TOPKAPI PALACE AND ITS PERSIAN HOLDINGS. The Topkapı Palace, which was known as the Yeni Saray (New Palace) until the 19th century, served the Ottoman sultans for almost 380 years as the imperial residence and center of command. The New Palace was built by the order of Sultan Mehmet II (Moḥammad II, r. 1444-46 and 1451-81), who had conquered Constantinople in 1453, in a district named Zeytinlik. It was located on the first of the seven hills of the city, where a Byzantine church had previously stood. Although there is no record of the precise date when the construction began, it is generally believed that the building work had commenced around 1462.
The Topkapı complex consists of several buildings, including the imperial treasury, the main arsenal, administrative offices, hospitals, schools, and garden and beachfront kiosks, aligned on four main courts that extend out north-northeast and north-northwest towards the Marmara Sea. With the addition of new divisions, the complex continued its expansion well into the mid-19th century on a site of about 700 square meters and retained its fortress-like appearance.
As the sultans’ interest in a Westernized lifestyle deepened during the second half of the 19th century, and they moved into new palaces that were designed according to Western architectural concepts. The Dolmabahçe Palace, built on the shores of the Bosporus by Sultan AbdülmecidI (ʿAbd-al-Majid I, r. 1839-61), became the new imperial residence after its completion and was succeeded by others, such as the Beylerbeyi and Yıldız Palaces.
Although deserted by the sultans, the Topkapı Palace was still a residence for many administrative staff members. Necessary renovations and maintenance were done on a regular basis. The “HolyRelics” room, where the Prophet Moḥammad’s personal belongings were kept, was under the personal care of the Imperial family.
The first exhibition in the history of the Topkapı Palace took place during the reign of Sultan Abdülaziz (ʿAbd-al-ʿAziz, r. 1861-76). Selected pieces from the Imperial Treasury (Enderun Hazinesi) were displayed to an elite group including foreign ambassadors and respected members of local society. The palace became the first national museum of modern Turkey on 9 October 1924.
The vast majority of the objects in the Topkapı, which are either on display or in storage, had originally been in the palace before it was converted into a museum. Only a few pieces were later added to the collection, by acquisition or through donations. Artifacts from the Imperial Treasury constitute the most striking pieces in the Topkapı collection. During the reign of the sultans, the treasury was located in the basement and on the upper floors of the Fatih Kioskand adjacent buildings in the northeast section of the third court. Centuries later, collections from the Imperial Treasury are exhibited to visitors in the very same premises.
It was a custom for a new sultan to visit the Imperial Treasury after his enthronement (Ottoman Turk. cülûs / Ar. jolus). Some sultans greatly admired the treasury’s magnificent pieces and visited them often. Besides housing magnificent artifacts, the treasury was also used as the sultans’ personal vault.
Documents from the imperial archives reveal that an inventory of priceless artifacts such as Qurʾāns, weapons, watches, Chinese porcelain ware, rugs, and fabrics was being carried out in a systematic fashion. Although the documents do not note the origins of these artifacts, historians today are able to obtain clues from the brief notes or inscriptions written on some of these documents.
Persian holdings in the Topkapı collection. Diplomatic gifts sent by the Safavid shahs and their families to the Ottoman sultans comprise the primary examples of Persian artifacts in the Topkapı Treasury. In addition to diplomatic gifts (see GIFT GIVING iv. IN THE SAFAVID PERIOD and v. IN THE QAJAR PERIOD), a particular practice (mühellafat/moḵ-allafāt) in Ottoman law is another important reason for the existence of Persian artifacts in the Topkapı Palace. According to this practice, the treasury was permitted to confiscate the personal property of the members of the administrative and military staff who lost their lives serving on the frontiers, including the Persian border. Moreover, it is assumed that spoils captured by the Ottomans from the Persian army, as happened in 1514 during the Battle of Čālderān also contributed greatly to this treasure. Another source must have been the local tribal princes who emigrated from Persia to the Ottoman Empire for political reasons. These princes are thought to have brought priceless manuscripts and other treasures that they could carry with themselves.
Among other riches that add to the value of the Topkapı Treasury are the artifacts brought from the ProphetMoḥammad’s tomb (ravza-i mütahhar/rowża-ye moṭahhar) in Medina. These objects, which had originally been donated to the tomb by the Ottoman sultans, were under serious threat of plunder during World War I. In an attempt to save them from such a fate, Fahreddin (Faḵ-r-al-Din) Pasha, a high-ranking Ottoman military figure in the Hejaz, sent these treasures back to the Palace.
Old manuscripts, especially 16th-century books and documents, contain detailed lists of the gifts sent from Persia to the Ottoman Palace. Such an example can be seen in a book named The History of the Zigetvar Campaign (which took place in 1566), written in 1569 by an Ottoman historian, Feridun Ahmed (Aḥmad) Beg (d. 1583).The final chapter of the book describes the admittance of the Safavid envoy Šāhqoli to the court of Sultan Selim II (Salim II, r. 1566-74) in Edirne in 1568. The purpose of this visit was to present Shah Tˈahmāsp’s gifts to the Sultan to congratulate him on his accession to the throne. The envoy was also depicted as being in the presence of the Sultan in one of the book’s miniature illustrations.
