EDUCATION (Pers. āmūzeš o parvareš; earlier Ar. Per. taʿlīm o tarbīat) in Iranian-speaking areas.


1. Ancient and Traditional

i. In the Achaemenid period.

ii. In the Parthian and Sasanian periods.

iii. The traditional elementary school. (maktab)

iv. The medieval madrasa.

v. The madrasa in Shiʿite Persia.

vi. The madrasa in Sunni Kurdistan.

2. Modern

vii. General survey of modern education.

viii. Nursery schools and kindergartens.

ix. Primary schools.

x. Middle and secondary schools.

xi. Private schools and educational groups.

xii. Vocational and technical schools.

xiii. Rural and tribal schools.

xiv. Special schools.

xv. Foreign and minority schools in Persia.

xvi. School textbooks.

xvii. Higher education.

xviii. Teachers’-training schools.

xix. Teachers’-training colleges.

xx. Adult education.

xxi. Education abroad.

xxii. Physical education. See PHYSICAL EDUCATION.

xxiii. Military education. See MILITARY EDUCATION.

xxiv. Education in postrevolutionary Persia, 1979-95.

3.Women’s Education

xxv. Women’s education in the Qajar period.

xxvi. Women’s education in the Pahlavi period and after.

4.Education in Afghanistan and Tajikistan

xxvii. In Afghanistan.

xxviii. In Tajikistan.

(Multiple Authors)

Originally Published: December 15, 1997

Last Updated: December 8, 2011

This article is available in print.
Vol. VIII, Fasc. 2, pp. 178-224 and Vol. VIII, Fasc. 3, pp