2. Bibliographies.

The Arabic and Persian word fehrest (lit. list, index) was the traditional term for a catalogue or a bibliography; in the latter sense it has now generally been superseded in Persian by ketāb-šenāsī. This section is concerned with bibliographies of the works of individual authors or on particular subjects. The primary focus is on works of Persian and Shiʿite authors, but some other bibliographies edited or published in Iran or important for Iranian studies have also been included. They will be discussed in two categories: i. old-style bibliographies and ii. modern bibliographies in Persian.

i. Old-style bibliographies. The oldest extant bibliography in the Islamic world is that of Abū Zayd Ḥonayn b. Esḥāq (194-260/810-74), who in 242/856 wrote to ʿAlī b. Yaḥyā (d. 257/871), one of the caliph al-­Motawakkel’s courtiers, enumerating works by Galen that had been translated into Syriac and Arabic. The unique manuscript (Aya Sofya, Istanbul, 3631) was published with a German translation by O. Bergsträsser (“Ḥunain Ibn Isḥāq über die syrischen und arabischen Galen-Übersetzungen,” AKM, 1925); a Persian translation by Mehdī (Mahdī) Moḥaqqeq is included in Bīst goftār (Twenty articles, pp. 368-417; for Rāzī’s supple­ment to Ḥonayn’s list, see 1 below). Among the earliest known examples of Persian bibliographical work were ejāza-nāmas (see ejāza), lists of books that students were certified by their masters to teach. As in the early Islamic period book titles generally reflected their contents more clearly than was common later on, these lists provide useful information on lost works. Some early ejāzas and other bibliographical compilations are known only through references in later works (e.g., Ebn al-Nadīm, ed. Tajaddod, pp. 240, 244, 422; Yāqūt, Odabāʾ XII, pp. 109-11; Qohpāʾī, I, pp. 66, 114, II, p. 41, IV, p. 186, V, pp. 127-31, 174, 254, VI, p. 34; al-­Ḏarīʿa XII, p. 374, XVI, pp. 379; Sezgin, GAS VII, pp. 123, 177). Among the most significant early bibliographies still extant are the following, arranged in chronological order.

1. Moḥammad b. Zakarīyāʾ Rāzī (250-313/864-925), a native of Ray, compiled a supplement of Ḥonayn’s list of works by Galen (Ebn al-Nadīm, ed. Tajaddod, p. 358). It is listed as a separate work and classified under the miscellaneous sciences by Bīrūnī in part I of his Resāla fī fehrest kotob Moḥammad b. Zakarīyāʾ al-Rāzī (no. 175; annotated edition published by P. Kraus in Paris in 1936 under the title Resāla le’l-Bīrūnī, German tr. J. Ruska, “Al-Bīrūnī als Quelle für das Leben und die Schriften al-Rāzī’s,” Isis 5, 1922, pp. 26-50; Persian tr. in M. Moḥaqqeq, Fīlsūf-e Ray. Moḥammad ebn Zakarīyā-ye Rāzī, 2nd ed., 1352 Š./1974; see also 6 below), but Aḥmad b. Abī Oṣaybeʿa (Ebn Abī Oṣaybeʿa, 590-668/1194-1270), author of ʿOyūn al-­anbāʾ fī ṭabaqāt al-aṭebbāʾ, described it as chapter 12 of Rāzī’s Ketāb al-jāmeʿ (i.e., Ketāb al-ḥāwī, Moḥaqqeq, 1352 Š./1974, p. 144). As for Rāzī’s own writings, Bīrūnī enumerated 184 titles. Rāzī himself had compiled a list of his works, which was cited by Ebn al-Nadīm in the Fehrest (ed. Tajaddod, pp. 356-59, 423; see 3 below) and by Ebn al-Qefṭī (Tārīḵ al-ḥokamāʾ, ed. J. Lippert, Leipzig, 1903, p. 271); Ebn al-Nadīm credited Rāzī with 171 works (according to Tajaddod’s edition), Ebn Abī Oṣaybeʿa with 238. Maḥmūd Najmābādī has compiled a list of 271 works by Rāzī, drawn from all these early sources, with information on surviving manuscripts (see ii. 64 below).

2. Abū Gāleb Zorārī (280-368/893-978) issued an ejāza in 356/967, perhaps the oldest extant example of such works, containing excerpts from earlier ejāzas and other authorities. It was included in volume I of the published edition of the Kaškūl of Shaikh Yūsof Baḥrānī (q.v.; Bombay, 1291/1874-75; al-Ḏarīʿa I, pp. 143-44; II, p. 465).