As an eyewitness to this event, Feridun Ahmed Begcarefully lists Shah Ṭahmāsp I’s (r. 1524-76) gifts to the Sultan but separates a particular book from the others. This invaluable manuscript, which contains 259 miniature illustrations and had precious gems embedded in both covers, was a special copy of the classic Šāh-nāma of Ferdowsi. Until very recently, this copy was also known as the Houghton Šāh-nāma (see TˈAHMĀSBI ŠĀH-NĀMA, forthcoming online).
In 1576, this time to celebrate Sultan Murad (Morād) III’s (r. 1574-95) accession, Tokmak Han (Toqmaq Khan), another envoy of Shah Tˈahmāsp, arrived in Istanbul. He brought with him gilded copies of the Qurʾān, a Šāh-nāma, weapons, rugs, and precious stones. The most significant of all, however, was an astonishing imperial tent decorated with jewels. A miniature found in the first volume of Şehinşahname/Šāhanšāh-nāma, dated 1581, depicts vividly the ceremony and the construction of the tent (Istanbul University Library, no. F1404). Unfortunately, this magnificent piece of art has not survived.
Six years later, the Safavid ambassador Ebrāhim Khan, representing Moḥammad Ḵodābanda (r. 1578-87, d. 1595 or 1596), was present at the circumcision ceremony of Prince Mehmet (Moḥammad), the young heir of Sultan Murad III. Ebrāhim Khan presented gifts both to the Sultan and the young heir. There were also gifts for the Sultan’s mother and the Imperial Harem. Mustafa Âli (Moṣṭafā ʿĀli, d. 1600) a well-known bureaucrat and historian of the time, listed those gifts with care: gilded Qurʾān (müzehhep/moḏahhab, mürassa/moraṣṣaʿ), and manuscripts of the Šāh-nāma and a Ḵamsa of Neẓāmi, both decorated by famous Persian artists. Other gifts were Chinese porcelains (faḡfuri), bolts of silk and velvet, curtains with colorful designs, silk rugs, and two chests filled with natural aquamarine. The reception of the ambassador by the Sultan is illustrated in the second volume of Şehinşahname, dated between 1592 and 1597 (Topkapı Saray Museum [TSM], no.B200).
In 1590, the heir to the Safavid throne, Ḥ aydar Mirzā, the son of Ḥ amza Mirzā (on whom see EI2, III, p. 157), was sent to the Ottoman palace for a long stay. This act was a sign of goodwill from the Persians in order to emphasize the peace between the two countries. The ten-year-old prince brought valuable books and several other gifts to Murad III. This scene was also depicted in various miniatures painted by Ottoman artists of the late 16th century (TSM, no. R. 1296, fol.46a; New York MET, 45-174-75). These examples demonstrate that there had been a constant flow of diplomatic presents from the Safavids to the Topkapı as tokens of peace. However, this flow was reciprocal, as valuable presents were sent from the Ottoman Sultans to the Safavid Shahs in return.
Today, manuscripts displayed in the New Library in the third court of the Palace constitute the majority of the Persian holdings in the Topkapı. It is quite possible that these manuscripts were kept in the basement depository of the Imperial Treasury until the 18th century. In 1719, when Sultan Ahmed III (Aḥmad III, r. 1703-30) built a library in the third court, he transferred some of those books from the basement to his library in order to have them preserved under better conditions. In 1740, Sultan Maḥmud I’s (Maḥmud I, r. 1730-54) library next to the Hagia Sophia was also filled with the books from the basement of the treasury. Those books were transferred to the Süleymaniye Library in the 1970s. Another library decorated with books from the Topkapı Treasury was built by Sultan Abdülhamid II (ʿAbd-al-Ḥ amid II, r. 1876-1909) in the Yıldız Palace. Today, the holdings of that library are contained in the library of IstanbulUniversity. As a result, it can be inferred that many of the valuable Persian manuscripts displayed in several libraries outside the Topkapı Museum had originally belonged in the Topkapı Treasury.
Turkish, Persian, and Arabic manuscripts in the Topkapı collection have been cataloged in their entirety and published by F. E. Karatay. Albums (moraqqaʿ), however, have been catalogued, but not yet published. Most of the studies and publications on the Persian holdings in the Topkapı Museum focus closely on the manuscript collection. These manuscripts, especially the ones with miniatures, have also been studied in a number of doctoral theses.
In the Topkapı Palace Library, it is possible to find manuscripts written by Ottoman calligraphers in the Persian language. There are also manuscripts written in Turkish and Arabic that are the work of Persian calligraphers and artists working at the Safavid court.
