The Iranian provinces of Azerbaijan, both West and East, possess a large number of monuments from all periods of history.




The Iranian provinces of Azerbaijan, both West and East, possess a large number of monuments from all periods of history. In the following the more significant buildings, rock reliefs, and archeological sites are enumerated, classified according to cultural periods.

i. pre-history and early history until the 1st century b.c.e.

Comprised mainly of ruins, these pre- and early historical monuments have cultural and architectural significance because of their extent and present condition.

1. Qalʿa Saranj, 6 km south of the border where Iran, Turkey and Armenia meet, Urartian refuge, 8th-7th century B.C.E. (AMI N.F. 8, 1975, pp. 54-58).

2. Sangar, 10 km northwest of Māku, Urartian fortress and settlement, with a three- room cliff dwelling and outside steps, 8th-7th century B.C.E. (Kleiss, 1968, p. 33ff.).

3. Varaḵrām (on the Araxes, north of Māku, Urartian fortress and settlement with residential extension, a temple terrace, three-room cliff dwelling, shaft graves, rock niches, and the remains of a bridge over the Araxes, 8th-7th century B.C.E. (AMI N.F. 7, 1974, pp. 82-93).

4. Dānālu, 12 km northeast of Māku, fortified Urartian dwelling, 8th-7th century B.C.E. (AMI N.F. 8, 1975, pp. 60-62).

5. Ravāz, 50 km southwest of Māku, strongly fortified residence from the 3rd century B.C.E. (AMI 12, 1979, pp. 27-47).

6. Qalʿa Ḥaydari, 6 km southwest of Siah Čašma, Urartian fortress with tunnel stairway, 8th-7th century B.C.E., used again in 6th-5th century B.C.E. (AMI N.F. 9, 1976, p. 20-23).

7. Torki Tappa, 8 km south of Siah Čašma, Urartian fortress and dwelling, 7th century B.C.E. (AMI N.F. 10, 1977, pp. 62-64).

8. Qalʿa Uḡlu, 30 km north of Qara Żiā-al-Din, Urartian fortress and residence, 9th-7th century B.C.E. (AMI N.F. 5, 1972, pp. 60-64).

9. Bolurābād, 9 km northeast of Qara Żiā-al-Din, fortified dwelling with block walls (AMI N.F. 8, 1975, pp.15-25).

10. Basṭām, 85 km southeast of Māku and 54 km northwest of Khoy, 7 km southwest of QaraŻiā-al-Din, large Urartian fortification (Kleiss, 1977), major excavations, foundations of Rusa ii, 7th century B.C.E. (Kleiss, 1979,1988).

11. Ev-uḡli (Qez Qalʿa), 69 km west of Marand, 35 km northeast of Khoy, Urartian fortress, 9th-7th century B.C.E.; nearby are Urartian inscriptions (AMI N.F. 6, 1973, pp. 86-89; Ghirshman).

12. Qez Qalʿa, 12 km north of Khoy, fortress site of the middle Bronze Age, Urartian fortress (8th-7th century B.C.E.), occupied again from Median /Achaemenid until Parthian times (AMI N.F. 7, 1974, pp. 80-83).

13. Qalʿa Govur (Gavur), 22 km southwest of Khoy, large Urartian fortified site (7th century B.C.E.. with medieval additions (AMI N.F. 7, 1974, pp. 98-100).

14. Qalʿa Hodar, 20 km north of Salmās (Shāhpur), Urartian fortress with two-room cliff dwelling and medieval additions, 7th century B.C.E. (AMI N.F. 7, 1974, pp. 94-98).

15. Haftavān Tappa (q.v.), 8 km south of Salmās, extensive hill settlement in the middle of the plain of Salmās, major excavations, 4th century B.C.E. to 6th century C.E. (Burney, p. 157f.; Kroll, p. 39).

16. Urartian fortress, 30 km north of Urmia (Reżāʾiya), resettled in medieval times (AMI N.F. 4, 1971, pp. 67-69).

17. Kuh-e Zambil, 42 km northeast of Urmia, on the shore of Lake Urmia, Urartian stronghold, 7th century B.C.E. (AMI N.F. 8, 1975, pp. 52-54).

18. Qalʿa Esmāʿil Āqā, 26 km west of Urmia, strong Urartian fortress with cliff dwellings,8th-7th century B.C.E., significant excavations (Pecorella, p. 21ff.; Kleiss 1977, pp. 64-68).

19. Ziva (Zeive) / Mavānā (Muana), 40 km west of Urmia, granite stele with Assyrian and Urartian cuneiform inscriptions of Rusa I, 8th century B.C.E. (Curtis and St John, pp. 143-44); Mirāṯ-e Farhangi 15, 1995, p. 102ff.).

