotanese outcomes of Indo-European r-/n-stems (1980b), and the history of the language (“The Transition from Old to Late Khotanese,” 1987c), as well as of the outline of Khotanese and Tumshuqese in the Compendium linguarum Iranicarum (Wiesbaden 1989a).
Among his books, the Sūtra of Golden Light, which was the first translation of the Suvarṇabhāsottamasūtra into a European language and which ran to three editions and two reprints, was the result of only six weeks of work that he undertook in order to lay a sound foundation for the comprehensive edition and translation of the substantially preserved Khotanese versions. His work contributed to the improvement of the Sanskrit critical text as established by Johannes Nobel (1937) and, in agreement with Emmerick himself, was eventually carried on by Skjærvø who prepared a thorough study of the Khotanese versions, which was submitted as a habilitation thesis at Mainz University (1983; published 2004).
The Late Khotanese medical text entitled Siddhasāra first caught Emmerick’s interest in the 1960s and resulted in an immense amount of preliminary work, including an attempt to trace it in Arabic literature (“Ravigupta’s Siddhasāra in Arabic,” 1981h). Since “the key to a proper understanding of the Khotanese version lies in large part in the correct interpretation of the Sanskrit original and of its Tibetan rendering, both of which were used by the Khotanese translator” (Emmerick, 1980c, p. vii), he produced a first volume containing a critical edition of the Sanskrit, which was also based on three newly discovered manuscripts (1980c), and a second volume containing a critical edition and translation of the Tibetan (1982c)–two books that were described by Dominik Wujastik as “one of the most exciting recent developments in the study of Indian medicine” (Wujastik, 1985, p. 75). Work on the Siddhasāra opened up for Emmerick a new research subject, Indian and Tibetan medicine (Maggi 2003), and he devoted some forty articles to it, corresponding to more than four hundred printed pages: on the Sanskrit and Tibetan Siddhasāra see “On Ravigupta’s gaṇas,” 1971c; “The Sanskrit Text of the Siddhasāra,” 1971d; “New Light on the Siddhasāra,” 1974c; “Tetanus,” 1974f; “Ravigupta’s Place in Indian Medical Tradition,” 1975-76; “Some Lexical Items from the Siddhasāra,” 1983a; “Tibetan Lexical Notes,” 1984g; “Some Emendations to the Text of Ravigupta’s Siddhasāra,” 1986d; and “A Note on the Kyoto Siddhasāra Manuscript,” 1989c; on the Khotanese Siddhasāra see below; on the Jīvakapustaka see “Contributions to the Study of the Jīvaka-pustaka,” 1979a; “Hoernle and the Jīvaka-Pustaka,” 1982a; “The Svastika Antidote,” 1992b; “The Mahāsauvarcalādi Ghee,” 1994; and “The Mahāsauvarcalādi Ghr̥ta in Hoernle’s Unpublished Edition of the ‘Jīvakapustaka’,” 1997b; on other aspects of Indian medicine see “A Propos Sanskrit mālākanda,” 1974a; “Arsenic and sida,” 1981a; “Some Remarks on the History of Leprosy in India,” 1984f; and “Die Lepra in Indien,” 1986b; on Tibetan medical texts see “A Chapter from the Rgyud-bźi,” 1975a; “Sources of the Rgyud-bźi,” 1977c; “Some Lexical Items from the Rgyud-bźi,” 1978b; “Mi-chos,” 1981g; “Epilepsy According to the Rgyud-bźi,” 1987b; “Tibetan nor-ra-re,” 1988b; “rGas-pa gso-ba,” 1990d; “Some Remarks on Tibetan Sphygmology,” 1991b; and “Some Tibetan Medical Tankas,” 1993e; see also Emmerick, 1993c, on the Indo-Iranian concepts of disease and cure. Moreover, together with Das, he launched the Journal of the European Āyurvedic Society in 1990 and edited Vāgbhaṭa’s Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā (1998c). Unfortunately, few results of his research on the Khotanese Siddhasāra have been published given the vast amount of work he did on it (see, inter alia, “Some Remarks on Translation Techniques of the Khotanese,” 1983c).
He had planned a third volume which was to contain the Khotanese version with translation and commentary, but the appearance of Bailey’s Dictionary of Khotan Saka (1979) delayed its publication and induced Emmerick to publish a number of articles on single lexical items from the Siddhasāra that had been misinterpreted by Bailey “in order to reduce to manageable proportions the amount of commentary needed” (Emmerick, 1982, p. viii): see “Khotanese byāña,” 1980a; “The Case against ṣun-,” 1981b; “elai . bą̄mä,” 1981c; “Khotanese hamāñuna-,” 1981f; “Khotanese nuvāta,” 1982b; “Some More Loanwords in Khotanese,” 1983b; “Khotanese vī hā,” 1984c; and “‘ruki’ in Khotanese?,” 1986c; see also “Agane No More,” 1970a. Emmerick attached the utmost importance to the Khotanese Siddhasāra and continued working on it until his last days, leaving behind an almost finished edition and translation of the whole text. To do so he left aside several other works he had already brought to an advanced stage of preparation, including an edition and translation of most of the Mañjuśrīnairātmyāvatārasūtra, text-critical remarks on and a new translation of the Vajracchedikā, a new edition of the Jātakastava, and a new edition and translation of the Khotanese Rāmāyaṇa, a work in which he took great delight.