Among all the Persian manuscripts in the library, illuminated Qurʾāns and manuscripts with miniatures attract much attention for their artistic quality. The manuscripts in this collection contain not only wonderful miniature artworks but also masterpieces of rich Persian literature. Some examples of these books in the Topkapı Library are: 70 separate copies of Neẓāmi’s Ḵamsa (among them, the copy that was finished in the time of Shah Esmāʿil I [ r. 1501-24] is the most distinguished); 47 copies of Ferdowsi’s Šāh-nāma; thirty-three copies of Jāmi’s works such as Haft Owrang, Ḵamsa,and Yusof o Zoleyḵ-ā; 16 copies of Amir Ḵosrow Dehlavi’s poems; eight copies of ʿAli Šir Navāʾi’s writings; 19 copies of Saʾdi works; 13 copies of Hafez’s divan; 12 copies of ʿAjāʾeb al-maḵ-luqāt and 8 copies of Qeṣaṣ al-anbiyā. Two other masterpieces, Jāmeʿ al-tawāriḵ- and Kolliyāt-e Ḥāfeẓ-e Abru (d. 1430), containing miniatures that depict historical events should also be mentioned.
Forty-nine of the albums in the library contain Persian, Indian, and Ottoman miniatures, qalam-siāhi illustrations, European engravings, and examples of Arabic calligraphy and gilding. Some of these albums, such as H.2151, H.2152, H.2154, H.2161, H.2166, andB411 were entirely produced in Persia. One of them (H.2161) has the name Ḥasan on its lacquered cover as the name of the artist who did the binding. On another (H.2151), an artist named Moẓaffar ʿAli is credited with gilding and decorations.
In the foreword to an album (H.2154) dedicated to the Safavid prince Bahrām Mirzā (1517-49), we find an account of the great manuscript artists of the Islamic world, narrated brilliantly by a Safavid writer named Dust-Moḥammad. Similarly, two other albums (H.2153, H.2160) are collections of elegant miniatures and calligraphies of manuscript artists from the Il-khanid, Jalayerid, and Turkmen periods. Another important document for art historians is found in the famous Fatih (Fāteḥ) Album (H.2153; fol.98). This document gives information about the Herat school of miniature painting, which operated under the patronage of the Timuridprince Bāysonḡor (d. 1433). In some of the albums, such as (H.2155, H.2165, H.2168), examples of Ottoman and Persian miniatures and calligraphy can be seen. Designs for such albums were made in Istanbul, in the second half of the 16th and throughout the 18th centuries.
In addition to the books, an important part of the Persian manuscript collection in the Topkapı consists of Qurʾāns. These Qurʾāns were produced by the combined efforts of famous calligraphers (ḵ-aṭṭāṭ), master gilders (moḏahheb), and gifted bookbinders (mojalled). One of these Qurʾāns (H.S.25) was copied by the calligrapher Shah Maḥmud Nišāpuri in May 1538 and gilded by Ḥ asan Baḡdādi in 1562. The original cover of the Qurʾān, which is believed to have been decorated with jewels, was replaced with a simpler Turkish version. The majority of the remaining Qurʾāns, such as E.H.152 and E.H.66, were probably copied inKhorasanby calligraphers from Tabriz and Herat, between1560 and 1585. Before the Topkapı Palace was converted into a museum, these Qurʾāns had been stored in the Treasury’s Emanet Hazinesi department. The Qurʾāns mentioned above are similar in dimensions. Their inscriptions also resemble each other and their gilding was done with the same technique.
Among the splendid Qurʾāns from Persia in the Topkapı, two of the larger ones (E.H.48 and E.H.67), gilded by Moḥammad b. Tāj-al-Din Širāzi in the second half of the 16th century, fascinate visitors. Other Qurʾāns, also produced by talented hands in the same period, are displayed not only at the Topkapı Museum but also at the Istanbul Museum of Turkish and Islamic Arts, the Istanbul Museum of Archeology, the Istanbul Süleymaniye Library,and theAnkara Vakiflar Archives. The Qurʾāns displayed at the Archives were gathered from mosques located in various cities for better preservation. All these examples demonstrate that in the second half of the 16th century there was an abundant production of richly adorned manuscripts in Herat and Shiraz. These manuscripts were frequently sent as gifts to the Ottoman court or to be sold in Ottoman Turkey.
The 19th-century Qurʾāns from Persia displayed in the Topkapı Museum were brought to the Palace from the Prophet Moḥammad’s tomb in Medina during World War I. These magnificent Qurʾāns (M.83 and M.93) were originally donated to the tomb by Persian nobles of the Qajar era. In addition to these Qurʾāns, artifacts such as the lacquer pencil box (No. CY.503) and a 19th-century oil painting of Fath-ʿAli Shah (r. 1797-1834) with his retinue (17/343) are other pieces from the Qajar era.
