iii. IN CENTRAL ASIA (1881-1918)

Lithographic book printing began in Central Asia in the late 19th century in several regions: in the khanate of Khiva as of 1874 (in Turkic languages only), in Turkistan in Tashkent as of 1881, and in the khanate of Bukhara from 1901 onwards.

The bulk of lithographed books in Oriental languages were published in Tashkent, where, according to estimates by G.N.Chabrov, thirteen typographic and eight lithographic printing houses had been active in various years (Chabrov, 1954, p. 82). However, the largest and the most long-term of these were the three owned by O.A.Portsev (1887–1918), V.M.Il’in (typographic printing house from 1893, typographic-lithographic printing house in 1899–1912), and Gulam-Khasan Arifdzhanov (1906-March 1918), called “Ḡolāmiya” by the owner after the first part of his first name (Ḡolām-Ḥasan). The first commercial enterprise that published books in Oriental languages for sale was the typographic-lithographic printing house of S.I.Lakhtin. It had functioned as typographic printing house from 1877, and as typographic-lithographic printing house from 1880 on. At first, S.I.Lakhtin, together with V.F.Pastukhov (Rustamov, p. 118), were the joint owners, but from 1883 Lakhtin assumed the sole ownership. In 1892-93 the property was in the hands of Lakhtin’s descendants. From the middle of 1893, the printing facility became part of the trading house of the brothers F. and G.Kamenskiĭ (FIGURE 1). According to the information by E.K.Betger, in November 1883 the printing house of Lakhtin published the first lithographic edition in the Uzbek language, namely the work entitled Ṯabāt al-ʿājezin by Ṣufi Allāhyār (Betger, p. 77). Apparently, it was in this printing house where the first two editions in the Persian language were published in 1881: the Čahār ketāb and the Feqh-e keydāni preserved in the collection of the Institute of Oriental Studies in Tashkent (Akmolova and Khamraev, p. 76).

Lithographic printing houses operated in Samarqand too, like those of G.I.Demurov (1900-08; FIGURE 2), and B.A.Gazarov and K.Sliyanov from 1911; as well as in Andijān and Qoqand from 1904; and in Namangān (the Esḥāqiya printing house, founded in 1909, active in the period 1910-17).

In the khanate of Bukhara, the lithographic printing house of Baranovsky started its activities in New Bukhara in 1901. In 1903-04 it was owned by L.N.Levin, and later, as of 1907, it belonged to I.Gaĭsinskiĭ and M.Bendetskiĭ. In 1910-13, the typographic-lithographic printing house of Levin was working again. The period of active lithographic book printing in Turkestan and in Bukhara lasted for a short time. It operated only in the first two decades of the 20th century and was at its most productive between 1905-17. Besides the printing houses mentioned earlier, books in oriental languages were published by the enterprise of G.Ya.Yakovlev, and in 1900-06, some books in Persian came out at the printing press belonging to the H.Q. of the Turkestan Military Command. All private enterprises in Turkestan ceased their activities in March 1918 due to nationalization (Chabrov, 1964, pp. 134-41). The lithographic printing house in Bukhara remained operative until 1338/1919-20 (Shcheglova, 1975, nos. 460 and 505).

All the above-mentioned enterprises produced books in various languages. The main centers that published books in Persian were Tashkent and Bukhara. A small number of editions was printed in Samarqand, and the odd volume came out in Namangān, Qoqand, and Ashkhabad. The largest number of books in Persian, often in Persian and Uzbek simultaneously, came out at the first national lithographic printing house of Gulam-Khasan Arifdzhanov.

The lithographic printing houses in Central Asia restricted their activities to the printing process; only G.-Kh.Arifdzhanov at times attempted to publish books on his own initiative, and this was mentioned on the title pages. As a rule, the initiative for publications and their accomplishment came from the local men of erudition and booksellers who also acted as book publishers. Already in the 1890s, the business of book printing was the occupation of about two dozens of local booksellers. Some of them published books in the Turkic languages while others produced books in Persian too.