Emmerick was always willing to collaborate with other scholars both on Khotanese matters and on interdisciplinary subjects. Thus, he compiled Bailey’s bibliography with D. M. Johnson (1970g), studied some Khotanese and Chinese inscriptions on a Dunhuang painting with Glen Dudbridge (“Pelliot tibétain 0821,” 1978a), edited the series of Studies in the Vocabulary of Khotanese and wrote on Khotanese literature with Skjærvø (1982-97 and BUDDHISM iii), wrote an article on Khotanese phonology and two articles on Khotanese lexicography with Maggi (“Thoughts on Khotanese e and o,” 1991c; “Khotanese Lexicography,” 2005a; and “A New Historical and Etymological Dictionary of Khotanese,” 2005b), offered a new interpretation of the Turkish-Khotanese word list with András Róna-Tas (“The Turkish-Khotanese Wordlist Revisited,” 1992d), published Saka Documents VII and Saka Documents Text Volume III with Vorob’ëva-Desjatovskaja (1993d and 1995c), studied the use of the Late Khotanese script for writing Chinese with Pulleyblank (A Chinese Text in Central Asian Brahmi Script, 1993b), and edited the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā of Vāgbhaṭa with Das (1998c). In all this, his main concern was the advancement of research to the highest possible standard of scholarship.
This concern also explains the way he reacted, in his characteristically frank and direct manner, to the serious limitations of Bailey’s Dictionary (1979), not only by writing a severe review (Emmerick, 1981i) but also by initiating the series of Studies in the Vocabulary of Khotanese to correct the mistakes in the Dictionary and to gather information on the progress of research on the Khotanese lexicon. This does not mean, however, that he was ungrateful to or did not feel affection and esteem for his teacher, whom he indeed regarded as a father, as is evident from the Khotanese epigraph he composed for the article he contributed to the issue of Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies celebrating Bailey’s seventieth birthday (Emmerick, 1970c, p. 72). Immediately after Bailey’s death, he wrote an obituary in The Guardian (“Linguist of the Orient,” 1996c) to pay tribute to him as a scholar and subsequently wrote a short but moving biography presenting Bailey’s personal history and scholarly achievements (“Harold Walter Bailey, 1899-1996,” 1999). On 16 December 1999, the hundredth anniversary of Bailey’s birth, he delivered the first Sir Harold Bailey Memorial Lecture at the University of Cambridge (“Hunting the Hapax”, 2002).
Emmerick was an early advocate for the potentials of computers for research. In the 1960s, he had already initiated a project at Cambridge to use a mainframe for a concordance of the whole corpus of Khotanese texts. When, in the 1980s, personal computers became affordable and powerful enough, he made full use of their services. He began writing himself the programs he needed and developed, among other things, programs for the automatic treatment of Sanskrit and Khotanese texts and a number of ancillary programs. In 1986, on the occasion of the XXXII International Congress of Asian and North African Studies in Hamburg, he organized a special section on “Computers and Oriental Studies” with the Semitist Uwe Gleßmer and in 1988 he took part in the foundation, in Hamburg, of the WordPerfect Club and its organ, the WordPerfect Journal, in order to provide philologists with suitable tools for writing less common languages that were at that time not covered by the standard programs and fonts. He generously made his expertise available to colleagues and, in order to comply with their computing needs, collaborated with several academic institutions and research projects, including the “Dictionary of written Tibetan” of the Kommission für zentralasiatische Studien of the Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften in Munich. In 2000, he also began developing a database program for a dictionary of Khotanese that he was planning with Maggi. In this field, he did much more than he published: two articles on Sanskrit computing (“On the Indexation of Sanskrit Medical Verses and Prescriptions,” 1979c; and “The Indexation of Sanskrit Medical Texts,” 1984b) and one on Tibetan computing (“Tibetan Databank Management with Personal Computers,” 1992c).
On account of his high academic standing, his knowledge and farsightedness, and overall competence, his advice was widely sought in editorial matters. He was a member of the editorial and advisory boards of the Encyclopædia Iranica (New York), to which he contributed twenty-one articles, of the series Buddhica Britannica (Tring), Gonda Indological Studies (Groningen), Groningen Oriental Studies (Groningen), and Silk Road Studies (Turnhout), and of Indo-Iranian Journal (Dordrecht), Journal asiatique (Paris), Journal of the European Āyurvedic Society (Reinbek, later Traditional South Asian Medicine, Wiesbaden), Manuscripta Orientalia (St. Petersburg), Tocharian and Indo-European Studies (Reykjavík), and WordPerfect Journal (Hamburg, later WordPerfect Newsletter). He was the original editor of theThe Literature of Pre-Islamic Iran: Companion Volume I toA History of Persian Literature (2009), and was responsible for its initial planning and choice of contributors (after his death, the editing of the volume was completed by Maria Macuch).
