COMMERCE within Persia and between Persia and other region.

i. In the prehistoric period.

ii. In the Achaemenid period.

iii. In the Parthian and Sasanian periods.

iv. Before the Mongol conquest.

v. In the Mongol and Timurid periods (see Supplement).

vi. In the Safavid and Qajar periods.

vii. In the Pahlavi and post-Pahlavi periods.

(Multiple Authors)

Originally Published: December 15, 1992

Last Updated: October 27, 2011

This article is available in print.
Vol. VI, Fasc. 1, pp. 57-89