In Tashkent, Mollā Raḥim Ḵᵛāja Išān b. ʿAli Ḵᵛāja was engaged in the book trade from the last two decades of the 19th century. In the first decade of the 20th century, Ḥājji ʿAbd-al-Raʾuf b. ʿAbd-al-Nabi was active as a publisher. In some cases, booksellers joined together to publish multi-volume compositions. Thus, in 1907-11, three publishers, Mollā ʿAbd-Allāh Ḥājji, Mollā ʿAbd-al-Raʾuf Ḥājji, and Mollā Mir Maḵdum Tāškandi, pooled their resources together at the lithographic printing house of Il’in in Tashkent to publish the three-volume work by Šayḵ Faqih Masʿud Samarqandi (Shcheglova, 2002, no. 206), and this was not their only joint undertaking. In Samarqand, editions were ordered by the local bookseller ʿAbd-al-Ḥakim b. Qāri Šah Naẓar. In Bukhara, the local bookseller Mollā Solṭān b. Mollā Ṣāber Boḵāri was engaged in the book business (FIGURE 3); to him in particular we owe the edition of the Naršaḵi’s Tāriḵ-e Boḵārā that came out at the typo-lithographic printing house of I.Gaĭsinskiĭ and M.Bendetskiĭ in 1904. Some companies invested money in the book publishing business too, for example, the Šerkat-e ḵāreja-ye jadida and the Šerkat-e Boḵārā-ye šarif did so from 1900 on.

Based on the Uzbek lithographed production, R.Makhmudova has listed the names of more than eighty book publishers who had been in the book trade until 1918. One of the prominent publishers, in her opinion, was Mirzā Aḥmad b. Mirzā Karim, who published more than thirty works. Mirzā Aḥmad published his books in Tashkent, and in one of Persian editions of 1910 he is referred to as bookseller in Andijān (Makhmudova, p. 13; Shcheglova, 2002, no. 61). Turkestan booksellers, such as Ṣadiq Ḵᵛāja Ḵojandi and Mir Ṣāber, placed their orders for lithographic printing abroad. Collections in St.Petersburg have preserved eleven books published in 1901-16 by Ṣadiq Ḵᵛāja in India, in the lithographic printing houses of Munshi Nawal Kishor located in the cities of Lucknow, Bombay, and Lahore. The list of his editions, printed in Istanbul, is also noted (Shcheglova, 1975, nos. 202, 280, 338, 445, 586, 1640, 1672; idem, 2002, nos. 82, 208, 211, 253; Yazberdyev, p. 89).

The overwhelming majority of books in Oriental languages lithographed in Central Asia were in Turkic languages. This is understandable given the predominance of the Turkic population in the region in the years between the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th. Publication of works by contemporary authors in Persian and Tajik (as a rule, the language was named fārsi [‘Persian’]) made up only a small fraction of the total number of the printed books. An important feature was the fact that the book markets in Bukhara and Turkestan were filled by Indian lithographic editions in Persian and Arabic, which were cheap but of sufficiently good quality. Books published in Bombay, Lucknow, Cawnpore, Lahore, Delhi, and some other Indian cities were imported to Central Asia by weight, a dozen kilograms being the weight unit (Dmitriev, pp. 239-54). The subjects of the imported production embraced the entire range of Islamic literary heritage: the Qur'ān with its translations and commentaries, works on Sunni dogma and the shariʿa, prayer books, Sufi treatises, a few encyclopedias, dictionaries, grammar manuals, and historical works. Classical texts of Persian literature, ranging from the Šāh-nāma of Ferdowsi to the poetry of Mughal India, were also represented by the Indian lithographic editions. In such a way, the share of the local publishers covered only a small part of the traditional literary repertoire in Persian. The publishers were forced to print only those books that served practical needs and were also subject to constant demand.

In the 80s of the 19th century, the lithographic book printing in Turkestan in Oriental languages in general, and in Persian in particular, was taking its first hesitant steps, and Persian editions came out one at a time. According to information provided by M.Akmolova and U.Khamraev, the library of the Institute of Oriental Studies of the Republic of Uzbekistan in Tashkent, the largest in Central Asia, contains copies of the Feqh-e keydāni and the Čahār ketāb lithographed in Tashkent in 1881, and the Farż-e ʿayn published in 1883. The first two were teaching aids in the local curriculum, while the third is a collection of prayers in Persian and in Central Asian Turki, also accepted in the local rite (Akmolova and Khamraev, p. 76). The same two authors record that the collection of lithographs at the Institute of Oriental Studies in Tashkent includes 4,118 works in ‘Persian-Tajik’ (using the terminology of the authors) language, 5,921 works in Arabic, and 7,861 works in fourteen Turkic languages, published in different parts of the world (ninety cities of Europe and Asia, including those of Persia, India, Afghanistan, Turkey, and Central Asia).