In recognition of his outstanding scholarly achievements, Emmerick was elected corresponding fellow of the British Academy (1990), corresponding member of the Istituto Italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente (1990, later Istituto Italiano per l’Africa e l’Oriente) and of the Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften (1997), and honorary fellow of the Australian Academy of the Humanities (1999). Moreover, he was a member of the Council of the Corpus Inscriptionum Iranicarum, director of the “Turfanforschung Project” for the Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften since 1994, and honorary president of the Deutsch-Iranische Gesellschaft, Hamburg.
The election as honorary fellow of the Australian Academy of the Humanities gave him great pleasure, because he had never lost his attachment to his native land. He always spoke enthusiastically about Australia, which he visited several times after he left for Europe, including a few long visits in the last years, and where he attended two conferences, in Canberra (1979) and Melbourne (1994). In his library there were a collection of Australian stamps and many books on Australia including, of course, a dictionary of Australian English, a language about whose peculiarities he conversed with delight. He had applied to resume his Australian citizenship not long before his death and would have wished to spend more time in Australia after his retirement.
Ronald Emmerick led a full and affectionate family life. In Cambridge, in 1962, he had married Margaret Ann Frohnsdorff, his lifetime companion, and by the time they went to Hamburg in 1971, they already had two children, Paul Ronald (1966-2001) and Catherine Ann (b. 1969), while their daughter Veronica Jane was born towards the end of that year. He was also a sportsman, playing tennis and table tennis, and many Iranists remember being defeated by him in table tennis matches in his garden. It was typical of him that, after a serious operation in 1993 due to an almost fatal illness, he was soon back at playing tennis, and only a few months later he began winning again.
Not long before retirement, in December 2000, he was diagnosed with cancer of the lymphatic system which, according to the specialists, was not connected with the cancer of the stomach from which he had recovered in 1993. He might have overcome illness again through his strong will to live, but the sudden death of his son Paul on 27 July 2001 broke his spirit and he died one month later on 31 August.
A complete bibliography of books, articles, and reviews by Ronald E. Emmerick and of writings concerning him up to the end of 2005 was edited by M. Maggi in M. Macuch, M. Maggi, and W. Sundermann, eds., Iranian Languages and Texts from Iran and Turan: Ronald E. Emmerick Memorial Volume, Wiesbaden, 2007, pp. xxi-xlii. The volume also contains this contributor’s appreciation of Emmerick, on which this entry is largely based. The following is a wide-ranging selection of his writings:
“Syntax of the Cases in Khotanese,” BSOAS 28/1, 1965, pp. 24-33.
“The Nine New Fragments from the Book of Zambasta,” Asia Major N.S., 12/2, 1966a, pp. 148-78.
“Some Khotanese Past Participles,” BSOAS 29/3, 1966b, pp. 612-17.
“Some Reinterpretations in the Avesta,” Transactions of the Philological Society (TPS), 1966c, pp. 1-23.
“The Mustard upamā,” JRAS, 1967a, pp. 22-25.
“Notes on the ‘Tale of Bhadra’,” BSOAS 30/1, 1967b, pp. 83-94.
“Postscript to ‘Some Reinterpretations in the Avesta’,” TPS, 1967c, p. 204.
“The Ten New Folios of Khotanese,” Asia Major N.S., 13/1-2, 1967d, pp. 1-47.
Tibetan Texts Concerning Khotan, London, 1967e.
The Book of Zambasta, a Khotanese Poem on Buddhism, London, 1968a.
“Khotanese Metrics,” Asia Major N.S., 14/1, 1968b, pp. 1-20.
“Names from Central Asia,” Central Asiatic Journal 12/2, 1968c, pp. 88-91.
“Notes on the Prophecy of the Arhat Saṃghavardhana,” Asia Major N.S., 14/1, 1968d, pp. 96-100.
“Some Khotanese Inscriptions on Objets d’Art,” JRAS, 1968e, pp. 140-43, 2 pls.
Saka Grammatical Studies, London, 1968f.
“Avestan āδū Again,” TPS, 1969a, pp. 201-02.
“The Khotanese Manuscript ‘Huntington K’,” Asia Major 15/1, 1969b, pp. 1-16, 4 pls.
“Notes on The Book of Zambasta,” JRAS, 1969c, pp. 59-74.
“‘Old Age’ in Sogdian,” in Studia classica et Orientalia Antonino Pagliaro oblata II, Rome, 1969d, pp. 131-37.
