ČEHRANEMĀ (lit. “mirror”), the name of an illustrated Persian newspaper and periodical published in Egypt (1322-1338 Š./1904-59, with interruptions), first in Alexandria (vols. 1-2/2) from 15 Moḥarram 1322/2 April 1904 to 1 Jomādā 1323/3 August 1905, then in Cairo from 10 Ramażān 1323/8 November 1905 to 1316 Š./March 1938. Čehranemā was published as a periodical from Farvardīn 1317 Š./March 1938 to Esfand 1338 Š./March 1959.
The founder and first editor-in-chief (modīr) was ʿAbd-al-Moḥammad Īrānī Moʾaddeb-al-Solṭān (b. Isfahan 1250 Š./1871-72, d. Cairo, 5 Ābān 1304 Š./27 October 1925), who had been active as a businessman in the Caucasus and Egypt. When fire in the printing house stopped its publication in Alexandria Moʾaddeb-al-Solṭān moved his activities to Cairo, where more advanced facilities were available. When he died in Ābān 1304 Š./October 1925 the publication of Čehranemā was continued by his son Manūčehr Moʾaddeb, a professor at the American University of Cairo.
Čehranemā was an informative, progressive newspaper with a patriotic tone, supporting the liberals and advocating reform and modernism in a wide variety of articles. This aspect of the newspaper led Moẓaffar-al-Dīn’s prime minister, ʿAbd-al-Majīd Mīrzā ʿAyn-al-Dawla (q.v.), to ban it from Persia in 1322/1904, but the ban was lifted through the intervention of a certain Mīrzā Ḥasan Tabrīzī Rošdīya (one of the founders of modern education in Persia) already on 8 Rajab 1322/ 18 September 1904. Despite its liberal tone during the years of the Constitutional Revolution Čehranemā supported Reżā Khan (later Reżā Shah) in his drive for power and after his abdication, and throughout the postwar years it continued as a conservative political magazine.
As a newspaper Čehranemā was published every ten, sometimes fifteen, days in 16-20 double-column pages measuring 21 x 30 cm and as a periodical once a month in 66 triple-column pages measuring 20 x 26.5 cm. The subscription price for the newspaper was 3 tomans for Persia and varied in other countries. The subscription price for the periodical was two pounds sterling everywhere.
Incomplete sets of the paper are preserved in most major libraries in Persia; in the India Office Library and Records, London; Cambridge University Library; the Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.; and the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Munich.
Browne, Press and Poetry, pp. xlv, 72-73.
Š. Esfandīārī et al., Maṭbūʿāt-e Īrān. Fehrest-e taḥlīlī-e Ketāb-ḵāna-ye Majles-e Senā, Markaz-e Madārek-e ʿElmī-e Moʾassasa-ye Taḥqīqāt wa Barnāmarīzī-e ʿElmī wa Āmūzešī, Tehran, 1354 Š./1965, pp. 54-55.
Fehrest-e majallāt-e mawjūd dar Ketāb-ḵāna-ye Āstān-e Qods-e Rażawī I, Mašhad, 1361 Š./1982, pp. 107-08.
G. Kohan, Tārīḵ-e sānsūr dar maṭbūʿāt-e Īrān, 2 vols., Tehran, 1360-62 Š./1981-82, I, pp. 226-27, II, pp. 694.
M. Moḥīṭ Ṭabāṭabāʾī, Tārīḵ-etaḥlīlī-e maṭbūʿāt-e Īrān, Tehran, 1366 Š./1987, pp. 90, 91, 150.
S. Nafīsī, “Maṭbūʿāt,” in Komīsīūn-e Mellī-e Yūnesko [UNESCO] dar Īrān, Īrānšahr II, Tehran, 1342 Š./1963, p. 1257.
I. V. Pourhadi, Persian and Afghan Newspapers in the Library of Congress 1871-1878, Washington, D.C., 1979, p. 14.
E. Pūr(-e) Qūčānī, Fehrest-e rūz-nāmahā-ye mawjūd dar Ketāb-ḵāna-ye Markazī-e Āstān-e Qods-e Rażawī, Mašhad, 1364 Š./1985, pp. 135-36.
H. L. Rabino, Ṣūrat-e jarāʾed-e Īrān wa jarāʾed-ī ke ḵārej az Īrān be-zabān-e fārsī ṭabʿ šoda ast, Rašt, 1329/1911, col. 78.
Idem, in RMM 1, 1907, p. 124, 10, 1910, pp. 125-26, 257, 12, p. 701, 13, p. 179, 27, 1914, p. 305, 30, p. 88.
M.-E. Reżwānī, Enqelāb-e Mašrūṭīyat dar Īrān, Tehran, 1344 Š./1965, p. 32.
Idem, “Sayr-ī dar noḵostīn rūz-nāmahā-ye Īrān,” pt. 3, Barrasīhā-ye tārīḵī 2/2-3, 1346 Š./1967, pp. 321-22.
Ṣadr Hāšemī, Jarāʾed o majallāt II, pp. 190-99.
Sāl-nāma-ye donyā 1, 1327 Š./1948, p. 149.
B. Sartīpzāda and K. Ḵodāparast, Fehrest-e majallahā-ye mawjūd dar Ketāb-ḵāna-ye Mellī-e Īrān, Tehran, 1357 Š./1978, pp. 104-05.
U. Sims-Williams, Union Catalogue of Persian Serials and Newspapers in British Libraries, London, 1985, p. 110.
M. Solṭānī, Fehrest-e rūz-nāmahā-ye fārsī dar majmūʿa-ye Ketāb-ḵāna-ye Markazī wa Markaz-e Asnād-e Dānešgāh-e Tehrān marbūṭ be sālhā-ye 1267 qamarī tā 1320 šamsī, Tehran, 1354 Š./1975, pp. 58-59.
Originally Published: December 15, 1990
Last Updated: December 15, 1990
This article is available in print.
Vol. V, Fasc. 2, pp. 119-120