Table of Contents

  • RĀBET, ʿABD-AL-AḤAD

    Mohammad Baqir

    19th-century Indian author of Persian works (d. 1268/1851-52).

  • RAʿD

    Nasreddin Parvin

    (Thunder), the name of a newspaper published by Sayyed Żiyāʾ-al-Din Ṭabāṭabāʾi in Tehran, 1913-1921, with interruptions.

  • RĀḠEB EṢFAHĀNI

    Geert Jan van Gelder

    (d. early 5th/11th cent.), scholar, littérateur, and author of works on Islamic ethics, Qurʾanic exegesis, Islamic theology, and Arabic philology, as well as anthologies.

  • RAHAVARD

    Ḡafur Mirzāʾi

    one of the first Persian periodicals published by the Iranian community in the United States after the Iranian revolution of 1979.

  • RAHI

    Cross-Reference

    pen name of prominent 20th century poet and lyricist Mohammad Hasan Mo'ayyeri. See MO'AYYERI, MOHAMMAD HASAN

  • RĀHNEMĀ-YE ZENDAGI

    Nassereddin Parvin

    (Guide to life), a biweekly magazine published in Tehran, 1940-41.

  • Railroads i. The First Railroad Built and Operated in Persia

    Soli Shahvar

    During the three decades between the 1850s and the 1880s various foreign concerns attempted to introduce railways to Persia, but these did not materialize.

  • RAJʿA

    Mohammad Ali Amir-Moezzi

    (lit.: “return”), theological term that has had many meanings according to the context in which it was professed.

  • RAM, Emad

    Morteżā Ḥoseyni Dehkordi

    (1931-2003), composer, vocalist, and flute player.

  • RĀNEKUH

    Cross-Reference

    old district encompassing eastern Gilān in the 19th century. It became a part of Lāhijān sub-province (šahrestān) in 1937 and was divided between the sub-provinces of Langarud and Rudsar in the 1960s.

  • RASHT i. The City

    Christian Bromberger

    city and district in Gilān province, the capital of Gilān and the largest city along the Caspian coast of Iran.

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  • RASHT ii. The District

    Marcel Bazin

    the largest distirct in the plain of Gilān and the most populated in the whole province. 

  • RAŠN

    William Malandra

    Avestan Rašnu, the deity of the ancient Iranian pantheon who functions as the divine Judge.

  • RAŠN YAŠT

    Leon Goldman

    the Middle Persian title given to the twelfth Yašt of the Avesta. It is dedicated to the Zoroastrian deity Rašnu

  • RASSEKH, MEHRI

    Cyrus Alai

    Upon returning to Iran in 1962, Rassekh taught as an assistant professor at the University of Tehran Department of Psychology and Education. She was promoted to the full professorship of clinical psychology, and in 1973 was appointed head of the Department of Psychology and Education, becoming the first woman department head in an Iranian University.

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  • RASTḴIZ

    Nassereddin Parvin

    (Resurrection) newspaper published 1915-16 in Baghdad a group of Iranian expatriates in Europe, headed by Sayyed asan Taqizāda.

  • RASULID HEXAGLOT

    Peter B. Golden

    a six-language glossary compiled by or prepared for the sixth Rasulid king of Yemen (r. 1363-77).

  • RATHINES

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    a general of Pharnabazos, the satrap of the Daskylitis (see DASCYLIUM) under Dareios II and Artaxerxes II (see DARIUS iv and ARTAXERXES II).

  • RĀVANDI, Qoṭb-al-Din Saʿid

    Etan Kohlberg

    Imami author, traditionist, and jurist (d. Qom, 14 Šawwāl 573/5 April 1178).

  • RAWLINSON, HENRY ii. CONTRIBUTIONS TO ASSYRIOLOGY AND IRANIAN STUDIES

    Peter T. Daniels

    His first relevant activity was to copy the trilingual inscriptions of Darius I and Xerxes I at Mount Alvand (Elvend) near Hamadān, in April 1835.

  • RAY i. ARCHEOLOGY

    Rocco Rante

    Over several years in the late 19th and early 20th century, the site was excavated unscientifically by Western archeologists and local dealers, mostly to search for precious objects; a large proportion of the finds found their way to the black market. At present several museums conserve some specimens from Ray belonging to this antiquarian surge.

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  • RA’DI AZARAKHSHI, Gholam-‘Ali

    Kāmyār ʿĀbedi

    (1909-1999), prominent poet.

  • RED DEER

    Eskandar Firouz

    Cervus elaphus, in Persian: Marāl and also Gavazn and Gāv-e kuhi. i. Natural history. ii. In Persian art. The red deer ranges from Europe to Northeast Asia, its appearance changing gradually, until, from Central Asia eastward, it becomes quite similar to the North American wapiti.