“Agane No More,” TPS, 1970a, pp. 115-20.
The Khotanese Śūraṅgamasamādhisūtra, London, 1970b.
“Nanda the Merchant,” BSOAS 33/1, 1970c, pp. 72-81.
“Some Chorasmian and Khotanese Etymologies,” JRAS, 1970d, pp. 67-70.
“‘Speak’ and ‘prosper’ in Khotanese,” in M. Boyce and I. Gershevitch, eds., W. B. Henning Memorial Volume, London, 1970e, pp. 143-51.
The Sūtra of Golden Light, Being a Translation of the Suvarṇabhāsottamasūtra, London, 1970f (repr. 1979. 2nd [rev.] ed. Oxford, 1990; repr. [with corrections] 1992; 3rd [rev.] ed., 1996).
“Writings of H. W. Bailey (Books and Articles),” BSOAS 33/1, 1970g, pp. ix-xiv (with D. M. Johnson).
“Avestan vaδre yaona,” Indo-Iranian Journal 13/2, 1971a, pp. 123-25.
“Four Khotanese Words,” Asia Major 16/1-2, 1971b, pp. 61-68.
“On Ravigupta’s gaṇas,” BSOAS 34/2, 1971c, pp. 363-75.
“The Sanskrit Text of the Siddhasāra,” BSOAS 34/1, 1971d, pp. 91-112.
Saka Documents V-VI, Corpus Inscr. Iran. II/V, London, 1971-73.
“Commodianus and Khotanese Metrics,” TPS, 1973a, pp. 138-52.
“Khotanese Glossary to ‘Nanda the Merchant’,” Acta Orientalia 35, 1973b, pp. 115-26.
“Khotanese Metrics Again,” Asia Major 17/2, 1973c, pp. 137-53.
“A Propos Sanskrit mālākanda,” JRAS, 1974a, pp. 42-43.
“The Beginnings of Iranian Comparative Philology,” in R. N. Frye, ed., Neue Methodologie in der Iranistik, Wiesbaden, 1974b, pp. 49-56.
“New Light on the Siddhasāra,” BSOAS 37/3, 1974c, pp. 628-54.
“Note on a Khotanese Inscription in the Bremen Überseemuseum,” in G. Gropp, Archäologische Funde aus Khotan Chinesisch-Ostturkestan: Die Trinkler Sammlung im Übersee-Museum, Bremen, Bremen, 1974d, pp. 362-64 (photograph on p. 107).
“Some Khotanese Donors,” in P. Gignoux and A. Tafazzoli, eds., Mémorial Jean de Menasce, Louvain, 1974e.
“Tetanus,” TPS, 1974f, pp. 93-97.
“A Chapter from the Rgyud-bźi,” Asia Major 19/2, 1975a, pp. 141-62.
“A Khotanese Fragment: P 5536 bis,” in Monumentum H. S. Nyberg, Leiden, 1975b, I, pp. 223-36; III, pls. xxxv-xxxvi.
“Ravigupta’s Place in Indian Medical Tradition,” Indologica Taurinensia 3-4, 1975-76, 209-221.
“The Concluding Verses of the Khotanese Vajracchedikā,” in L. Lancaster, ed., Prajñāpāramitā and related systems: Studies in honour of Edward Conze, Berkeley, 1977a, pp. 83-92.
“The Confession of Acts,” in Varia 1976, Acta Iranica 12, Leiden, 1977b, pp. 87-115.
“Sources of the Rgyud-bźi,” in W. Voigt, ed., XIX. Deutscher Orientalistentag vom 28. September bis 4. Oktober 1975 in Freiburg im Breisgau, Wiesbaden, 1977c, pp. 1135-42.
“Three Monsters in Khotan,” Studia Iranica 6/1, 1977d, pp. 65-74.
“Pelliot tibétain 0821,” Studia Iranica 7/2, 1978a, pp. 283-85, pl. xv (with G. Dudbridge).
“Some Lexical Items from the Rgyud-bźi,” in L. Ligeti, ed., Proceedings of the Csoma de Kőrös Memorial Symposium Held at Mátrafüred, Hungary, 24-30 September 1976, Budapest, 1978b, pp. 101-8.
“Contributions to the Study of the Jīvaka-pustaka,” BSOAS 42/2, 1979a, pp. 235-43.
A Guide to the Literature of Khotan, Tokyo, 1979b (2nd ed., 1992).
“On the Indexation of Sanskrit Medical Verses and Prescriptions,” in Études sur la médecine indienne, Strasbourg, 1979c, pp. 3-8.
“The Vowel Phonemes of Khotanese,” in B. Brogyanyi, ed., Studies in Diachronic, Synchronic, and Typological Linguistics: Festschrift for Oswald Szemerényi, Amsterdam, 1979d, pp. 239-50.