Not all of the documents in the Topkapı archives related to Persia have yet been fully classified and published. A few of those that have been published concern the artists from Khorasan and Tabriz who were brought to the Ottoman Empire after the Battle of Čālderān. A document (D.10734), dated 1514, lists the personal assets of various distinguished Persians at Shah Esmāʿil’s Hašt Behešt palace in Tabriz. An undated document (D.9784), describes in detail the crafts, names, and the number of artists brought from Tabriz. Another, written January 1526 (D.9613-I) also lists the names of the miniaturists (naqqāš) who were exiles from Tabriz and also notes that some of the forefathers of the miniaturists had been exiles from Persia.
Shah Tˈahmāsp’s letter of greeting (E.3161) that was presented to Sultan Murad III by the envoy Tokmak Hanon May 1576also exists in the Topkapı archives. The rolled letter pertaining to Sultan Murad III’s accession measures 28x200 cm. The prose sectionsof the letterwere written in divāni-ye jali and theverse sections in taʿliq script (see CALLIGRAPHY). Qurʾān verses on the letter are gilded and written in nasḵ-i script (ibid.). On the reverse of the letter is Shah Tˈahmāsp’s seal.
Another document (D.636) concerns Shah Esmāʿil’s wife, Tājli Khanom, who was captured in the Battle of Čālderān by Mesih (Masiḥ) Bey, the governor of Vidin. It is understood from the document that there had been an official investigation regarding the whereabouts of Tājli Khanom personal jewelry and her precious silk garments.
In the Topkapı archives one document stands out above all others in terms of beauty and elegance. This is a letter (E.9469/2) sent by Sultan Maḥmud I to Nāder Shah (r. 1736-47). The letter, which is in fact a peace treaty between the Ottoman Empire and Persia, measures 79x460 cm and is written in the taʿliq and divāni scripts. The edges of the document were adorned by an 18th-century Ottoman artist. However, upon Nāder Shah’s sudden death, the Sultan’s letter and gifts were called back to Istanbul while half way to Persia. The dazzling žTopkapı dagger’(2/160), which is displayed in the treasury section of Topkapı Museum, was also among the Sultan’s gifts to the Shah. In all likelihood the Indian throne(2/735) displayed in the same section of the museum was a gift from Nāder Shah to Sultan Maḥmud I.
Today, the finest examples of Persian artifacts in the Topkapı collection are displayed in the museum’s Treasury section. These selected pieces have also been published in various catalogues. One of the artifacts displayed in the Treasury section is a sandalwood chest (2/1846), which constitutes the finest example of Timurid woodcarving. The exterior of the box is decorated with flowers, vines, and dragons, and the interior is covered with red silk with flower motifs. The inscription on the cover bears the name “Oloḡ Beg” (perhaps the eponymous Timurid ruler, r. 1447-49). Therefore, it is strongly possible that this box was produced in Central Asia, probably in Samarqand, between 1420 and 1449.
In the same section, Shah Esmāʿil’s belt (2/1842) of steel and gold with human, animal, and vine motifs, can be seen. On one of the sections of this belt, the shah is depicted on his horse, holding a falcon. The inscription on the belt includes Shah Esmāʿil’s name and the date 1507. Additionally, an armband (2/1843), made by the master Anwār-Allahand a pitcher (2/1844) made from Herat stone, decorated with gilded arabesque motifs and inscriptions, also belonged to the Shah. It is assumed that these personal artifacts were captured during the battle of Čālderān in 1514, at which the Shah and his army were defeated by the Ottomans.
Another masterpiece produced by 16th-century Tabriz goldsmiths is a zinc bowl (2/2869) lined with silver. The interior of the bowl was worked with aquamarines, emeralds, and rubies. On the exterior, amazing figures of nymphs, animals, and flowers accompany a king drinking from a cup. A zinc pitcher (2/2854), made with similar technique, materials, and motifs is also displayed in the same section. Two other zinc pitchers (2/2875 and 2/2877), distinctive with their swelling bodies and long necks, were depicted in miniatures of the Shah Tˈahmāsp era.
Two of the “sun-and-lion” (šir o ḵ-oršid) medals (2/1383, 2/1384) displayed in the treasury were sent to Sultan Abdülhamid II (ʿAbd-al-Ḥamid II, r. 1876-1909) from Persia. Both of the star-shaped medals bear large diamonds. The figures of the lion and sun in the center were done with the enamel technique.
There is a group of undated Qurʾāns in the Treasury that were produced by less talented artists but which still carry precious gemstones on their covers. The inside covers were decorated in gold, using a special technique called ṭalā-kāri.
Miniatures (TSM.B200, fol.36b-37a) which depict the circumcision ceremony of Sultan Murad III’s heir Mehmet (Moḥammad [III], r. 1595-1603) in 1582 show the Persian envoy Ebrāhim Khan presenting Shah Tˈahmāsp’s gifts to the young man. Details in these miniatures clearly describe three Qurʾān with jeweled covers. Based on this evidence, it can be assumed that some of these particular Qurʾān (2/2129, 2/2901, 2/2132, 2/2898) in the Topkapı Treasury were dated prior to 1582.