3. Abu’l-Faraj Moḥammad b. Esḥāq, known as Ebn al-Nadīm (q.v.; d. 385/995), completed his Fehrest al-ʿolūm in 377/987 (ed. Tajaddod, pp. 41, 96, 146; title erroneously given as Fawz al-ʿolūm in Kašf-al-ẓonūn, ed. Flügel, and al-Ḏarīʿa). It is the largest and most important bibliography of the branches of learning cultivated by Muslims in the 4th/10th century, including those already established in antiquity, and it includes the works of many learned men from Persia. Ebn al-­Nadīm was particularly interested in the diffusion of learning among nations. Although he usually limited himself to recording the title, subject, and author’s name for each book, he occasionally anticipated mod­ern bibliographical practice by including such partic­ulars as opening and closing passages. The Austrian scholar Gustav Flügel was the first to edit this text, from a number of manuscripts (2 vols., Leipzig, 1871-2; repr. Cairo, 1348/1929-30). Subsequently M. Reżā Tajaddod prepared a more complete version, drawing partly upon the earliest surviving manuscript, 3315 in the Chester Beatty Library, Dublin, which had not been available to Flügel; he published a Persian translation in Tehran in 1343 Š./1965 and the entire Arabic text in about 1350 Š./1971.

4. Moḥammad b. Moḥammad b. Noʿmān (338-413/949-1022), the famous Shiʿite scholar known as Shaikh Mofīd, made a list of his own works, which is cited by Ṭūsī (see 9 below; Qohpāʾī, VI, p. 34). A more complete list of Shaikh Mofīd’s works, comprising 172 titles, has been compiled by M. J. McDermott, The Theology of al-Shaikh al-Mufīd (d. 413/1022), Beirut, ca. 1978, and translated into Persian by A. Ārām (Andīšahā-ye kalāmī-e Šayḵ Mofīd, Tehran, 1363 Š./1984; see also 11 below).

5. Sayyed Mortażā ʿAlī b. Ḥosayn (355-436/966-1044), known as ʿAlam-al-Hodā, was chief (naqīb) of the descendants of ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭāleb in Iraq under the Buyids; copies of a bibliography of his works dated 417/1026 are extant in the Sepahsālār library in Tehran (mss. 2533-36; catalogue, V, p. 391) and the Āstān-e Qods library in Mašhad (catalogue, II, p. 66). The text has been reproduced in ʿAbd-al-Razzāq Moḥyi’l-Dīn, Adab al-Mortażā men sīrateh wa āṯāreh (Cairo, 1957, pp. 131, 164-67). Āqā Bozorg Ṭehrānī (see 27 below) surmised that either this bibliography was originally compiled by Sayyed Mortażā himself or it was an ejāza prepared by his pupil Moḥammad Baṣrī and signed by Sayyed Mortażā (al-Ḏarīʿa I, p. 373). Ṭūsī, in his bibliography of Shiʿite writings (see 9 below), also mentions a number of Sayyed Mortażā’s works.

6. Abū Rayḥān Moḥammad Bīrūnī (q.v.; 362-440/973-1048) compiled a bibliography of his own works in 427/1036; it forms part II of his Resāla on the works of Rāzī (see 1 above). It was published in the introduction to C. E. Sachau’s edition of Bīrūnī’s al-Āṯār al-bāqīa (Leipzig, 1878, pp. xxxviii-xlviii), and H. Suter and E. Wiedemann translated it into German (“Über al-Bîrûnî und seine Schriften. Beiträge zur Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften LX,” Sitzungsberichte der Physikalisch-Medizinischen Sozietät zu Erlangen 52-53, 1920-21, pp. 55-96; repr. in Wiede­mann, Aufsätze zur arabischen Wissenschaftsgeschichte, Hildesheim and New York, 1970, II, pp. 474-515). In 678/1279 Abū Esḥāq Ebrāhīm b. Moḥammad, known as Ḡażanfar, a Tabrīzī scholar of Bīrūnī’s works, made a copy of Ketāb al-ṣaydana fi’l-ṭebb (2 vols., ed. and trans. H. M. Saʿīd, Karachi, ca. 1973), to which he appended a supplement to Bīrūnī’s own bibliography; it is entitled al-Maššāṭa le-resālat al-fehrest and forms part of ms. 133 in the library of the University of Leiden (Moḥaqqeq, 1984, pp. 121-25). D. J. Boilot put the total of Bīrūnī’s works at 180 (“L’œuvre d’al-Beruni. Essai bibliographique,” Mélanges de l’Institut Domi­nicain d’Etudes Orientales du Caire 2, 1955, pp. 161-256; 3, 1956, pp. 391-96; see also bīruᵛnǰ, ii). A Persian translation of both Sachau’s edition and Boilot’s bibliographical findings and manuscript data was published by P. Aḏkāʾī in 1973 (see ii. 1 below) in connection with the Bīrūnī millenary. In 1984 Ahmad Saeed Khan issued in India a bibliography of Bīrūnī in English (A Bibliography of the Works of Abūʾl Raiḥān al-Bīrūnī, New Delhi, 1982); a Persian translation of an earlier version was published by ʿA. Ḥabībī (see ii. 38 below; see also ii. 67, 72, 74).