“Khotanese byāña,” Zeitschrift für vergleichende Sprachforschung 94/1-2, 1980a, pp. 282-88.
“r-/n-stems in Khotanese,” in M. Mayrhofer, O. E. Pfeiffer, and M. Peters, eds., Lautgeschichte und Etymologie: Akten der VI. Fachtagung der Indogermanischen Gesellschaft, Wien, 24.-29. September 1978, Wiesbaden, 1980b, pp. 166-72.
The Siddhasāra of Ravigupta I: The Sanskrit text, Wiesbaden, 1980c.
“The Verses of Prince Tcūṃ-ttehi:,” Studia Iranica 9/2, 1980d, pp. 185-93.
“Arsenic and sida,” in G. Mazars, ed., Les médecines traditionelles de l’Asie: Actes du colloque de Paris, 11-12 juin 1979, Strasbourg, 1981a, pp. 93-102.
“The Case against ṣun-,” Indogermanische Forschungen 86, 1981b, pp. 212-22.
“elai . bą̄mä,” Münchener Studien zur Sprachwissenschaft 40, 1981c, pp. 27-33.
“The Consonant Phonemes of Khotanese,” in Monumentum Georg Morgenstierne I, Leiden, 1981d, pp. 185-209.
“Khotanese bihīya Again,” BSOAS, 44/3, 1981e, pp. 445-52.
“Khotanese hamāñuna-,” Studien zur Indologie und Iranistik 7, 1981f, pp. 71-75.
“Mi-chos,” in Ludwik Sternbach Felicitation Volume, Lucknow, 1981g, pp. 883-85.
“Ravigupta’s Siddhasāra in Arabic,” in H. R. Roemer and A. Noth, eds., Studien zur Geschichte und Kultur des Vorderen Orients: Festschrift für Bertold Spuler zum siebzigsten Geburtstag, Leiden, 1981h, pp. 28-31.
Review of H. W. Bailey, Dictionary of Khotan Saka (Cambridge 1979), Indo-Iranian Journal 23.1, 1981i, pp. 66-71.
“Two Indian Loanwords in Khotanese,” in K. Bruhn and A. Wezler, eds., Studien zum Jainismus und Buddhismus: Gedenkschrift für Ludwig Alsdorf, Wiesbaden, 1981j, pp. 79-82.
“Hoernle and the Jīvaka-Pustaka,” BSOAS 45/2, 1982a, p. 343.
“Khotanese nuvāta,” in L. A. Hercus et al., eds., Indological and Buddhist Studies: Volume in Honour of Professor J. W. de Jong on His Sixtieth Birthday, Canberra, 1982b, pp. 137-47.
The Siddhasāra of Ravigupta II: The Tibetan Version with Facing English Translation, Wiesbaden, 1982c.
“A Stanza from the Verses of Prince Tcūṃ-ttehi:,” in M. A. Dandamayev et al., eds., Societies and Languages of the Ancient Near East: Studies in Honour of I. M. Diakonoff, Warminster, 1982d, pp. 62-63.
Studies in the Vocabulary of Khotanese I-III, Vienna, 1982-97 (with P. O. Skjærvø).
“Some Lexical Items from the Siddhasāra,” in E. Steinkellner and H. Tauscher, eds., Contributions on Tibetan language, History and Culture: Proceedings of the Csoma de Kőrös Symposium Held at Velm-Vienna, Austria, 13-19 September 1981 I, Vienna, 1983a, pp. 61-68.
“Some More Loanwords in Khotanese,” Die Sprache 29/1, 1983b, pp. 43-49.
“Some Remarks on Translation Techniques of the Khotanese,” in K. Röhrborn and W. Veenker, eds., Sprachen des Buddhismus in Zentralasien: Vorträge des Hamburger Symposions vom 2. Juli bis 5. Juli 1981, Wiesbaden, 1983c, pp. 17-26.
“Cā tteya khī in the Musée Guimet,” Studia Iranica 13/2, 1984a, pp. 251-52, pl. xvi.
“The Indexation of Sanskrit Medical Texts: Progress and Prospects,” in G. J. Meulenbeld, ed., Proceedings of the International Workshop on Priorities in the Study of Indian Medicine Held at the State University of Groningen, 23-27 October 1983, Groningen, 1984b, pp. 147-54.
“Khotanese vī hā,” in Orientalia J. Duchesne-Guillemin emerito oblata, Leiden, 1984c, pp. 151-55.
“A New Khotanese Document from China,” Studia Iranica 13/2, 1984d, pp. 193-98, pl. xiv.
“Research on Khotanese: A Survey (1979-1982),” in W. Skalmowski and A. van Tongerloo, eds., Middle Iranian Studies: Proceedings of the International Symposium Organized by the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven from the 17th to the 20th of May 1982, Leuven, 1984e, pp. 127-45.
“Some Remarks on the History of Leprosy in India,” Indologica Taurinensia 12, 1984f, pp. 93-105.