A gold chess set (2/1366-68) and an ivory chessboard (2/1377) can be dated to the 16th century or the early Safavid era. Other artifacts from the same era are an elegant writing utensil set (davāt, see DAWĀT) (2/3081) and an ivory box decorated with vines (2/1850).
Although Persian fabrics were in great demand and very popular in the Topkapı harem, they constitute only a minor portion of the Persian collection in the museum. It would be reasonable to attribute this to the perishable nature of textile products. A piece of Persian fabric (13/20) displayed in the textile section of the museum was used in Sultan Mehmet II’s furred caftan. The fabric, woven of black and yellow thread and decorated with flowers and leaves, is dated to the late 15th century or the Āq Qoyunlu era. Another interesting piece is a velvet cloth (13/1697) decorated with scenes from Leyli o Majnun. It is understood that other small pieces of fabric were recycled and used as accessories (13/833, 13/1913, 24/1727).
A group of Persian rugs, still preserved in the textile section of the museum, are of Isfahan, Hamadan, and Kerman origin and date from the 19th century. They were acquired by the museum through a donation in 1980.
In the weaponry section are a variety of Persian weapons such as helmets, axes, bows, war clubs, maces, rifles, shields, and armor. Among all the Persian collections at the Topkapı Museum, the weaponry collection comes second after the manuscripts in terms of quantity. Pieces in the weaponry section have not been studied and cataloged thoroughly. They represent fine examples of Persian metalwork from the 16th to the 19th centuries. The sharp edges of the Persian spears (ʿalam, see ʿALAM VA ʿALĀMAT) (1/651, 1/664, 1/676) were designed after palm leaves and decorated with the names of Allāh, Moḥammad, and ʿAli. Helmets, which constitute a significant part of the Persian weaponry section, are engraved with figures of fighting soldiers, animals of prey, and inscriptions written in nastaʿliq script. Some of them, such as one that belonged to Shah Tˈahmāsp (1/897), were gilded. The steel swords (1/2529, 1/2530) cast by the renowned ironsmith Asad-Allah Eṣfahāni in thelate 16th century, are the most spectacular swords of the collection. Another striking piece is a suit of body armor (1/893) dated 1738/39, made up of 4 pieces and decorated with flower and animal motifs. Aside from these magnificent weapons of war, the collection holds 200 individual Persian bows, each engraved with flower and animal motifs. This alone is solid testimony to the magnitude and richness of the Persian weaponry collection at the Topkapı Museum.
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Idem, “Illustrated Stories from a Turkish Version of Jami’s Baharistan,” Turkish Treasures 2,1978, pp. 20-207.
Idem, “The Miniatures of the Divan-i Hüseyni and the Influence of their Style,” in Fifth International Congress of Turkish Art, ed. G. Feller, Budapest, 1978, pp. 231-59.
Idem, “Sultan Sencer ve Yaşlı Kadın minyatürlerinin ikonografisi,” in Sanat tarihinde ikonografik araştırmalar. Güner İnal’a armagan, Ankara, 1993, pp. 87-116.
F. Çağman and Z. Tanındı, Topkapi Saray Museum. Miniatures, Tokyo, 1980.
Idem, Topkapi Saray Museum. The Albums and Illustrated Miniatures, tr., ed., expanded M. J. Rogers, London, 1986.
Idem, “Remarks on Some Manuscripts from the Topkapi Palace Treasury in the Context of Ottoman-Safavid Relations,” Muqarnas 13, 1996, pp. 132-48.
Idem, “Manuscript Production at the Kazaruni Orders in Safavid Shiraz,” in Safavid Art and Architecture, ed. S. R. Canby, London, 2002, pp. 43-48.
Idem, Topkapi Saray Museum. Islamic Miniature Painting, Istanbul, 1979.
Z. Çelik, “Topkapı Sarayı Müzesi kütüphanesi’ndeki hazine 2155 nolu murakka,” M.A. thesis, Istanbul Mimar Sinan Üniversitesi [Istanbul], 2003.
K. Çığ, “The Iranian Lacquer Technique Works in the Topkapt Saray Museum,” Fifth International Congress of Iranian Art and Archeaology, Tehran, 1972, pp. 24-33.
R. Ettinghausen, “An Illuminated Manuscript of Hafiz-i Abru in Istanbul,” Kunst des Orients 2, 1950, pp. 30-44.
Idem, “Four Istanbul Albums,” Ars Orientalis 1,1954, pp. 90-103.
Idem, “Persian Ascension Miniatures of the Fourteenth Century,” Accedemia Nazionale de Lincei XII 12, Rome, 1957, pp. 360-83.
Idem, “On some Mongol Miniatures,” Kunst des Orients 2, 1959, pp. 44-65.