7. Moḥammad b. ʿAlī b. ʿOṯmān Karājakī (d. 449/1057) may have compiled a bibliography of his own works, as Ebn Ṭāʾūs (d. 664/1266; see 13 below), who consulted it as a source for his biography of Jaʿfar b. Aḥmad Qomī, claimed (Aʿlām al-šīʿa V, p. 179, al-Ḏarīʿa XVI, p. 393). On the other hand, Ḥosayn Nūrī (see 24 below), who published an untitled bibliography of Karājakī’s works in Mostadrak al-wasāʾel (III, p. 497), attributed it to one of Karājakī’s contemporaries, probably Shaikh Abu’l-Qāsem, a son of Shaikh Mofīd (see 4 above; al-Ḏarīʿa XVI, p. 379).

8. Aḥmad b. ʿAlī Najāšī (372-450/983-1058) compiled a major work on Shiʿism, entitled Ketāb asmāʾ al-­rejāl, in the 5th/11th century. It ranked with Ṭūsī’s Fehrest (see 9 below) among the five basic textbooks for the study of eminent Twelver Shiʿite scholars and theologians; the entries were alphabetized only by the first letters of the authors’ names. A lithograph edition (al-Rijāl. A Biographical Dictionary . . . ) was published in Bombay in 1317/1899 and subsequently reprinted several times in Iran (e.g., 1337 Š./1958). A recension with entries rearranged in chronological order was included in Majmaʿ al-rejāl, prepared by Qohpāʾī in the 11th/17th century (see 17 below). Although Najāšī’s work belongs to the same genre as that of Ṭūsī, his emphasis is more biographical.

9. Abū Jaʿfar Moḥammad b. Ḥasan b. ʿAlī Ṭūsī (d. 460/1067), known as Šayḵ-al-Ṭāʾefa, compiled a bibliog­raphy of Shiʿite writings generally called Fehrest kotob al-šīʿa. The first printed edition of Ṭūsī’s text was prepared by the Austrian scholar Aloys Sprenger in collaboration with ʿAbd-al-Ḥaqq and Ḡolām Qāder (Túsys List of Shyʾah Books and ʾAlam al-Hodás Notes on Shyʾah Biography, Calcutta, 4 fascicles, 1853-55), with entries in alphabetical order and relevant data from Najāšī’s bibliography included (see 8 above). An offset reprint of this version, with preface and notes by Maḥmūd Rāmyār, was issued in 1351 Š./1972 for the Ṭūsī millenary at the University of Mašhad. The original text of Ṭūsī’s Fehrest, compiled from several manuscripts and with explanatory footnotes by Moḥammad-Ṣādeq Āl Baḥr-al-ʿOlūm, was published at Najaf in 1356/1937 (rev. ed., Najaf, 1380/1960). In Ṭūsī’s text, as in that of Najāšī, the entries (ranging from 883 to 909 in the various editions) are arranged alphabetically only by the first letters of the authors’ names. In later times specialists alphabetized the entries according to the complete names of the authors; three such recensions are mentioned in al-Ḏarīʿa (IV, p. 66, XX, p. 29). In 1107/1695-96 Solaymān Māḥūzī (d. 1121/1709) began a commentary (entitled Meʿrāj al-kamāl) on Ṭūsī’s Fehrest, but he did not live to finish it (al-Ḏarīʿa XXI, p. 228; see also 11 and ii. 45 below).

