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(1018-1092), vizier of two Saljuq sultans, rose from a relatively lowly position in the bureaucracy of the provincial governor of Balḵ (Balkh) to become the de facto ruler over a vast empire, with a final apotheosis as the archetypal good vizier in the world of Islam.This Article Has Images/Tables.
(1832-1908), governor, minister, and prime minister of the Nāṣeri and Moẓaffarid era.
Osman G. Özgüdenlı
(Neẓāmi of Konya; d. 1469-73?), poet in Persian, Arabic, and Turkish.
(1045-1095), Fatimid crown prince and Nezāri Ismaʿili imam. He was the eldest son of al-Mostanṣer Be’llāh, the eighth Fatimid caliph and the eighteenth Ismaʿili imam.
(1914-1991), Tajik prose writer; began his literary career in the early 1930s as a writer of verse in Uzbek. As a fiction writer Niāzi began with short pieces, which he published in a collection entitled Intiqomi tojik. Niāzi’s reputation as a writer rests on three long novels, the writing of which spanned his entire career. All of them are concerned with the Second World War and are based upon his own experiences.
Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (1844-1900), the great German thinker, is best known as a philosopher of culture.
Firoze M. Kotwal and Philip G. Kreyenbroek
a Zoroastrian ritual to consecrate gōmēz, or bull’s urine; the consecrated liquid is known as nīrang or nīrangdīn.
New Nisa, the capital of ancient Parthia, occupies a large area enclosed within stout mud-brick fortifications, which enclose a citadel. The excavations here have been sporadic, but have brought to light a monumental funerary building of the Parthian era with a flat, crenellated roof, a façade, and wall decoration with terracotta plates nailed to the wall.This Article Has Images/Tables.
b. Moḥammad al-Aʿraj, Neẓām-al-Din Qommi, astronomer; d. after 1311.