20. Kordlar Tappa, 13 km east of Urmia, major excavation, 4th millennium–800 B.C.E. (Lippert, p.102ff.; Ehringhaus, p. 49ff.).

21. Maḥmudābād, 25 km south of Urmia, Urartian fortress with sacrificial inscription, Rusa I, 8th century B.C.E. (AMI N.F. 9, 1976, pp. 36-38; Salvini).

22. “Farhād Zaḡāsi” (Farhād’s grotto), 37 km south of Urmia, Urartian cliff dwelling and rock niches, 8th-7th century (AMI N.F. 4, 1971, p. 65f.).

23. Tāzabulāq, 54 km south of Urmia, Urartian way station, 7th century B.C.E. (AMI N.F. 10, 1977, pp. 68-70).

24. Urartian rock inscription, 54 km south of Urmia, one km from Tāzabulāq, cuneiform inscription of Menua, 9th century B.C.E. (AMI N.F. 5, 1972, pp. 122-28, 149-50).

25. Tappa Lumbad, 31 km south of Urmia, Urartian fortress, 7th century B.C.E. (AMI N.F. 6, 1973, pp. 30-31).

26. Qalāt (Qal’at), 43 km southeast of Urmia, Urartian fortress and settlement, 8th-7th century B.C. E. (AMI N.F. 11, 1978, pp. 41-46).

27. Keli-Šin, a stele dating to the Urartian kings Menua and Išpuini on the border pass between Ošnaviya (Ošnuya; Iran) and Rowanduz (Iraq), southwest of Ošnaviya, ca. 800 B.C.E. This stele has been in the Museum at Urmia for several years (Lehmann-Haupt, p. 242ff.; Minorsky, p. 917; Ritter; Tserethli, pp. 131-32).

28. Qalātgāh, 15 km east of Ošnaviya, 22 km northwest of Naqada, large Urartian fortress and settlement, inscriptions from Menua and Ispuini, circa 800 B.C., major excavations (Muscarella, 1969,1971; Kleiss, 1971).

29. Ḥasanlu and ʿAqrab Tappa, 9 km north of Naqada, huge Iron Age fortification and Urartian fortress, 6th-1st century B.C.E., major excavation site known for its “burned buildings” and artifacts. ʿAqrab Tappa is a Urartian stronghold (8th-7th century B.C.E.), 3 km southwest of Hasanlu (Dyson 1965, p.193ff., 1968; Dyson and Pigott, p. 182ff.; T. Cuyler Young; ʿAqrab Tappa, Dyson,1965, p. 212f.); Dinkha Tepe, 30 km southwest of Hasanlu, artificial mound, second millennium B.C.E. (Dyson 1967, p.136f.).

30. Ṣufiān (Gerd-e sowra), 2 km north of Yaldiān on the road from Naqada to Pirānšahr (Ḵāna), Urartian fortress atop a summit, 8th century B.C.E. (AMI N.F. 9, 1976, pp. 24-26).

31. Šayṭānābād, 10 km north of Mahābād, extensive cave works, cliff stairs and culverts from Urartian times, 8th-7th century B.C.E. (AMI N.F. 3, 1970, pp. 115-17).

32. Arslān Qalʿa, 38 km northeast of Mahābād, 32 km west of Miāndoāb, strong fortification, prehistoric Urartian (7th century B.C.E.), medieval levels (AMI N.F. 6, 1973, pp. 26-29).

33. Tāštappa, 21 km northwest of Miāndoāb, prehistoric fortification with an Urartian inscription of Menua (mostly destroyed) (AMI N.F. 7, 1974, pp.102-3).

34. Shāh Tappa, 25 km north of Miandoāb, plateau with graves and stairs tunneled through rock, apparently Urartian to Median (7th-6th century B.C.E.) (AMI N.F. 7, 1974, pp. 103-6).

35. Leylān, 16 km east of Miāndoāb, large early historical rampart (Parthian or Sasanian) (AMI N.F. 19, 1986, p. 211ff.).

36. Qalʿa Ḥaydar Khan, 8 km east of Bukān, ruin of architectural significance from the 1st millennium B.C.E. with a large Parthian or Sasanian level (AMI N.F. 10, 1977, pp. 27-29).

37. Češma Aḥmad Solaymān, 20 km northwest of Takāb, prehistoric settlement, gateway foundation, stone sarcophagi, 9th-7th century B.C.E. (AMI N.F. 6, 1973, pp. 20-22).

38. Zendān-e Solaymān, 3 km west of the ruins of Taḵt-e-Solaymān, 40 km northeast of Takāb, mountain sanctuary and later Mannaean refuge, 9th-8th century B.C.E. (Kleiss, 1971; Naumann).