The lithographic book printing, like any other early type of book printing, had above all been used for producing copies of books most in demand by the public. The priority belonged to those books that had proved popular earlier while still in their handwritten state. Such compositions for the 1880s–1890s were prayer books, manuals for the rite, and teaching aids. Besides the above mentioned Čahār ketāb and the Feqh-e keydāni, the group of the teaching aids also included the versifications of the “Forty Hadiths” (Čehel ḥadiṯ) into Persian by Jāmi and into Turkic by Navāʾi; divāns of Hafez, Bidel, and the bilingual poet Fożuli; and the Maslak al-mottaqin by Ṣufi Allāhyār (Geĭer, p. 22). The edition of the latter had treatises on Arabic grammar in Persian and Arabic amended to it for those who studied at al-Kāfia madrasa.

By the beginning of the 20th century, the lithographic method of book production had received complete recognition by the local printers; the amount of published books increased considerably, and the repertoire became wider. The bulk of the books in Persian consisted of theological compositions of various categories: scholastic theology, rite instructions, prayers, hagiography, and jurisprudence.

Medieval theologians still carried authority, and from time to time such works as the Takmil al-imān by ʿAbd-al-Ḥaqq b. Sayf-al-Din Dehlavi (d. 1642) and the Šāṭebiya by Abu’l-Qāsem b. Farroḵ Šāṭebi (1144-94) were printed by Arifdzhanov in 1325/1907-08 and by Portsev in 1915 (Shcheglova, 1975, nos. 335 and 291). Besides the numerous editions of the versifications of the “Forty Hadiths” by Jāmi and Navāʿi, it was further published in the metrical version of Aḥmad Modarres Waṣli (d. 1925) as well as one by an anonymous author (Shcheglova, 1975, nos. 322 and 327). Brochures with prayers for various occasions were also much published.

Publications dealing with the shariʿa were of particularly practical nature. As was remarked by A.A.Semyonov, the Hedāya by Borhān-al-Din Marḡināni (d. 1197) was the handbook for all Central Asian theologians (Semyonov, 1957, pp. 6-7). Its abridgements, translations, and interpretations (Weqāya, Nokāya, and Tarjoma-ye Kurmiri) had been many times reproduced in the manuscript form earlier and entered the Central Asian market in the lithographed form from India during this period. In early 20th century local publishers in Tashkent and Bukhara brought out independent editions of it to meet orders by booksellers. In 1901 the typographic-lithographic printing house of V.M.Il’in in Tashkent published both the Arabic text and the Persian translation of the Moḵtaṣar al-weqāya by ʿObayd-Allāh b. Masʿud b. Tāj-al-Šariʿa (14th century)—a work that goes back to Marḡināni’s Hedāya. In 1333/1914-15, it was reprinted at the lithographic printing house of Arifdzhanov (Shcheglova, 2002, nos. 202 and 203). In 1909 in Bukhara, using the lithographic printing house of Levin, the local men of letters published the Persian commentary to the Nokāya by Jalāl-al-Din Samarqandi Kurmiri entitled Mollā Jalāl Kurmiri (Shcheglova, 1975, no. 620). The original work by Marḡināni together with a Persian translation of it came out in Bukhara in 1333/1914-15; the edition was made by the society Šerkat-e Boḵārā-ye šarif (Shcheglova, 1975, no. 595).

The medieval work on the Ḥanafite fiqh entitled Ṣalāt-e Masʿudi by Masʿud Samarqandi (14th century) was reprinted three times: in 1904 (FIGURE 4) and in 1907-11 by the typographic-lithographic printing house of Il’in, and in 1917 by the lithographic printing house of Arifdzhanov (Shcheglova, 1975, nos. 609 and 610; Shcheglova, 2002, nos. 206 and 207). It is worth noting that in the collected court orders of contemporary theologians issued in Bukhara and entitled Jong-e fatāwi wa maḥażarāt, references to the Hedāya, Nokāya, and Šarḥ-e weqāya are frequently given to corroborate certain decisions (Shcheglova, 1975, no. 639).