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  • REDARD, GEORGES

    Gerard Fussman

    Swiss scholar of comparative grammar of the Indo-European languages and Iranian dialectology.

  • REICHELT, HANS

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    Among Reichelt’s publications are a number of studies on the Indo-European languages in general, especially on Greek and Latin, but the focus of his attention were the Old and Middle Iranian languages, more particularly, Avestan and Sogdian studies. All his work is characterized by his philological acumen.

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  • RESĀLA-YE MADANIYA

    Sen McGlinn

    a treatise of some 130 pages by Abd-al-Baha, internally dated in 1292/1875, which calls on the Iranian people to ‘awake’ and take the steps necessary to modernize the country.

  • REŻWĀNŠAHR

    Marcel Bazin

    small town and sub-provencial unit (šahrestān) in the western part of Gilān Province.

  • RHETORICAL FIGURES

    Natalia Chalisova

    devices of embellishment, tropes, and figures considered as an intrinsic part of literary expression in medieval Persia.

  • RIAHI, MOHAMMAD AMIN

    Moḥammad Esteʿlāmi

    prominent scholar of Persian classical literature, statesman, and professor of Persian language and literature.

  • RICE

    Cross-Reference

    See BERENJ.

  • RISHĀR KHAN

    Shireen Mahdavi

    (Rišār Khan), the Persian name of Jules Richard (1816-1891), a Frenchman in the service of Persian government as a language instructor at Dār al-Fonun College, court photographer, and translator.  

  • RITTER, Hellmut

    Josef van Ess

    (1892-1971), German scholar of Islamic studies, and particularly of Persian literature and mysticism. His magnum opus: Das Meer der Seele: Mensch, Welt und Gott in den Geschichten des Farīduddīn ʿAṭṭār (Leiden 1955) is an encyclopedic manual which guides the reader through the psychology of Islamic mysticism. The book is the best introduction to date into Sufi thought. 

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  • ROBINSON, Samuel

    Parvin Loloi

    (1794-1884), British scholar of Persian, translator, cotton manufacturer, and educationalist.

  • ROSE WATER

    Cross-Reference

    See GOLĀB.

  • RUDĀBA

    A. Shapur Shahbazi

    princess of Kabul, wife of Zāl, and mother of Rostam in the Šāh-nāma.

  • RUDBĀR

    Marcel Bazin and Christian Bromberger

    town and district in southwestern Gilān. Rudbār is located on both banks of the Safidrud river at lat 36°51′ N, long 49°25′ E, at an average altitude of 300 m.

  • RUDSAR

    Marcel Bazin

    city and sub-provincial district (šahrestān) in eastern Gilān.

  • RUḤAFZĀ, SOLAYMĀN

    Houman Sarshar

    (1900-1995), master of Persian classical music. He belongs to the first generation of Persian classical musicians who learned musical notation and the second generation to record his music.

  • RUSSIA

    Multiple Authors

    I. Russo-Iranian Relations up to the Bolshevik Revolution. II. Iranian-Soviet Relations (1917-1991). III. Travelers in Persia to 1917. IV. Russians at the court of Moḥammad-ʿAli Shah.

  • RUSSIA i. Russo-Iranian Relations up to the Bolshevik Revolution

    Elena Andreeva

    The relationship between Iran and Russia extends back more than a millennium. Prior to the 18th century, Iran and Russia treated each other as equal in their sporadic trade and diplomatic contacts. The fragmentation of Iran during the 18th century encouraged Russian aspirations to establish its domination in the Caucasus and the Caspian provinces of Iran.

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  • RUSSIA ii. IRANIAN-SOVIET RELATIONS (1917-1991)

    N. M. Mamedova

    From the outset, the very first international resolutions of the young Soviet state had an immediate impact on relations with Iran.

  • RUSSIA iii. TRAVELERS IN PERSIA TO 1917

    Elena Andreeva

    Russian travelers’ reports are a valuable source on the history of Persia and its relationship with Russia.

  • RUSSIA iv. RUSSIANS AT THE COURT OF MOḤAMMAD-ʿALI SHAH

    Elena Andreeva

    The presence of Russians at the court of Moḥammad-ʿAli Shah (r. 1907-09) reflected Russia’s efforts to improve her competitive position against the British by strengthening her influence over the Qajar rulers.

  • RUZ-NĀMA-YE RASMI-E DAWLAT-E IRĀN

    Nassereddin Parvin

    (Official Journal of the Government of Iran), a paper published in Tehran as the official organ of government since 1911.

  • RYE

    Hušang Aʿlam

    (čāvdār), Secale cereale L. (fam. Gramineae). The Persian name is probably of Turkish origin.

  • R~ CAPTIONS OF ILLUSTRATIONS

    Cross-Reference

    list of all the figure and plate images in the letter R entries.