39. Qojur (Gojer) Qalʿa, 48 km east of Marāḡa, fortification with terraces, rock cisterns and dwellings, 1st millennium B.C.E. to the Islamic Period (AMI N.F. 6, 1973, pp. 31-35).

40. Yanik Tappa, 100 km north of Marāḡa, 5 km west of Ḵosrowšahr, important excavations,6th century B.C.E. to the Islamic Period (Burney).

41. Čerāqāiya (Sheragaiyeh) Amir, 25 km northwest of Marand, Urartian fortress, 8th-7th century B.C.E. (AMI N.F. 8, 1975, pp. 58-60).

42. Livār, 19 km northwest of Marand, large Urartian fortress with terraces and extensive settlement area, 8th -7th century B.C.E. (AMI N.F. 10, 1977, pp. 54-57).

43. Qalʿa Budji (Bödji), 70 km northeast of Tabriz, Urartian fortress, 7th century B.C.E. (AMI N.F. 8, 1975, pp. 66-67).

44. Seqindel, 35 km northwest of Ahar, fairly large Urartian fortification near the pre-Urartian citadel Libluini with an inscription referring to a conquest by Sardur II, 8th-7th century B.C.E. (AMI 13, 1980, p. 21ff.; Salvini).

45. Rāzliq, 15 km north of Sarāb, rock inscription regarding a campaign of Arguishti II, in thearea of a pre-Urartian fortress, 7th century B.C.E. (Kleiss, 1968).

46. Naštebān, 60 km southwest of Ardebil, 25 km east of Sarāb, rock inscription regarding a campaign of Arguishti II, in the area of a pre-Urartian fortress, 7th century B.C.E. (AMI N.F. 5, 1972, pp. 144-45).

47. Ruyan Duyaḵ, 30 km northwest of Ardebil, two prehistoric fortresses (Qalʿa and Qez Qalʿa), 1st millennium B.C.E. (AMI N.F. 3, 1969, pp. 19-22; Kroll, 1984, p. 62ff.).

ii.monuments from the median- achaemenid period

1. Čārbulāq, between Māku and Pol-e Dašt, 12 km south of the Araxes river, 77 km north of Qarā Żiā-al-Din, large apparently Median noble’s residence, 6th century B.C.E. (AMI N.F. 9, 1976, pp. 113-16).

2. Qalʿa Gavur on the Araxes, 45 km east of Jolfā, strong fortifications from the 6th century B.C.E., with Urartian core (7th century B.C.E.) (AMI N.F. 9, 1976, pp. 107-10).

3. Halakuh, 27 km north of Marand, strongly fortified plateau, 6th century B.C.E. (AMI N.F. 5, 1972, pp. 158-59).

iii.monuments from the parthian period

1. Karaftu, 20 km west of Takāb, artificially extended caves with Hellenistic inscriptioninvoking Heracles, Parthian (Gall 1978, pp. 91ff.).

2. Qalʿa Zohāk, above the tunnel on the railway between Miāna and Marāḡa, 15 km south of Sarāskand, large area of ruins on a plateau above a flood plain, vestiges from the Achaemenid period, pavilion and other architectural works from the Parthian period and Sassanid/ early Islamic fortifications, probably the Parthian Phanaspa (AMI N.F. 6, 1973, pp. 163-88).

3. Faḵrekāh, 13 km northeast of Mahābād, Hellenistic rock tomb, late or post-Achaemenid site (Gall 1966, p. 19ff.; Huff 1971, p. 161ff.; AMI N.F. 2, 1969, pp. 28-29).

iv.monuments from the sasanian period

1. Rock relief near Salmās (formerly Šāhpur), 15 km southeast of Salmās (Pope, II, 1967, pp.596-97; Hinz1965).

2. Laklak Gaisi, 23 km south of Miāndoāb, large fortifications, Sasanian to early Islamic (AMI N.F. 10, 1977, pp. 36-37).

3. Taḵt-e Solaymān, 40 km northeast of Takāb, fortified Sasanian palace and fire temple(probably the ancient Shiz), on top of a settlement from the 1st millennium B.C.E. Also, a summer palace of the Mongol Il-Khan Abāqā, 13th century C.E. (Naumann).

4. Meškinšahr, on the southern outskirts of the town at the foot of a Qajar fort, a Sasanian rock inscription from the time of Šāpur II (4th century) (Gropp; AMI N.F. 2, 1969, p. 75).

5. Qalʿa Nowduz, 36 km west of Meškinšahr, 23 km east of Ahar, ruins of a strong fortification which, judging from the building technique, is probably Sasanian (AMI N.F. 2, 1969, pp. 30-31).