10. Aḥmad b. Ḡażāʾerī (5th/11th century) compiled two bibliographies, which are now lost, and Ketāb al-żoʿafāʾ, which contained notices on eminent Shiʿites. In the 7th/13th century the text of the last work was incorporated discontinuously into Ḥall al-eškāl by Aḥmad b. Ṭāʾūs (see 14 below). Subsequently Mollā ʿAbd-Allāh Šūštarī (d. 1021/1612) assembled the scattered notices and reconstructed Ketāb al-żoʿafāʾ; both of these works were used by Qohpāʾī in Majmaʿ al-rejāl (see 17 below).

11. Abū Jaʿfar Rašīd-al-Dīn Moḥammad b. ʿAlī b. Šahrāšūb (Ebn Šahrāšūb; d. 588/1192), a native of Sārī in Māzandarān, compiled a supplement to the Fehrest of Moḥammad Ṭūsī (see 9 above) entitled Maʿālem al-ʿolamāʾ. Two editions have been published (ed. ʿA. Eqbāl Āštīānī, Tehran, 1315 Š./1934; ed. M.-Ṣ. Āl Baḥr-­al-ʿOlūm, Najaf, 1380/1959). In his preface Ebn Šahrāšūb claims to have added approximately 600 books to Ṭūsī’s list; he gives names only of individuals not mentioned by Ṭūsī (990 in Eqbāl’s edition) and rarely includes those to whom no writings are ascribed. He also attributes to Shaikh Mofīd (see 4 above) a report that in the first two and a half Islamic centuries Shiʿites had written 400 books with the title Aṣl; in no earlier extant work are these sourcebooks mentioned, however.

12. Abu’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. ʿObayd-Allāh b. Ḥasan b. Ḥosayn b. Bābūya (Ebn Bābūya, or Ebn Bābawayh; 504-after 600/1111-after 1204), of Qom and Ray, was the author of Asmāʾ mašāyeḵ al-šīʿa wa moṣannefīhem (Names of Shiʿite shaikhs and writers). This title, given in this form both in his preface and in another work (Arbaʿīn ḥadīṯ; al-Ḏarīʿa I, p. 433), was later supplemen­ted with the word fehrest (Fehrest ʿolamāʾ al-šīʿa wa moṣannefīhem is the version given on the title page of the annotated edition by Sayyed ʿAbd-al-ʿAzīz Ṭabāṭabāʾī, Beirut, 1404/1986). In the preface Ebn Bābūya states that he undertook the work, at the instance of Ṣadr Naqīb ʿEzz-al-Dīn Abu’l-Qāsem Yaḥyā b. Abi’l-Fażl Moḥammad b. Ṣadr Abi’l-Qāsem ʿAlī, because nobody since Ṭūsī (see 9 above) had collected information about the books and scholars of the Shiʿites; he thus probably began work before the death of ʿEzz-al-Dīn Yaḥyā in 592/1195-96 (Tajāreb al-salaf, p. 333). ʿAbbās Eqbāl argued (preface to his edition of Maʿālem al-ʿolamāʾ; see 11 above), however, that the book must have been finished after 738/1337-38 because Qoṭb-al-Dīn Rā­vandī, who died in that year, is described in it as “the late”; but the relevant formula raḥemahoʾllāh (God have mercy on him) in the manuscript that Eqbāl used does not appear in printed editions from other manu­scripts and may have been interpolated by the copyist. The number of entries in Ṭabāṭabāʾī’s edition is 544, arranged in alphabetical order according to the first letters of the authors’ names. For each of these Shiʿite shaikhs the author gives no more than two lines of biographical data and a list of writings, if any were known to him. In the 17th century Ebn Bābūya’s bibliography was incorporated by Majlesī in the volume of his Beḥār al-anwār pertaining to ejāzas (Āḵūndī, CII, pp. 200-92; see 20 below). More recently Ayatollah Ḥājj ­Sayyed Ḥosayn Borūjerdī (q.v.; d. 1340 Š./1961) rear­ranged the entries in completely alphabetical order; a copy of his manuscript was seen by Ṭehrānī (al-Ḏarīʿa XXVI, p. 188; see 27 below).