“Tibetan Lexical Notes,” in L. Ligeti, ed., Tibetan and Buddhist Studies Commemorating the 200th Anniversary of the Birth of Alexander Csoma de Kőrös I, Budapest, 1984g, pp. 207-10.
“Khotanese bāljse,” Münchener Studien zur Sprachwissenschaft 45, 1985a, pp. 39-53.
“A Khotanese Version of the Sūtra of the Lord of Healing,” in Buddhism and its Relation to Other Religions: Essays in Honour of Dr. Shozen Kumoi on His Seventieth Birthday, Kyoto, 1985b, pp. 225-32.
“Tibetan Loanwords in Khotanese and Khotanese Loanwords in Tibetan,” in G. Gnoli and L. Lanciotti, eds., Orientalia Iosephi Tucci memoriae dicata [I], Rome, 1985c, pp. 301-17.
The Tumshuqese Karmavācanā Text, Mainz, 1985d.
“Another Fragment of the Sanskrit Sumukhadhāraṇī,” in G. Bhattacharya, ed., Deyadharma: Studies in Memory of Dr. D. C. Sircar, Delhi, 1986a, pp. 165-67, 2 pls..
“Die Lepra in Indien,” in J. H. Wolf, ed., Aussatz, Lepra, Hansen-Krankheit: Ein Menschheitsproblem im Wandel II: Aufsätze, Würzburg, 1986b, pp. 185-99.
“‘ruki’ in Khotanese?,” in R. Schmitt and P. O. Skjærvø, eds., Studia grammatica Iranica: Festschrift für Helmut Humbach, Munich, 1986c, pp. 71-81.
“Some Emendations to the Text of Ravigupta’s Siddhasāra,” in W. Morgenroth, ed., Sanskrit and World Culture: Proceedings of the 4th World Sanskrit Conference of the International Association of Sanskrit Studies, Weimar May 23-30, 1979, Berlin, 1986d, pp. 579-85.
“Auxiliaries in Khotanese,” in M. Harris and P. Ramat, eds., Historical Development of Auxiliaries, Berlin, 1987a, pp. 271-90.
“Epilepsy According to the Rgyud-bźi,” in G. J. Meulenbeld and D. Wujastyk, eds., Studies on Indian Medical History, Groningen, 1987b, pp. 63-90.
“The Transition from Old to Late Khotanese,” in Transition Periods in Iranian History: Actes du Symposium de Fribourg-en-Brisgau (22-24 Mai 1985), [Paris], 1987c, pp. 33-42.
“Some Verses from the Laṅkāvatārasūtra in Khotanese,” in A Green Leaf: Papers in Honour of Professor Jes P. Asmussen, Leiden, 1988a, pp. 125-33.
“Tibetan nor-ra-re,” BSOAS 51/3, 1988b, pp. 537-39.
“Khotanese and Tumshuqese,” in R. Schmitt, ed., Compendium linguarum Iranicarum, Wiesbaden, 1989a, pp. 204-29.
“A Khotanese Nightmare,” in C.-H. de Fouchécour and P. Gignoux, ed., Études irano-aryennes offertes à Gilbert Lazard, Paris, 1989b, pp. 95-98.
“A Note on the Kyoto Siddhasāra Manuscript,” Studien zur Indologie und Iranistik 15, 1989c, pp. 147-49.
“Khotanese birre,” JRAS, 1990a, 7-9, 1 pl.
“Khotanese ma ‘not’,” in G. Gnoli and A. Panaino, eds., Proceedings of the First European Conference of Iranian Studies Held in Turin, September 7th-11th, 1987 by the Societas Iranologica Europaea I: Old and Middle Iranian Studies, Rome, 1990b, pp. 95-113.
“Khotanese śśāman- ‘face’,” Tocharian and Indo-European Studies 4, 1990c, pp. 33-34.
“rGas-pa gso-ba,” in T. Skorupski, ed., Indo-Tibetan studies: Papers in Honour and Appreciation of Professor David L. Snellgrove’s Contribution to Indo-Tibetan Studies, Tring, 1990d, pp. 89-99.
“Some More Khotanese akṣaras,” Bulletin of the Asia Institute N.S., 4, 1990e, pp. 231-32.
“Two More Khotanese Ghostwords,” in Iranica varia: Papers in Honor of Professor Ehsan Yarshater, Leiden, 1990f, pp. 80-82.
“Khotanese kīrästānä ‘Christian’?,” in P. Bernard, F. Grenet, ed., Histoire et cultes de l’Asie centrale préislamique: Sources écrites et documents archéologiques: Actes du colloque international du CNRS (Paris, 22-28 novembre 1988), Paris, 1991a, pp. 279-82.
“Some Remarks on Tibetan Sphygmology,” in G. J. Meulenbeld, ed., Panels of the VIIth World Sanskrit Conference, Kern Institute, Leiden: August 23-29, 1987 VIII: Medical Literature from India, Sri Lanka and Tibet, Leiden, 1991b, pp. 66-72.
