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    Orly R. Rahimiyan

    During this period, the government obstructed Jewish emigration to then Palestine. Zionist institutions in London and the Iranian Foreign Ministry engaged in heated arguments over the total ban on emigration to Palestine and on the use of Iranian soil by Russian Jews as a transit station on their way to Palestine.

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  • IRAN ii. IRANIAN HISTORY (2) Islamic period (page 5)

    Ehsan Yarshater

    The Qajar dynasty (1779-1924). The Qajar were a Turkmen tribe who first settled during the Mongol period in the vicinity of Armenia and were among the seven Qezelbāš tribes that supported the Safavids.

  • ABU MUSĀ i - ii

    E. Ehlers

    island in the Persian Gulf.


    Ann K. S. Lambton

    The economic order in Islamic Persia was in theory, if not always in practice, derived from Islamic norms.

  • IRAN ix. RELIGIONS IN IRAN (1) Pre-Islamic (1.1) Overview

    Philip G. Kreyenbroek

    From the 2nd millennium BCE until Islam became dominant in Iran, a remarkable number of religious traditions existed there.

  • CORRESPONDENCE iii. Forms of opening and closing, address, and signature

    Hashem Rajabzadeh

    In this article the parts of the Persian letter are surveyed section by section, with comments on the general features, style, and stock formulas characteris­tic of each from early Islamic times to the present.

  • RUSSIA i. Russo-Iranian Relations up to the Bolshevik Revolution

    Elena Andreeva

    The relationship between Iran and Russia extends back more than a millennium. Prior to the 18th century, Iran and Russia treated each other as equal in their sporadic trade and diplomatic contacts. The fragmentation of Iran during the 18th century encouraged Russian aspirations to establish its domination in the Caucasus and the Caspian provinces of Iran.

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  • EGYPT i. Persians in Egypt in the Achaemenid period

    Edda Bresciani

    The last pharaoh of the Twenty-Sixth dynasty, Psamtik (Psammetichus) III, was defeated by Cambyses II in the battle of Pelusium in the eastern Nile delta in 525 B.C.E.; Egypt was then joined with Cyprus and Phoenicia in the sixth satrapy of the Achaemenid empire.

  • KALILA WA DEMNA ii. The translation by Abu’l-Maʿāli Naṣr-Allāh Monši

    Mahmoud Omidsalar

    Naṣr-Allāh’s Persian version of the Kalila wa Dimna is not a translation in the strict sense of the term, but a literary creation in its own right. 

  • ISFAHAN iii. POPULATION (1) The Qajar Period

    Heidi Walcher

    Moḥammad-Mahdi Arbāb, a native of Isfahan, maintained that, at the time of Nāṣer-al-Din Shah’s accession in 1848, there were 200,000 city inhabitants, with that number decreasing to about 80,000 for a period before growing again to nearly 120,000 during the governorship of Ẓell-al-Solṭān.

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