M. Farhad, “Safavid Single Page Painting,” Ph.D. diss., Harvard University, 1987.
E. J. Grube, Miniature islamiche nella collezione del Topkapı Sarayı Istanbul, Padova, 1975.
Idem, Persian Painting in the Fourteenth Century, Naples, 1978.
Idem F. Çağman, and Z. Akalay, Islamic Painting. Topkapı Sarayı Collection, Tokyo, 1978.
Idem, and E. Sims, eds. Between China and Iran. Paintings from Four Istanbul Albums, A Colloquy held 23-26 June 1980, London, New York, 1985.
G. İnal, “Some Miniatures from the Jamiʿ al-Tavarikh in Istanbul, Topkapı Museum Hazine Library no. 1654,” Ars Orientalis 5, 1963, pp. 163-75.
Idem, “The Fourteenth-Century Jamiʿ al-Tawarikh in the Topkapı Museum in Istanbul, Hazine Library no.1653,” Ph. D. diss., University of Michigan, 1965.
Idem, “Shah Nameh Hazine No. 1509 in the Topkapı Museum,” Sanat tarihi yıllığı 3, 1969-70, pp. 306-16.
Idem, “Topkapı Sarayı müzesindeki Şahname yazmalarının minyatürleri üzerine analitik çalışma,” Docent diss., Istanbul Üniversitesi, 1972.
Idem, “A Manuscript of the Shahname from the Period of Shah Ismaʿil and its Influences on the Later Shahname Illustrations,” Sanat tarihi yıllığı 3, 1972-73, pp. 497-529.
Idem, “Artistic Relationship between the Far and Near East Reflected in the Miniatures of the Gami at-Tawarikh,” Kunst des Orients 10,1975, pp. 108-43.
Idem, “Realistic Motifs and the Expression of the Drama in Safavid Miniatures,” Sanat tarihi yıllığı 7, 1976-77, pp. 59-88.
Idem, “The Influence of the Kazvin Style on Ottoman Miniature Painting,” in Fifth International Congress of Turkish Art, ed. Geza Feher, Budapest, 1978, pp. 457-76.
Idem, “Uzakdoguda Resim ve Islamda Minyatür,” Sanat tarihi yıllığı 8, 1979, pp.109-128.
Idem, “Realistic Motifs in Safavid Miniatures,” in VII. International Congress for Iranian Art and Archeology, Berlin, 1979, pp. 438-48.
Idem, “Topkapı Sarayı müzesindeki H. 1084 no.lu Yusuf ile Züleyha yazmasının minyatürleri,” Hacettepe beşeri bilimler dergisi 10, 1979, pp. 1-41.
Idem, “İstanbul Topkapı müzesindeki albüm desenlerinden seçmeler,” in Bedrettin Cömert’e armağan. Hacettepe Üniversitesi sosyal ve idari bilimler fakültesi beşeri bilimler dergisi özel sayı, Ankara, 1980, pp. 457-70.
Idem, “Topkapı Sarayı müzesindeki Şah Abbas dönemi Şehnamelerinin minyatürleri,” Hacettepe beşeri bilimler dergisi 101980, pp. 12-51.
Idem, “Topkapı Sarayı müzesindeki iki onaltıncı yüzyıl Hamsesi’nin minyatürleri,” Ege Üniversitesi arkeoloji-sanat tarihi dergisi 1, 1982, pp. 37-49.
Idem, “17. yüzyıldan bir Hafiz divanının desenlerinde resim ve metin ilişkisi,” Suut Kemal Yetkin ’e armağan, Ankara, 1984, pp. 165-202.
Idem, “The Ottoman Interpretation of Firdausi’s Shahname,” in Akten des VI. Internationalen Kongresses für türkische Kunst, München, vom 3. bis 7. September 1979,Munich, 1990, pp. 554-62.
Idem, “Miniatures in Historical Manuscripts from the Time of Shahrukh in the Topkapı Palace Museum,” in Timurid Art and Culture: Iran and Central Asia in the Fifteenth Century (special vol. Muqarnas 6), Leiden 1992, pp. 103-16.
M. Ş. İpşiroğlu, Painting and Culture of the Mongols, New York, 1966.
Idem, Das Bild im Islam: Ein Verbot und seine Folgen, Vienna and Munich, 1971.
Idem, Siyah Qalem, Graz, 1976. Idem, Masterpieces from the Topkapı Museum, London, 1980.
Idem and S. Eyüboğlu, Fatih Albümüne bir bakiş. Sur l’Album du Conquerant,Istanbul, 1955.
A. Karahan, T. Yazıcı, and A. Milani, Topkapı Sarayı müzesindeki Şehname yazmalarından seçme minyatürler, Istanbul, 1971.
B. Karamağaralı, “Cami u’t-Tevarih’in bilinmiyen bir nüshasına ait dört minyatür,” Sanat tarihi yıllığı 2, 1968, pp. 70-86.