6. Yāzde Qalʿa (Giaur Qal’eh), 18 km directly northeast of Taḵt-e Solaymān, 11 km east of Taḵt-e Belqis, actually in the Province of Zanjān but properly within the surroundings of Taḵt-e Solaymān, large-scale fortifications of the Sasanian and early Islamic period (Huff 1974, pp. 203-9).

7. Čahārtāq, 16 km southeast of Taḵt-e Solaymān, ruins of a probable fire temple (four-pillar style) from the Sasanian and early Islamic period (Huff 1974, pp. 209-13).

v.monuments from the islamic period

1. Māku, “Sardār-Palast,” 6 km west of Māku, Qajar mansion, 19th century (AMI N.F. 2, 1969, p. 77, Plate 40, 2 and 40, 3; Māku, old town, ibid., p. 68).

2. Qeyqāč, about 40 km northwest of Jolfā, remains of a bridge across the Araxes, Safavid period (Kleiss, 1996, p. 11).

3. Šarafkandi (Qezel Jiq Qalʿa), 20 km directly north of Basṭām, 13 km south of Maryam, medieval fortress and Armenian pilgrim shrine (AMI N.F. 8, 1975, pp. 33-34).

4. Qalʿa Jiq, small fortification near Ājāy on the Āḡ Čāy, 24 km southwest of Basṭām, Armenian/ Islamic (AMI N.F. 8, 1985, pp. 41-42).

5. Zohrabād/ Šurek, 36 km northwest of Khoy, ruins of a caravansary (Kleiss, 1996, p. 26).

6. Čors, 10 km northeast of Basṭām, near Qara Żiā-al-Din, fortress ruins, Armenian / Islamic (AMI N.F. 2, 1969, pp. 75-76). Four-columned mosque, perhaps Safavid (AMI N.F. 3, 1970, pp. 124-25).

7. Khoy, minaret of Šams-e Tabrizi, 18th-19th century (AMI N.F. 2, 1969, p. 37). Khoy, Moṭṭaleb Khan, Mosque with cupola and portal (ayvān), Qajar Period (AMI N.F. 2, 1969, pp. 37-38). Khoy, city gate at bazaar entrance, Safavid with Armenian elements, 17th-18th century (AMI N.F. 4, 1971, pp. 76-78; AM N.F. 10, 1977, pp. 323-24). Khoy, fort, early 19th century with French influence (AMI 13, 1980, pp.174-75).

8. Qotur, on Turkish border, fortification, Islamic (AMI N.F. 2, 1969, p. 70).

9. Caravansary, 34 km west of Khoy, in the Qotur valley, Safavid (Kleiss, 1996, p. 26).

10. Caravansary, 41 km west of Khoy, in the Qotur valley, Safavid (Kleiss, 1996, p. 26).

11. Kuza-raš, Armenian mountain caravansary, 18th or 19th century (Kleiss, 1996, p. 28).

12. ʿAlibolāq, caravansary station, on the route from Salmās to Turkey, medieval (Kleiss,1996, p. 27).

13. Tāza-šahr, 8 km west of Salmās, Qajar emāmzāda with courtyard (AMI N.F. 2, 1969, p. 46).

14. Pir Čāvuš, 14 km southwest of Salmās, medieval Armenian / Islamic fortress on the ruins of an Urartian site (AMI 12, 1979, pp. 183-88).

15. Urmia, capital of the province of West Azerbaijan, Se Gonbad, Seljuk burial tower (1180 C.E.), Saljuq jāmeʿ mosque with a stucco mihrab (1277) (Pope, III, p. 1048).

16. Bādinābād, 19 km south of Pirānšahr (Ḵāna), medieval fortification on the site if a settlement dating from the 2nd millennium B.C.E. (AMI N.F. 10, 1977, p. 26).

17. Mahābād, three-naved mosque with a front courtyard, Safavid, with a Safavid shrine (AMI N.F. 4, 1971, p. 73).

18. Miāndoāb, old bridge west of town (AMI N.F. 4, 1971, fig. 1 [foldout, opp. p. 51]).

19. Qarā Qoyunlu, 32 km northwest of Šāhin-dež, medieval Islamic fortress on top of ruins of a Parthian settlement (AMI N.F. 3, 1970, pp. 120-23).

20. Marāḡa, four preserved grave towers (another, of Timurid origin, is totally destroyed): Gonbad-e sorḵ (qermez), 1148 C.E.; Gonbad-e kabud, 1196/97; Borj-e ḵᵛāhar-e Hulāgu Khan, 1167/68; Gonbad-e Ḡaffāriya, beginning of 14th century (Pope, III, pp. 1022, 1025, 1098; AMI N.F. 2, 1969, p. 41).