A large part of the printing production was devoted to regional as well as more generally recognized Muslim Sufi masters, and to the theory and practice of Sufism. This was mainly presented by the works of authors from Bukhara, Samarqand, and from Transoxania in general. Descriptions of places of pilgrimage (mazār) were published too. These included works written by both medieval authors, such as the Mollāzāda by Aḥmad Moʿin-al-Foqarāʾ (15th century, published in Bukhara in 1904) and the Qandiya by Nasafi (d. 1142), published in Samarqand in 1908-9; and contemporary men of letters, for example, the versification of the Mollāzāda by Mollā Mir ʿAbd-Allāh Ḵᵛāja Modarres of Bukhara (Bukhara, 1323/1905-06), and the Toḥfat al-zāʾerin by Naṣir-al-Din al-Ḵanafi al-Ḥosayni, also of Bukhara (written in 1906, published in Bukhara in 1910) intended as a guide for pilgrims (Shcheglova, 1975, no. 271).

Collections of biographies of Naqšbandiya shaikhs and Sufis of Transoxania, which are included in the Nafaḥāt al-ons by Jāmi and in the Rašaḥāt ʿayn al-ḥayāt by Faḵr-al-Din ʿAli Wāʿeẓ Kāšefi, were widely distributed in Central Asia in Indian lithographic editions in addition to manuscript copies. Nevertheless, both compositions were published in Tashkent: in 1911 in the lithographic printing house of Arifdzhanov, and in 1915 in the lithographic printing house of Portsev (FIGURE 5 and FIGURE 6). The text of the “serial” edition of Munshi Nawal Kishor with commentaries was taken as the basis for the latter edition (Shcheglova, 1975, no. 234 and Shcheglova, 2002, no. 34; Shcheglova, 1975, no. 240 and Shcheglova, 2002, no. 35).

A specific feature in the Central Asian publishing practice was editing of miscellanies that included several compositions under a single cover. These could be works by the same author, compositions by different authors who belonged to the same Sufi order, works related to a saint, and treatises and excerpts collected from a certain point of view. Samples of such collected editions are numerous; we shall mention only three of them.

In the beginning of the 20th century (no exact date is given in the edition), the typographic-lithographic printing house of Portsev published the Manāqeb-e ḥażrat-e ḡowṯ-e aʿẓam, a miscellany centered on the personality of ʿAbd-al-Qāder Jilāni (d. 1167). The edition contained Persian translations of two Arabic works by ʿAbd-al-Qāder Jilāni, Persian commentaries to them, and an Old Uzbek commentary to one of them, his biography, and his ṭariqat. The publication was undertaken by ʿAbd-al-Raʾuf b. ʿAbd-al-Nabi, one of the professionals engaged in the preparation of theological works for lithographic edition (Shcheglova, 2001, no. 64). The edition was later (again without mentioning the exact date) republished in Namangān (Shcheglova, 2002, no. 65).

The collection of works entitled Maqāmāt-e ḥażrat-e Ḵᵛāja Naqšband was published twice, in 1909 and 1910, in Bukhara. Beside the biography of the founder of the Naqšbandiya order, Bahāʾ-al-Din Naqšband, it also included works by some of his acknowledged followers. The first edition was commissioned by the Bukharan bookseller Mollā Solṭān.

A curious sample of deliberate choice of compositions on different subjects is the collection of works compiled by Mollā ʿAbd-al-Ḥakim Ḵᵛāja from Bukhara and entitled Kajkul-e wājeb al-ḥefẓ wa wājeb al-naẓr (‘Collection of required readings’). This included directions of the rite, prayers, Arabic-Persian dictionary Neṣāb al-ṣebyān, treatises on grammar and poetics, poems by Ḵayyām and Abu Esḥāq Aṭʿema, the treatise Āʾena-ye gitinamā, and an excerpt from the Persian translation of Avicenna under the title Tarjoma-ye qānunča-ye Bu ʿAli Sinā (Shcheglova, 1975, no. 346).