F. E. Karatay, Topkapı Sarayı müzesi kütiiphanesi farsça yazmalar kataloğu,Istanbul 1961.
Idem, Topkapı Sarayı müzesi kütiiphanesi Türkçe yazmalar kataloğu, I-II, Istanbul, 1961.
Idem, Topkapı Sarayı müzesi kütiiphanesi Arapça yazmalar kataloğu, I-IV, Istanbul, 1962-69.
T. Lentz, “Painting at Herat under Baysunghur Ibn Shahrukh,” Ph.D. diss. Harvard University, 1989.
B. Mahir, “Saray nakkaşhanesinin ünlü ressamı Şah Kulu ve eserleri,” Topkapı Sarayı müzesi Yıllık 1,1986, pp. 113-30.
R. Milstein, K. Ruhrdanz, andB Schmitz, Stories of the Prophets. Illustrated Manuscripts of Qisas al-Anbiya, Costa Mesa, Calif., 1999.
G. Necipoğlu, The Topkapi Scroll. Geometry and Ornament in Islamic Architecture, Santa Monica, Calif., 1995.
B. O’Kane, Early Persian Painting. Kalila and Dimna Manuscripts of the Late Fourteenth Century,London and New York, 2003.
B. Ögel, “Topkapı Sarayı müzesinde bulunan iki minyatür albümü hakkında notlar,” Tarih vesikaları 1, 1955, pp. 135-40.
Idem, “Fatih Albümünde Şeyhi İmzali Minyatürler Hakkinda,” Vakıflar Dergisi IV, 1958, pp. 209-41.
F. Öğütmen (Çağman), XII-XVIII Yüzyıllar arasında minyatür sanatından örnekler: Topkapı Sarayı minyatür bölümü rehberi, Istanbul, 1966.
M. K. Özergin, “Timurlu sanatına ait bir belge: Tebrizli Cafer’in bir arzı,” Sanat tarihi yıllığı 6, 1976, pp. 471-518.
V. Prentice, “A Detached Miniature from the Masnavis of Khwaju Kirmani,” Oriental Art 27,1981, pp. 60-66.
W. Robinson, “PrinceBaysunghur and the Fables ofBidpai,” Oriental Art 16,1970, pp. 145-54.
D. J. Roxburgh, “`Our Works Point to Us’: Album Making, Collecting, and Art (ca. 1427-1565) under the Timurids and Safavids,” 2 vols.,Ph.D. diss., University of Pennsylvania, 1996.
Idem, “Catalogue of Scripts by the Seven Masters (H.2310): A Timurid Calligraphy Album at the Ottoman Court,” Turkish Art. 10th International Congress of Turkish Art, ed. F. Deroche, Geneva, 1999, pp. 587-98.
Idem, “Disorderly Conduct? F. R. Martin and theBahram Mirza Album,” Muqarnas 15, 1998, pp. 32-57.
Idem, Prefacing the Image. The Writing of Art History in Sixteenth-Century Iran,Leiden, Boston, and Cologne, 2001.
Idem, “Bahram Mirza and His Collections,” in Safavid Art and Architecture, ed. S. R. Canby, London, 2002,pp. 37-42.
K. Rührdanz, “The Illustrated Manuscripts of Athar al-Muzaffar: A History of the Prophet,” in Persian Painting from the Mongols to the Qajars. Studies in Honour of Basil W. Robinson, ed. R. Hillenbrand, London and New York, 2000,pp. 201-16.
M. S. Simpson, “A Manuscript made for the Safavid Prince Bahram Mirza,” The Burlington Magazine 133, 1991, pp. 376-84.
Idem, “The Making of Manuscripts and the Workings of the Kitab-khana in Safavid Iran,” in The Artist’s Workshop, ed. P. M. Lukehart, Hanover, N.H., andLondon, 1993, pp. 105-20.
E. Sims and T. Stanley, “The Illustration of Baghdad 282 in the Topkapı Sarayı Library in Istanbul,” in Cairo to Kabul, Afghan and Islamic Studies Presented to Ralph Pinder-Wilson,ed. W. Ball and L. Harrow, London, 2002, pp. 222-26.
P. P. Soucek, “Illustrations to Nizami’s Khamseh, 1386-1495,” Ph.D. diss., New York University, 1971.
Idem, and F. Çağman, “The Royal Manuscript and Its Transformation: The Life History of a Book,” in The Book in the Islamic World, ed. G. N. Atiyeh, New York, 1995, pp. 179-207.
I. Stchokine, “La peinture à Yazd dans un milieu du XVe siècle,” Syria 40, 1963, pp. 139-45.
Idem, “Les peintures turcomanes et safavies d’une Khamseh de Nizami, achevée à Tabriz en 886/1481,” Arts asiatiques 14, 1966, pp. 3-16.
Idem, “La peinture a Yazd au debut du XVe siècle,” Syria 43 1966, pp. 99-104.