Five km west of Marāḡa, extensive system of artificial caves with catafalque-like blocks in two rooms. According to legend, the burial place of Hulāgu’s astronomer, Naṣir-al-Din Ṭusi (d. 1274) (AMI N.F. 2, 1969, pp. 48-52).

Six km south of Marāḡa is the shrine of Emāmzāda Maʿṣum in the village of Varjovi in an artificial chamber in a rock-cut complex with both angular and rounded rooms, Il-Khanid, 13th-14th century, showing Buddhist architectural influence (Ball).

Five km south of Marāḡa, on the high plateau, lie the ruins of the observatory of Hulāgu Khan, 13th century (AMI N.F. 2, 1969, pp. 48-51; Vardjavand).

21. Dāšqalʿa Żohāk, 28 km east of ʿAjab Šahr, 956 km south of Tabriz, Islamic fortifications with the remains of a pipe aquaduct (AMI N.F. 5, 1972, pp. 168-71).

22. Qadamgāh, 15 km southeast of Āḏaršahr, dome-roofed cave with dromos-style entrance; inside, an Islamic prayer niche, perhaps added later (AMI N.F. 5, 1972, pp. 176-78).

23. Āḏaršahr, open-air oratory (moṣallā) south of town, 18th-19th century (AMI N.F. 5, 1972, pp. 184-85).

24. Shahi Island, peninsula on the east shore of Lake Urmia, rock massif with extensiverock-works, reputedly served as depository for the Mongol treasury (Schmidt, pp. 63-76).

25. Osku / Kandevān, 50 km south of Tabriz, cliff village settled in the 14th century C.E. (Homayoun, p. 211ff.).

26. Tabriz, capital of the Province of East Azerbaijan, the Blue Mosque (masjed-e kabud), 15th century (Godard, p. 271, plate, p. 220).

Ṣāḥeb-al-Amr Mosque, Safavid-Qajar (AMI N.F. 2, 1969, p. 36).

Remains of the Uzun Ḥasan Mosque, 15th century (Hinz, ZDMG 91, 1937, p. 58ff.; AMI N.F. 2, 1969, p. 36).

Robʿ-e Rašidi fortress, beginning of 14th century C.E.; within its fortified walls is probably the tomb of Ḡāzān Khan (1295-1304) (Kleiss, 1996, p. 34).

27. Vinār, 27 km northeast of Tabriz, caravansary, late Safavid-Qajar (Kleiss, 1996, p. 34).

28. Sarand, 16 km east of Ḵᵛāja, on the road between Ahar and Tabriz, caravan station, completely destroyed, Qajar (Kleiss, 1996, p. 34).

29. Jām Caravansary, on the Ṣufiān Pass, between Tabriz and Marand, Safavid, completelydemolished (Kleiss, 1996, p. 11).

30. Caravansary on Iri Pass, 45 km north of Tabriz, 18th-19th century (Kleiss, 1996, p. 33).

31. Caravansary on Dogijān Pass, on the road from Tabriz to Siahrud on the Araxes River, 18th-19th century (Kleiss, 1996, p. 32).

32. Marand, Friday Mosque (Masjed-e Jomʿa), with Saljuq stucco mihrab, enlarged in the 14th century (Siroux).

33. Āyrandibi Caravansary, 27 km north of Marand, on the route to Jolfā, Timurid, 14th-15th century (Kleiss, 1996, p. 31).

34. ʿAlamdār, northwest of Khoy, cubic emāmzāda, 19th-20th century (AMI N.F. 2, 1969, p. 47).

Domed emāmzāda with antechamber, 19th century (AMI N.F. 5, 1972, pp. 183-84).

35. Jolfā (environs): Bridge over the Araxes, 10 km west of Jolfā, Safavid, largely destroyed (AMI 19, 1986, p. 331).

Caravansary, 10 km west of Jolfā, Safavid-Qajar (Kleiss, 1996, p. 30f.).

36. Khoranaq, 88 km southeast of Jolfā, 111 km west of Ahar, principal mosque, double-domed mosque, remains of a bathhouse, Safavid-Qajar (AMI N. F. 5, 1972, p. 180ff.).

37. Valoḡli Caravansary on Gojer-bel Pass, on the Ahar-Tabriz road, Safavid (Kleiss, 1996, p. 34f.).

38. Čāldāḡ Caravansary, 21 km southwest of Ahar, on the road to Tabriz (Kleiss, 1996, p.33ff.).

39. Ahar, tomb mosque of Shaikh Shehāb, master of Shaikh Ṣafi, on the southern outskirts of Ahar, Safavid (AMI N.F. 5, 1972, p. 178-79).