13. Rażī-al-Dīn Abu’l-Qāsem ʿAlī b. Mūsā . . . b. Ṭāʾūs (Ebn Ṭāʾūs; 589-664/1193-1266), who traced his ancestry to the second imam, Ḥasan b. ʿAlī, was brought up in a family of arabized Kurds at Ḥella; on his mother’s side he was descended from Ṭūsī (see 9 above). His bibliographical works included al-Ebāna fī maʿrefat asmāʾ kotob al-ḵezāna (al-Ḏarīʿa I, p. 56), a list of the books in his personal library, which is now lost, and Saʿd al-soʿūd (Najaf, 1950), in the preface to which he gives further information about the titles listed in Ebāna. This preface consists of two chapters divided into dozens of unnumbered sections. In the first Ebn Ṭāʾūs describes copies of sacred books (maṣāḥef); in one section he describes a copy of the Koran in which the contents are arranged in an unusual sequence, in another manuscripts of the New Testament and Psalms. In the second chapter he describes Koran commentaries in his possession (p. 298). Ebn Ṭāʾūs listed his own writings in Ketāb al-ejāzāt be-kašf ṭoroq al-mafāzāt, part of which was incorporated by Majlesī into Beḥār al-­anwār (ed. Āḵūndī, CIV, pp. 38-45; see 20 below). He also described many of his own and others’ writings in Kašf al-maḥajja le-ṯamarat al-mohja, which he composed as a testament for his sons Moḥammad and ʿAlī (lithograph Tehran, 1301/1883; printed ed., with preface by Āḡā Bozorg Ṭehrānī, Najaf, 1950).

14. Aḥmad b. Ṭāʾūs (d. 673/1274-75), brother of ʿAlī (see 13 above), wrote Ḥall al-eškāl, in which he incorporated excerpts from Ḡażāʾerī’s only surviving work, Ketāb al-żoʿafāʾ (see 10 above) and from books on rejāl by Ṭūsī (see 9 above), Moḥammad b. ʿOmar Kaššī (d. 328/939), and Najāšī (see 8 above). ʿEnāyat-Allāh Qohpāʾī made use of Ḥall al-eškāl in compiling Majmaʿ al-rejāl (see 17 below).

15. Ḥasan b. Yūsof (648-726/1250-1326), known as ʿAllāma Ḥellī, compiled a book on rejāl entitled Ḵolāṣat al-aqwāl fī ʿelm al-rejāl. Āḡā Bozorg Ṭehrānī also attributes to him a list of Shiʿite writers, Fehrest al-moṣannefīn (al-Ḏarīʿa XVI, p. 393). One of his ejāza-­nāmas, issued on 15 Šaʿbān 723/22 February 1323, is written in verse (ca. 700 distichs) and consists mainly of a list of the books that the recipient was qualified to teach; in some instances, however, bibliographical details are also given, for example, the opening words of Ebn ʿOqda’s Ketāb al-welāya. Majlesī included the whole of this text in the section on ejāza-nāmas in his Beḥār al-anwār (Āḵūndī, CIV, pp. 136-37; see 20 below).

16. Rokn-al-Dīn Moḥammad b. ʿAlī Gorgānī, a contemporary and senior pupil of ʿAllāma Ḥellī (see 15 above), compiled a list of his own writings (al-Ḏarīʿa XVI, p. 381).

17. ʿEnāyat-Allāh ʿAlī Qohpāʾī started in 1016/1607-08 to collect material from the five main rejāl books of the 5th/11th century for his compendium Majmaʿ al-rejāl, which was published in seven volumes under the supervision of Żīāʾ-al-Dīn ʿAllāma Eṣfahānī at Isfahan in 1384-88/1964-67; for information on some of Qohpāʾī’s sources, see 8, 10, 14 above).

18. Moṣṭafā b. ʿAbd-Allāh, known both as Ḥājī Ḵalīfa (q.v.) and as Kāteb Čelebī (1017-67/1609-57), was the author of Kašf al-ẓonūn ʿan asāmī’l-kotob wa’l-­fonūn (Removal of doubts about the names of books and subjects; ed. Flügel; ed. Yaltkaya and Bilge), a bibliography comparable to Ebn al-Nadīm’s Fehrest (see 3 above) but in completely alphabetical order and at the same time a description of the recognized branches of knowledge comparable to Fārābī’s Eḥsāʾ al-ʿolūm and Ḵᵛārazmī’s Mafātīḥ al-ʿolūm, also partly in alphabetical order. Ḥājī Ḵalīfa spent twenty years of his short life on this work, which can be described as an encyclopedia of the sciences of his time; it contains nearly 15,000 book titles and 9,500 author entries in some 300 different branches of knowledge, including European works. Chapter titles and opening passages of the listed works are recorded. The manuscript of the first draft is preserved in the Topkapı Sarayı library, Istanbul (Carallah ms. 1619). Ḥājī Ḵalīfa completed the final draft only as far as dorūs before his death; this manuscript is also preserved in the Topkapı Sarayı library (Revan ms. 2059). According to the editors of Kašf al-ẓonūn, at the end of the ṯāʾ section Ḥājī Ḵalīfa states that “the first volume . . . was completed on Saturday, 8 Ṣafar 1062,” that is, 20 January 1652 (Yaltkaya and Bilge, I, p. 525), and at the end of the rāʾ section that “the letter rāʾ was finished in the last days of Rabīʿ II, 1049,” that is, August, 1639 (I, p. 939). It can be assumed that the former date was taken from the final draft and the latter from the first draft, which must therefore have been completed at some time between the two dates. For supplements, editions, translations, and later works based on Kašf al-ẓonūn, see ḥājǰ ḵalǰfa.

