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  • CLOTHING iii. In the Arsacid period

    Trudi Kawami

    The Parthian period, when the Arsacid dynasty ruled, or claimed to rule, Persia, was the period in which trousers and sleeved coats became common garb throughout the Near East. These garments, the direct ancestors of modern dress, crossed political and ethnic boundaries and were worn from northern India to Syria, continuing Achaemenid styles.

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  • KERMAN i. Geography

    Habib Borjian

    Kerman Province is situated in southeast Iran. It is divided into two distinct macroclimates, sardsir (cold) in the upland north and garmsir (warm) in the lowland south, generally speaking.

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  • Isfahan xiv. MODERN ECONOMY AND INDUSTRIES (1) The Province

    Habib Borjian

    The distribution of economic activities within Isfahan, with an urbanism of 76 percent, is highly uneven. The oasis of Isfahan, watered by the Zāyandarud, is responsible for nearly half of rural activities, while the other half is spread out across the province.

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  • CYRUS i. The Name

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    Cyrus is a Persian name, most notably of the founder of the Achaemenid empire, Cyrus the Great and of the second son of Darius II.

  • GREAT BRITAIN iv. British influence in Persia, 1900-21

    Mansour Bonakdarian

    In the late 1890s, the Foreign Office in London came to regard Germany as the main threat to the European balance of power and British imperial hegemony around the globe.


    Dj. Khaleghi-Motlagh

    son of ESFANDĪĀR, a Kayanian king of Iran in the national epic.  


    Habib Borjian

    In the past few decades, rural Kashan has rapidly been shifting to Persian. Most villages have already been partly or entirely persianized, and practically all Rāji speakers are bilingual. A distribution of the Rāji-speaking places is known from a survey conducted in the 1970s for individual rural districts of Isfahan Province.

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  • GEORGIA iv. Literary contacts with Persia

    Aleksandre Gvakharia

    The tribes of Georgia had a well-established and vast literary tradition and folklore long before the Christian era. None of the pre-Christian Georgian literary works have survived, however. Christianity became established in Georgia as an official religion at the beginning of the 4th century, and in the 5th century the first surviving literary work was created.

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    Donald Stilo

    In Gīlān there are three major Iranian language groups, namely Gīlakī, Rūdbārī, and Ṭālešī, and pockets of two other groups, Tātī and Kurdish. The non-Iranian languages include Azeri Turkish and some speakers of Gypsy (Romany, of Indic origin).

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  • KANDAHAR v. In the 19th Century

    Shah Mahmoud Hanifi

    city in southern Afghanistan (lat 31°36′28″ N, long 65°42′19″ E), the second most important in the country and the capital of Kandahar province.