Bastion, 9 km south of Ahar, beginning of 19th century with European influence from Napoleonic times (AMI 15, 1982, p.389-90).

40. Qalʿa Miš, 48 km north of Ahar, large medieval fortress built over a prehistoric settlement (AMI N.F. 2, 1969, pp. 66-68).

41. Kaleybar, 60 km north of Ahar, Qez Qalʿa (about 5 km southwest of the village), Islamic, probably on top of older foundations (AMI N.F. 2, 1969, pp. 67-68).

42. Ḵodā Āfarin on the Araxes river (border between Iran and the Republic of Azerbaijan), a Safavid and a Qajar bridge over the Araxes (AMI 19, 1986, p. 329f.).

43. Qalʿa Gaḵgaḵ on the Qara Su river, northwest of Meškinšahr, medieval ruins, near amedieval bridge (Kroll, 1984, p.70).

44. Meškinšahr, funerary tower of Ḥaydar, 12th century, comparable with the funerary tower at Salmās which was completely destroyed during the 1930 earthquake (AMI N.F. 2, 1969, pp. 39-40).

45. Surnā, 10 km northwest of Ardebil, decahedral funerary tower, 14th century (AMI N.F. 2, 1969, p. 47).

46. Kalḵurān, 4 km west of Ardebil, Islamic shrine, Safavid and Qajar (AMI N.F. 2, 1969, p. 44).

47. Ardabil, Friday mosque with free-standing minaret, Saljuq; 12th century.

Shrine of Shaikh Ṣafi with mausoleum and domed structure built to contain the china porcelain collection of Shah ʿAbbās (Safavid) (AMI N.F. 2, 1969, pp. 33-34 ;A. Godard, p. 230).

Qajar bridge at Pol-e bālā čāy, 10 km northeast of the town. Also, a Safavid-Qajar bridge over the Qara Su 15 km north of the town (AMI 20, 1987, pp. 335ff.).

48. Nir, 40 km southwest of Ardabil, Safavid-Qajar bridge (AMI 21, 1988, p. 238-39).

49. Caravansary in mountain pass, 15 km southwest of Nir, on the route from Ardabil to Tabriz, Safavid on older foundations (Kleiss, 1996, p. 50).

50. Sarāb, ruins of a mosque, 6 km east of the town, and a gateway dating from Timurid times (probably originally a caravansary gate) (AMI N.F. 2, 1969, pp 34-35).

In the town, the emāmzāda of Musā b. Jaʿfar, Safavid-Qajar (AMI N.F. 2, 1969, p. 46).

51. Gilak (Guilak), caravansary 86 km southeast of Tabriz on the road to Zanjān, Safavid(Kleiss, 1996, p. 44).

52. Emāmiya Caravansary, 86 km northwest of Miāna, Safavid (Kleiss, 1996, p. 44).

53. Tark, 23 km north of Miāna, Masjed-e sang, a columned mosque with a large dome over the prayer niche with adjoining underground baths, Safavid, in an older architectural tradition (AMI 12, 1979, pp. 353-60).

54. Ḵalḵāl, eastern Azerbaijan, a town with many old emāmzādas (unpublished).

55. Miāna, bridge over the Qarāngu (Qarranqu) river, Safavid, rebuilt in Qajar times (AMI 19, 1986, pp. 337-38).

56. Qalʿa-ye doḵtar, 23 km east of Miāna, above the Pol-e doḵtar bridge, probably a medieval fortress of the “Assassins” (AMI N. F. 2, 1969, pp. 74-75).

Pol-e doḵtar bridge (Pol-e Qaflān kuh), 20 km east of Miāna, constructed 475 / 1484, renovated in 1517, 1673, 1794 and 1900, according to inscriptions (AMI 16, 1983, p. 363ff.).

57. Jamālābād, caravansary 94 km southeast of Tabriz, on the road to Zanjān, built in 1605(Shah ʿAbbās II), according to an inscription (Kleiss, 1996, p. 47).

58. Numerous gravestones carved with representations of rams and lions, of Islamic and Armenian provenience, in Azerbaijan (AMI N.F. 2, 1969, pp. 82-83; AMI N.F. 3, 1970, pp. 125-27).

vi.christian monuments

1. Kelisa-kand, 37 km west of Māku; in the village are the remains of a medieval Armenian church (AMI N.F. 2, 1969, p. 88).

2. Qara kelisa (Kara kilise; St. Thaddeus), 50 km west of Qara Żiā-al-Din, fortified monastery, Armenian pilgrimage center, the older part of the church dating from 10th-12th century C.E.; Inscription commemorating an earthquake in 1319. The recent part of the church with a domed tower and copious reliefs dates from the beginning of the 19th century (AMI N.F. 2, 1969, pp. 101-114; Kleiss, 1967, p. 291ff.).

