Table of Contents


    Hūšang Aʿlam

    (Pers. kalam).Many medicinal properties and uses have been attributed in the Islamic period to the leaves and seeds of the karanb, most of which can be traced to the writings of the Greek masters Dioscorides, Galen, and others.

  • ČĀČ

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    (Ar. Šāš), the name of a district and of a town in medieval Transoxania; the name of the town was gradually supplanted by that of Tashkent from late Saljuq and Mongol times onwards.


    D. N. MacLean

    Persian translation of an early anonymous Arabic history of Sind compiled at Arōr in the 3rd/9th century.


    Kamran Eqbal

    Director and later chairman of the Anglo-Persian Oil Company (APOC) during the reign of Reżā Shah (b. Silverdale, Staffordshire, England, 7 September 1877, d. Bletchley, Buckingham, 31 May 1941).

  • ČĀDOR (1)


    A portable dwelling characteristic of certain nomad groups. It consists of a canopy of cloth or skin supported by upright posts and anchored to the ground by means of pegs and ropes. See TENTS.

  • ČĀDOR (2)

    Bijan Gheiby, James R. Russell, Hamid Algar

    A loose female garment covering the body, sometimes also the face.

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    Rüdiger Schmitt

    an Iranian tribe settled between the Caspian and the Black sea.


    Aḥmad Tafażżolī

    (or Dāityā), lit. “summit of the law," a peak of the mythical mountain Harburz, located in Ērānwēǰ in the middle of the world.



    second son of Čengīz Khan. See CHAGHATAYID DYNASTY.


    Ḥosayn ʿAlī Mallāḥ

    the name given to four types of musical instruments. This spelling is found in most dictionaries. Sachs’ Real-Lexikon has čaqāna, and other forms are also found: čaḡān, čaḡana, and čaḡba; in Arabic jaḡāna or jafāna.

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