Idem, “Sultan ʿAlî al-Bâvardî, un peintre iranien inconnu du XVe siècle,” Syria 44, 1967, pp.401-408.
Idem, “Une Khamseh de Nizami de la fin du règne de Shah Rokh,” Arts asiatiques 17, 1968, pp. 45-58.
Idem, “Un manuscrit illustré de la bibliothīque de Mohammad II Fatih,” Arts asiatiques 19,1969, pp. 3-13.
Idem, “Origine indienne d’un manuscrit persan (Nizami) achevé en 844 A.H,” Syria 46, 1969, pp. 105-11.
Idem, “Un manuscrit illustré de la bibliothīque de Bayazid II,” Arts asiatiques 24 1971, pp. 9-22.
Idem, “La peinture a Baghdad sous Sultan Pir Budaq Qara-Qoyunlu,” Arts asiatiques 25, 1972, pp.1-18.
Idem, “La Khamseh de Nizami, H. 753, du Topkapı Sarayı Müzesi d’lstanbul,” Syria 49, 1972, pp. 239-46.
Idem, “Un poème de Jami illustré à Tabriz en 931/1525,” Syria 51, 1974, pp. 291-96.
Idem, “Maulana Shaykh Mohammed, un maitre de l’école de Meshhed du XVIe siècle,” Arts asiatiques 30,1974, pp. 3-11.
Idem, Les peintures des manuscrits de la žKhamseh’ de Nizami au Topkapı Sarayı Müzesi d’Istanbul, Paris, 1977.
Z. Tanındı, “A Fifteenth-Century Manuscript of Hümay u Hümayun,” Persica 7, 1979, pp. 129-32.
Idem, “Islam’da kitap kapları ve ustaları,” Yeni boyut 3/23, 1984, pp. 20-22.
Idem, “Topkapı Sarayı müzesi kütüphanesi’nde Veli Can imzalı resimler,” Türklük bilgisi araştırmaları Fahir İz armaḡanı 15, 1991, pp. 287-313.
Idem, “Mihr-ü Müşteri minyatürlerinin ikonografik çözümlemesi,” in Sanat tarihinde ikonografik araştırmalar. Güner İnal’a armagan, Ankara, 1993, pp. 457-90.
Idem, “An Illuminated Manuscript of the Wandering Scholar Ibn al-Jazari and the Wandering Illuminators Between Tabriz, Shiraz, Herat, Bursa, Edirne, Istanbul in the 15th Century,” in Turkish Art. 10th International Congress of Turkish Art,ed. F. Deroche, Geneva, 1999, pp. 617-55.
Idem, “Safavid Princes and Envoys in the Ottoman Court,” in Interactions in Art, ed. Z. Y. Yamanlar, Ankara, 2000, pp. 236-41.
Idem, “Additions to Illustrated Manuscripts in Ottoman Workshops,” Muqarnas 17, 2000, pp. 147-61.
Idem, “Safavid Bookbinding,” in Hunt for Paradise. Court Arts of Safavid Iran 1501-1576, ed. J. Thompson and S. Canby, Milan, 2003, pp. 154-83.
W. Thackston, A Century of Princes: Sources on Timurid History and Art, selected and tr. W. M. Thackston, Cambridge, Mass., 1989.
Z. V. Toğan, “Topkapi Sarayında dört cönk,” Islam tetkikleri enstitüsü dergisi 1, 1953-54, pp. 73-89.
Idem, On the Miniatures in Istanbul Libraries, Istanbul, 1963.
L. UIuç, “The Ottoman Contribution to 16th-Century Shirazi Manuscript Production,” in Turkish Art. 10th International Congress of Turkish Art, ed., F. Deroche, Geneva, 1999, pp. 681-93.
Idem, “Selling to the Court: Late-Sixteenth-Century Manuscript Production in Shiraz,” Muqarnas 17, 2000, pp. 73-96.
Idem, “The Majalis al-Ushshaq: Written in Herat, Copied in Shiraz, Read in Istanbul,” in M Uğur Derman 65th Birthday Festschrift, ed., I. C. Schick, Istanbul, 2000, pp. 569-602.
Idem, “Echoes of Urban Life in Sixteenth-Century Shiraz Manuscripts,” in Interactions in Art, Ankara, 2000, pp. 254-59.
Idem, “Arts of the Book in Sixteenth Century Shiraz,” 4 vols., Ph.D. diss., New York University, 2000.
Idem, Turkman Governors, Shiraz Artisans and Ottoman Collectors: Sixteenth Century Shiraz Manuscripts, Istanbul, 2007.
S. Walzer, “The Topkapi Saray Manuscript of the Persian Kalila wa-Dimna (dated A.D.1413),” in Ralph Pinder-Wilson, ed., Paintings from Islamic Lands,Oxford, 1969, pp. 48-84.
See also the Topkapi Palace Museum website.
April 25, 2008
Originally Published: April 7, 2008
Last Updated: April 7, 2008