3. St. Stephanos, 24 km west of Jolfā, fortified Armenian monastery, pilgrimage center on the Araxes, 14th-15th century, restored after earthquake damage in 1657-58, under Safavid architectural influence (AMI N.F., 2, 1969, pp. 100-101; Kleiss, 1967, p. 270f.).

4. Khoy, Armenian neighborhood (maḥalla); Church in the town, 18th-19th century (AMI N.F. 2, 1969, p. 88).

5. Qoroq, 10 km south of Khoy, ruins of a medieval Armenian church (AMI N.F. 2, 1969, p. 89).

6. Tāza-šahr, 10 km west of Salmās, ruins of a medieval Armenian church (AMI N.F. 2, 1969, pp. 90-92).

7. Tāza-šahr Ḵosrowābād, 12 km west of Salmās, ruins of a fairly large Nestorian church, 18th-19th century (AMI N.F. 2, 1969, p. 118).

8. Čors, 10 km northeast of Basṭām, Armenian cross relief on a rocky outcrop, date unclear (AMI N.F. 3, 1970, p. 124).

9. Mujumbār, 38 km northwest of Tabriz, medieval Armenian church, perhaps 10th century (AMI N.F. 2, 1969, pp. 97-99).

10. Suchruge, 35 km northwest of Tabriz, ruins of a Catholic mission church from the 19th century, showing Armenian features (AMI N.F. 2, 1969, pp. 100-102).

11. Maḵlasān, 16 km northeast of Khoy, Armenian church with cupola and cross, 18th-19th century (AMI N.F. 2, 1969, p. 89).

12. Haftvān, 3 km south of Salmās, Armenian church with older, medieval choir and more recent annex with copula and cross (19th century) (AMI N.F. 2, 1969, p. 90).

13. Māku, stone bridge over the Māku Čāy (Zangmār Čāy) with Armenian inscription, 3 km west of city, 18th-19th century (AMI 19, 1985, pp. 332-3).

14. Mention should be made of a few significant modern structures, such as the stone railway bridge over the Qezel Uzun east of Miāna, from the 1930s, the steel railway bridge over the Qotur valley west of Khoy, from the 1960s, and the causeway dam across the northern part of Lake Urmia, between the Šāhi peninsula and Kuh-e Zambil, from the 1980s.



Archäologische Mitteilungen aus Iran (AMI), N.F. 1-27, Berlin, 1968-1994 (see also under individual authors below; and, for site locations, the sketch map in N.F. 4, 1971 [fig. 1, foldout opp. p. 51]).

W. Ball, “The Imamzadeh Ma’sum at Vardjoveh: A Rock-Cut Il-khanid Complex near Maragheh,” AMI N.F. 12, 1979, pp. 329-40.

Charles A. Burney, “Excavations at Yanik Tepe," Iraq 23, 1961, pp. 138-53.

Idem, “Excavations at Haftavan Tepe, 1973: Fourth Preliminary Report,” Iran 13, 1975, pp. 149-164.

T. Burton-Brown, Excavations in Azerbaidjan, 1948, London, 1951.

Vesta Sarkhosh Curtis and St John Simpson, “Archaeological News from Iran,” Iran 35, 1997, pp. 143-44.

T. Cuyler Young, “Thoughts on the architecture of Hasanlu IV,” Iranica Antiqua 6, 1966, pp. 48-71.

R. H. Dyson, Jr., “Problems of Protohistoric Iran as Seen from Hasanlu,” JNES 24, 1965, pp. 193-217.

Idem, “Dinkha Tepe,” Iran 5, 1967, pp. 136-37.

R. H. Dyson, Jr., and V. C. Pigott, “Hasanlu,” Iran 13, 1975, pp. 182-85.

H. Ehringhaus, Gedanken zur Rekonstruktion des Gebäudes Kordlar Tepe IV in Iranisch West-Azerbaidjan, AMI 27, 1994.

H. von Gall, “Zu den ‘medischen’ Felsgräbern in Nordwest-Iran und Iraqi Kurdestan,” Archäologischer Anzeiger 1966.

Idem, “Die Kulträume in den Felsen von Karaftu bei Takab (West-Azerbaidjan),” AMI N.F. 11, 1978, pp. 91-112.

R. Ghirshman, “Un précurseur urartien d’Apollon Philésios,” in R. Altheim-Stiehl and H. E. Stier, eds., Beiträge zur alten Geschichte und deren Nachleben, Festschrift für Franz Altheim zum 6. 10. 1968, Berlin, 1969, pp. 35-41.