Rare editions of secular and scientific works drowned in the deep sea of educational and theological literature. Publications of historical works were few and far between and included the Naršaḵi’s Tāriḵ-e Boḵārā (Bukhara, 1904), the history of Timur by ʿAbd-al-Raḥman Sirat entitled Timur-nāma. Kolliyāt-e fārsi which is the first volume of the Konuz al-aʿẓam by the same author published at the lithographic printing house of Arifdzhanov in 1913 (Shcheglova, 1975, no. 68; idem, 2002, no. 6). Information on the history of Central Asia and the history of the reign of the local dynasties could have been contained in appendages to larger works (Shcheglova, 1975, no. 22; idem, 2002, no. 22). Among the valuable editions, one could mention the encyclopedia Jāmeʿ al-ʿolum by Faḵr-al-Din Rāzi (d. 606/1209) published by the writer and traveler ʿAbd-al-Raḥmān Sayyāḥ Tāškandi, the Šabestān-e nokāt wa golestān-e loḡāt by Šabestari with added poems by classical Persian poets (lithographic printing house of Yakovlev, 1331/1912-13), and the Golestān of Saʿdi with an Uzbek translation by Morād Ḵᵛāja Išān entitled Šowq-e golestān-e moṣawwar (lithographic printing house of Arifdzhanov, 1328/1910). The latter was one of the few illustrated editions with a commentary and a brief biography of Saʿdi in Uzbek (FIGURE 7 and FIGURE 8).

Poems by classical Persian poets were included into collections of didactic works, into entertainment-reading books, and into the bayāżes, that is, collections of poems by various poets who were often bilingual. Works by ʿAbd-al-Raḥmān Jāmi, a classic of Persian poetry, a statesman of Herat, and a Naqšbandiya Sufi, were honored by special publications. In 1325/1907-08, the printing house of Portsev published his Kolliyāt which, to all appearance, was a reprint of the Cawnpore edition by Munshi Nawal Kishor, but on the margins and at the end of which the publisher placed poems by the Qoqand poet Ḥāḏeq (killed between 1830 and 1834). In 1914, the printing house of Yakovlev published Jāmi’s Haft owrang. From the technical point of view, this lithographic edition is one of the best among those produced in Central Asia (FIGURE 9). Both latter editions were prepared by men from Tashkent: the publisher Qāżi Ḡolām Rasul Ḵᵛāja and the calligrapher Moḥammad Šāh-Morād b. Šāh-Neʿmat-Allāh by whose hand many works had been transcribed for their further lithographic printing. The Manṭeq-al-ṭeyr by Farid-al-Din ʿAṭṭār had been reprinted frequently. There were also separate editions of Yosuf o Zoleyḵā by Nāẓem Haravi (by the printing house of Portsev, 1904), and the Golšan-e rāz by Maḥmud Šabestari (Bukhara, 1908). The Ḵosrow o Širin by ʿOrfi of Shiraz came out as a part of the edition of collected works (Shcheglova, 1975, no. 1446). A popular form in both manuscript form and lithographed books were anthologies of poems by different authors (bayāż). Collections of fairy tales were published too.

A special place in the repertoire of the lithographed books was taken by compositions written by contemporary authors who lived in the late 19th-first decades of the 20th century. Such works can be divided into three groups: a) publicist and polemical works; b) editions of teaching aids by the followers of new-method teaching; c) poems by contemporary poets. These authors, to mention just a few, Serāj-al-Din Boḵāri, Mirzā Salimi, Aḥmad Waṣli, Maḥmud Ḵ˚ᵛāja Behbudi, ʿAbd-al-Raʾuf Feṭrat, Monawwar Qāri, and others, had become part of the history of culture, but their works should be related to the Tajik literature.

Lithographic book printing in Turkestan and in Bukhara came to an end in 1918-20 due to revolutionary upheavals and the change of the state system.


M.Akmolova and U.Khamraev, “Istoriya i vspomogatel’nye distsipliny na tyurkskikh yazykakh v litografirovannykh izdaniyakh Instituta vostokovedeniya AN UzSSR” (History and auxiliary disciplines in Turkic languages in lithographic editions preserved at the Institute of Oriental Studies of the Academy of Sciences of the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic), Adabiy meros. Uzbek adabieti tarihidan tahqiqot va materiallar. Ilmiy asarlar tuplami 1(51), 1990, pp. 75-80.

E.K.Betger, “Iz istorii knizhnogo dela v Uzbekistane (K 70-letiyu poyavleniya pervoĭ uzbekskoĭ litografirovannoĭ knigi)” (From the history of book production in Uzbekistan [For the 70th anniversary of the appearance of the first Uzbek lithographed book]), Izvestiya AN UzSSR, 1951, no. 2, pp. 75-76.