“Thoughts on Khotanese e and o,” in R. E. Emmerick and D. Weber, eds., Corolla Iranica: Papers in Honour of Prof. Dr. David Neil MacKenzie on the Occasion of His 65th Birthday on April 8th, 1991, Frankfurt am Main, 1991c, pp. 67-73 (with M. Maggi).
“The Dunhuang MS Ch 00120: Its Importance for Reconstructing the Phonological System of Khotanese,” in A. Cadonna, ed., Turfan and Tun-huang, the Texts: Encounter of Civilizations on the Silk Route, Florence, 1992a, pp. 145-70.
“The Svastika Antidote,” Journal of the European Āyurvedic Society 2, 1992b, pp. 60-81.
“Tibetan Databank Management with Personal Computers,” in Ihara S. and Yamaguchi Z., eds., Tibetan Studies: Proceedings of the 5th Seminar of the International Association for Tibetan Studies, Narita 1989 II: Language, History and Culture, Narita-shi, 1992c, pp. 439-42.
“The Turkish-Khotanese Wordlist Revisited,” Central Asiatic Journal 36/3-4, 1992d, pp. 199-241 (with A. Róna-Tas).
“‘Boys’ and ‘girls’ in Khotanese,” Bulletin of the Asia Institute N.S., 7, 1993a, pp. 51-54.
A Chinese Text in Central Asian Brahmi Script: New Evidence for the Pronunciation of Late Middle Chinese and Khotanese, Rome, 1993b (with E. G. Pulleyblank).
“Indo-Iranian Concepts of Disease and Cure,” Journal of the European Āyurvedic Society 3, 1993c, pp. 72-93.
Saka Documents VII: The St. Petersburg Collections, Corpus Inscr. Iran. II/V, London, 1993d (with M. I. Vorob’ëva-Desjatovskaja).
“Some Tibetan Medical Tankas,” Bulletin of Tibetology 1993e, pp. 56-78, 12 pls.
“The Mahāsauvarcalādi Ghee,” in K. Röhrborn and W. Veenker, eds., Memoriae munusculum: Gedenkband für Annemarie v. Gabain, Wiesbaden, 1994, pp. 29-42.
“Khotanese bärätāndä,” in B. G. Fragner et al., eds., Proceedings of the Second European Conference of Iranian Studies Held in Bamberg, 30th September to 4th October 1991, by the Societas Iranologica Europaea, Rome, 1995a, pp. 163-67.
“On the St. Petersburg Folios of the Khotanese Suvarṇabhāsottamasūtra,” in R. Gyselen, ed., Au carrefour des religions: Mélanges offerts à Philippe Gignoux, Bures-sur-Yvette, 1995b, pp. 51-66.
Saka Documents. Text Volume III: The St. Petersburg Collections, Corpus Inscr. Iran. II/V, with contributions by H. Kumamoto et al., London, 1995c (with M. I. Vorob’ëva-Desjatovskaja).
“A Khotanese Monastic Account Book,” in R. E. Emmerick et al., eds., Turfan, Khotan und Dunhuang: Vorträge der Tagung “Annemarie v. Gabain und die Turfanforschung”, veranstaltet von der Berlin-Brandenburgischen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Berlin (9.-12.12.1994), Berlin, 1996a, pp. 51-65.
“Khotanese mūrahaṃga and Other haṃgas,” in Convegno internazionale sul tema: La Persia e l’Asia Centrale da Alessandro al X secolo, in collaborazione con l’Istituto Italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente, Roma, 9-12 Novembre 1994, Rome, 1996b, pp. 113-21.
“Linguist of the Orient,” The Guardian, 25 Jan. 1996c, p. 13.
“From the Mañjuśrīnairātmyāvatārasūtra,” in P. Kieffer-Pülz and J.-U. Hartmann, eds., Bauddhavidyāsudhākaraḥ: Studies in Honour of Heinz Bechert on the Occasion of his 65th Birthday, Swisttal-Odendorf, 1997a, pp. 81-90.
“The Mahāsauvarcalādi Ghr̥ta in Hoernle’s Unpublished Edition of the ‘Jīvakapustaka’,” Journal of the European Āyurvedic Society 5, 1997b, pp. 76-81.
“Two Problems in the Khotanese Rāmāyaṇa,” in S. Akiner and N. Sims-Williams, eds., Languages and Scripts of Central Asia, London, 1997c, pp. 25-29.
“The Khotanese Sumukhasūtra,” Indologica Taurinensia 23-24, 1997-98, pp. 387-421.
“Khotanese ei,” in N. Sims-Williams, ed., Proceedings of the Third European Conference of Iranian Studies Held in Cambridge, 11th to 15th September 1995 I: Old and Middle Iranian Studies, Wiesbaden, 1998a, pp. 93-97.