A. Godard, Die Kunst des Iran, Berlin, 1964.

Gerd Gropp, “Die Sasanidische Inschrift von Mishkinshahr in Azarbaidjan,” AMI N.F. 1, 1968,pp. 149-158.

Idem, “Funktion des Feuertempels der Zoroastrier,” AMI N.F. 2, 1969, pp. 147-73.

R. Hillenbrand, Islamic Architecture, Edinburgh, 1994.

W. Hinz, “Beiträge zur iranischen Kulturgeschichte,” ZDMG 91, 1937, pp. 58-79.

Idem, “Das Sasanidische Felsrelief von Salmas,” Iranica Antiqua 5, 1965, pp. 148-60.

D. Huff, “Das Felsgrab von Fakhrikah,” Istanbuler Mitteilungen 21, 1971, pp. 161-71.

Idem, “Sasanidische-frühislamische Ruinenplätze im Belqis-Massiv in Azerbeidjan,” AMI N.F. 7, 1974, pp. 203-213.

G. Homayoun, “Kandewan, ein Felsdorf in Nordwestiran,” AMI N.F. 11, 1978, pp. 211-14.

W. Kleiss, “Das Kloster des Heiligen Thaddäus (Kara Kilise) in Iranisch-Azerbaidjan,” in Istanbuler Mitteilungen 17, 1967, pp. 291-305.

Idem, “Das armenische Kloster des Heiligen Stephanos in Iranisch-Azerbaidjan,” in Istanbuler Mitteilungen 18, 1968, pp. 43-44, 270-85.

Idem, Zendan-i Suleiman, Die Bauwerke. Beiträge zur Archaeologie und Geologie des Zendan-i Suleiman 2, Wiesbaden, 1971.

Idem, Bastam /Rusa-i URU. TUR. Beschreibung der urartäischen und mittelalterlichen Ruinen. Führer zur Archäologischen Plätzen in Iran I, Berlin, 1977.

Idem, Bastam I, Ausgrabungen in den urartäischen Anlagen 1972-1975, Berlin, 1979.

Idem, Bastam II, Ausgrabungen in den urartäischenAnlagen 1977-1978, Berlin, 1988.

Idem, Karawanenbauten in Iran, Teil 1. Materialien zur iranischen Archäologie 2, Berlin, 1996.

W. Kleiss and H. Hauptmann, Topographische Karte von Urartu,AMI Ergänzungsband 3, Berlin, 1976.

S. Kroll, “Haftavan Tepe,” in Reallexikon der Assyriologie IV, 1972-1975.

Idem, Keramik urartäischer Festungen in Iran, AMI Ergänzungsband 2, Berlin, 1976.

Idem, “Archäologische Fundplätze in Iranisch Ost-Azarbaidjan,” AMI 17, 1984, pp. 73-133.

F. F. C. Lehmann-Haupt, Armenien Einst und Jetzt I, Berlin, 1910.

A. Lippert, “Die österreichischen Ausgrabungen am Kordlar Tepe in Persisch-Westaserbeidschan (1971-1978),” AMI N.F. 12, 1978, pp. 102-37.

Vladimir Minorsky, “Ushnū,” in EI2. O. W. Muscarella, “The Tumuli at Se Girdan,” Metropolitan Museum Journal 2, 1969, pp. 5-25.

R. Naumann, Die Ruinen von Tacht-e Suleiman und Zendan-e Suleiman. Führer zu Archäologischen Plätzen in Iran II, Berlin, 1977.

P. E. Pecorella, L’Urartu ad oriente dello Zagros, Scavi e ricerche archeologiche degli anni 1976-1979 I, Rome, 1985.

Arthur Upham Pope, A Survey of Persian Art, 2nd. ed., 14 vols., London and New York, 1964-1967.

Carl Ritter, Die Erdkunde im Verhältnis zur Natur und zur Geschichte des Menschen, IX, Berlin, 1840, pp. 934, 1023-26.

M. Salvini, “Eine neue urartäische Inschrift aus Mahmud Abad (West-Azerbaidjan),AMI N.F. 10, 1977, pp. 125-36.

E. F. Schmidt, Flights over Ancient Cities of Iran, Chicago, 1940.

M. Siroux, “La Mosquée Djoumeh de Marand,” Arts Asiatiques III/2, 1957.

M. Tserethli, “Kelišin,” in Reallexikon der Assyriologie 47, 1953.

P. Vardjavand, La découverte archéologique du complexe scientifique de l’Observatoire de Maragé, Tehran, 1988.

December 2002

(Wolfram Kleiss)

Originally Published: July 20, 2002

Last Updated: August 18, 2011