G.N.Chabrov, “Iz istorii poligrafii i izdatel’stva literatury na mestnykh yazykakh v dorevolyutsionnom Turkestane (1868-1917)” (From the history of polygraphics and editing books in local languages in pre-revolutionary Turkestan [1868-1917]), Trudy Sredneaziatskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta im. V.I.Lenina 57, 1954, pp. 77-95.

Idem, “Khudozhestvennoe oformlenie turkestanskoĭ litografirovannoĭ knigi (1880-1917)” (Artistic layout of the Turkistan lithographed book [1880-1917]), Trudy Instituta Istorii AN TadzhSSR 20, 1960, pp. 205-24.

Idem, “O natsionalizatsii poligraficheskikh predpriyatiĭ v Turkestanskoĭ ASSR (1918-1920 gg.)” (About the nationalization of polygraphic enterprises in the Turkistan Autonomos Soviet Socialist Republic [1918-20]), Nauchnye trudy Tashkentskogo universiteta 238, 1964, Istoricheskie nauki, bk. 50, pp. 134-41.

Idem, “Illyustratsiya v Turkistanskoĭ litografirovannoĭ knige (1908-1916 gg.)” (Illustration in Turkistan lithographed book [1908-16]), Kniga. Issledovaniya i materialy 49, Moscow, 1984, pp. 95-106.

G.L.Dmitriev, “Rasprostraneniye indiĭskikh izdaniĭ v Sredneĭ Azii v kontse XIX–nachale XX vekov” (The spreading of Indian editions in Central Asia at the end of the 19th-beginning of the 20th centuries), Kniga. Issledovaniya i materialy 6, Moscow, 1962, pp. 239-54.

I.Geĭer, Putevoditel’ po Turkestanu (Guidebook on Turkistan), Tashkent, 1901.

R.Makhmudova, “Litografirovannye proizvedeniya i ikh znacheniye v istorii uzbekskoĭ literatury (konets XIX–nachalo XX v.)” (Lithographed works and their importance in the history of Uzbek literature [end of the 19th–beginning of the 20th century]), Summary of Ph.D. diss., Tashkent, 1971.

R.N.Kholmatov, “Iz istorii uzbekskoĭ staropechatnoĭ arabografichnoĭ knigi i knizhnoĭ kul’tury v gorodakh Ferganskoĭ doliny. 1867-1917 gg.” (From the history of Uzbek early-printed and lithographed book and the book culture in the cities of the Ferghana valley. 1867-1917), Summary of Ph.D. diss., Tashkent, 1989.

M.I.Rustamov, “Kniga v Sredneĭ Azii” (Book in Central Asia), Kniga. Issledovaniya i materialy 25, Moscow, 1972, pp. 108-26.

A.A.Semyonov, ed., Sobranie vostochnykh rukopiseĭ Akademii Nauk Uzbekskoĭ SSR (Collection of Oriental manuscripts of the Academy of Sciences of the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic), 7 vols., Tashkent, 1952-64, vol. IV, Tashkent, 1957.

O.P.Shcheglova, Katalog litografirovannykh knig na persidskom yazyke v sobranii Leningradskogo otdeleniya Instituta vostokovedeniya AN SSSR (Catalogue of lithographed books in the Persian language in the collection of the Leningrad Branch of the Institute of Oriental Studies of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR), 2 vols., Moscow, 1975.

Idem, Katalog litografirovannykh knig na persidskom yazyke: iz sobraniya Rossiĭskoĭ Natsional’noĭ Biblioteki (Catalogue of lithographed books in Persian: from the collection of the National Library of Russia), Moscow, 2002.

Idem, “The Repertoire of Books in Persian Published Lithographically in Turkistan during 1883-1917,” History of Printing and Publishing in the Languages and Countries of the Middle East, Journal of Semitic Studies, Supplement 15, Oxford 2004, pp. 17-23.

A.Yazberdyev, Staropechatnye turkmenskie knigi (Early-printed Turkmen books), Moscow, 2001.

August 15, 2009

(Olimpiada P. Shcheglova)

Originally Published: August 15, 2009

Last Updated: August 15, 2009

Cite this entry:

Olimpiada P. Shcheglova, “LITHOGRAPHY iii. IN CENTRAL ASIA,” Encyclopædia Iranica, online edition, 2012, available at (accessed on 30 June 2012).