“More Verses from the Mañjuśrīnairātmyāvatārasūtra,” in P. Harrison and G. Schopen, eds., Sūryacandrāya: Essays in Honour of Akira Yuyama on the Occasion of his 65th birthday, Swisttal-Odendorf, 1998b, pp. 33-42.
Vāgbhaṭa’s Aṣṭāṅgahr̥dayasaṃhitā: The Romanised Text Accompanied by Line and Word Indexes, Groningen, 1998c (with R. P. Das).
“Harold Walter Bailey, 1899-1996,” in 1998 Lectures and Memoirs, Oxford, 1999, pp. 309-49,  portr. (repr. with reduced bibliography in C. E. Bosworth, ed., A Century of British Orientalists, 1902-2001, Oxford, 2001, pp. 10-48).
“Khotanese baṣṣä,” in A. Hintze and E. Tichy, eds., Anusantatyai: Festschrift für Johanna Narten zum 70. Geburtstag, Dettelbach, 2000a, pp. 31-37.
“Polyandry in the Khotanese Rāmāyaṇa,” in C. Chojnacki, J.-U. Hartmann, and V. M. Tschannerl, eds., Vividharatnakaraṇḍaka: Festgabe für Adelheid Mette, Swisttal-Odendorf, 2000b, pp. 233-38.
“Mount Alborz in Khotanese?” in A. A. Sadeghi, ed., Tafazzoli Memorial Volume, Tehran, 2001, pp. 19-20.
“Hunting the Hapax: Sir Harold W. Bailey (1899-1996),” in N. Sims-Williams, ed., Indo-Iranian Languages and Peoples, Oxford, 2002, pp. 1-17.
“Khotanese Lexicography,” in C. G. Cereti and M. Maggi, eds., Orientalia Romana, 8: Middle Iranian Lexicography: Proceedings of the Conference Held in Rome, 9-11 April 2001, Rome, 2005a, pp. 167-78 (with M. Maggi).
“A New Historical and Etymological Dictionary of Khotanese,” in C. G. Cereti and M. Maggi, eds., Orientalia Romana, 8: Middle Iranian Lexicography: Proceedings of the Conference Held in Rome, 9-11 April 2001, Rome, 2005b, pp. 227-34 (with M. Maggi).
The Literature of Pre-Islamic Iran: Companion Volume I toA History of Persian Literature, ed. R. E. Emmerick and Maria Macuch, London, 2009 (A History of Persian Literature 17).
An Introduction to Khotanese, ed. M. Maggi, J. S. Sheldon, and N. Sims-Williams, Wiesbaden, forthcoming.
Works by other authors referred to above.
H. W. Bailey, The Content of Indian and Iranian Studies: An Inaugural Lecture Delivered on 2 May 1938, Cambridge, 1938.
Idem, Khotanese Texts VI: Prolexis to the Book of Zambasta, Cambridge, 1967.
Idem, Dictionary of Khotan Saka, Cambridge, 1979.
J. Brough, The Gandhari Dharmapada, London, 1962.
G. Canevascini, The Khotanese Saṅghāṭasūtra, Wiesbaden, 1993.
A. Degener, Khotanische Suffixe, Stuttgart, 1989.
Duan Qing, Das khotanische Aparimitāyuḥsūtra: Ausgabe, Übersetzung, Kommentar und Glossar, Reinbek, .
E. Leumann, Das nordarische (sakische) Lehrgedicht des Buddhismus, Leipzig, 1933-36.
M. Leumann, “Zur altkhotanischen Metrik,” Asiatische Studien 25, 1971, pp. 456-80.
M. Maggi, The Khotanese Karmavibhaṅga, Rome, 1995.
Idem, Pelliot Chinois 2928: A Khotanese Love Story, Rome, 1997.
Idem, “Ronald E. Emmerick and the Siddhasāra: Khotanese, Iranian and Oriental Studies,” Traditional South Asian Medicine 7, 2003, pp. 15-28.
J. Nobel, Suvarṇabhāsottamasūtra, Das Goldglanz-Sūtra: ein Sanskrittext des Mahāyāna-Buddhismus, Leipzig, 1937.
P. O. Skjærvø, The Most Excellent Shine of Gold, King of Kings of Sutras: The Khotanese Suvarṇabhāsottamasūtra I-II, Cambridge, Mass., 2004.
V. S. Vorob’ëv-Desjatovskij [Vorob’ëv-Desyatovskiĭ] and M. I. Vorob’ëva-Desjatovskaja [Vorob’ëva-Desyatovskaya], Skazanie o Bhadre: Novye listy sakskoĭ rukopisi “E”, Moscow, 1965.
D. Wujastik, “Ravigupta and Vāgbhaṭa,” BSOAS 48, 1985, 74-78, pl. i.
April 15, 2009
Originally Published: July 15, 2009
Last Updated: July 15, 2009