ENTEBĀH (lit. “Awakening”), a Persian newspaper published in Karbalā, Iraq, in 1333/1914 by Mīrzā ʿAlī Āqā Šīrāzī Labīb-al-Molk (Ṣadr Ḥāšemī, Jarāʾed o majallāt I, pp. 282-83), editor of Moẓaffarī published in Būšehr and Mecca (Browne, Press and Poetry, nos. 322,323). Twenty-one issues were published in 1333/1914; the name was then changed to Ḥaqīqat (three issues), then to Enteqām (one issue), and to Ḡayrat-e Karbalā (four issues), presumably as result of suppression (Ṣadr Ḥāšemī, Jarāʾed o majallāt I, pp. 282-85, and IV, pp. 59-60, 211-20). Mīrzā Āqā believed that his exile from Būšehr and the suppression of his newspapers had been the result of British pressure. His newspapers carried on a vehement campaign against the Anglo-Russian policy and influence in Persia. Inciting Persians against the Britain and Russia, these newspapers supported alliance with the Ottomans during the war.


Bibliography: included in text.



Originally Published: December 15, 1998

Last Updated: December 15, 2011

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Vol. VIII, Fas.c 5, p. 461