19. Mollā Moḥsen Fayż Kāšānī (1007-91/1598­-1680) twice compiled bibliographies of his own writings. The first, completed in 1069/1659, when he was sixty-­two years old, contains only sixty-eight titles but gives such particulars as numbers of verses and dates of composition; it subsequently passed into the possession of Moḥammad-Bāqer Ḵᵛānsārī Eṣfahānī, who quoted from it. In the preface to the second, made in 1090/1679, one year before his death at the age of eighty-three, Mollā Moḥsen states that he had written 100 books since he was twenty years old; this version was litho­graphed, together with Abū ʿAlī Rejālī’s Montahaʾl­-maqāl, in the margins of Moḥammad b. Ḥasan Ḥorr ʿĀmelī’s Amal al-āmel fī ʿolamāʾ Jabal ʿĀmel (Tehran, 1302/1884); the lithographed text shows differences from some of the manuscripts (al-Ḏarīʿa XVI, pp. 379, 393; Sepahsālār library catalogue V, p. 388; Tehran University library catalogue XII, p. 2606; see also Amal al-āmel, ed. A. Ḥosaynī, 2 vols., Baghdad, 1385/1965-66, I, introduction, pp. 67-77, for photographs of the lithographed manuscript).

20. Moḥammad-Bāqer b. Moḥammad-Taqī Majlesī (1037-1110/1628-99) was the subject of three bibliographies (al-Ḏarīʿa XVI, p. 380): 1. His nephew Moḥammad-Naṣīr b. ʿAbd-Allāh Majlesī compiled a bibliography in two parts, enumerating his Arabic and Persian works respectively. 2. Fehrest moʾallafāt al-Majlesī, probably compiled by his grandson Moḥammad-Ḥosayn (d. 1151/1738-39) b. Moḥammad-Ṣāleḥ, is also in two parts, with an epilogue (according to Ḵᵛānsārī Eṣfahānī, II, p. 80, it was compiled by Majlesī’s son-in-law Moḥammad-Ṣāleḥ Ḥosaynī Ḵātūnābādī, father of Moḥammad-Ḥosaynī. Ten Arabic and forty-nine Persian works are listed, and in the epilogue the total number of Arabic and Persian verses in Majlesī’s writings is said to be 1,402,000. The text of this bibliography was published as “Fehrest-e taṣnīfāt-e . . . Moḥammad-Bāqer Majlesī” in MDAT (10/2, 1341 Š./1962, pp. 203-10), from a manuscript dated 1271/1854-55 in the possession of Aṣḡar Mahdawī. 3. A list of the sources used by Majlesī in his Beḥāral-anwār (q.v.; lithographed., ed. Mīrzā Moḥammad-Ḵalīl Mūsawī Eṣfahānī, 25 vols., Tehran, 1305-15/1887-98; ed. Āḵūndī, 110 vols. [with gaps], Tehran, 1376-­94/1956-74, repr. Beirut, 1376-92/1957-73, 1983) was completed in Rabīʿ I, 1127/March, 1715, by one of his pupils, Moḥammad b. Aḥmad Ḥosaynī Lāhījānī, who described each work in detail (see also 12, 13, 15 above); Āḡā Bozorg Ṭehrānī (see 27 below) discovered in the possession of the director of Sepahsālār library in Tehran a manuscript copy dated 1131/1718-19 (al-Ḏarīʿa XVI, p. 391).

21. Moḥammad-ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭāleb Ḥazīn Lāhījī (1103-81/1692-1767) wrote more than 200 books in Persian and Arabic. A list of them, said to be copied from one of his books (perhaps Mā jarā beh al-qalam [Deeds of the pen], al-Ḏarīʿa XVI, p. 378; XIX, p. 17), is given by Moḥammad-ʿAlī Kašmīrī (pp. 283­-93).

22. Aḥmad-ʿAlī Aḥmad began in 1285/1869 to compile a list of writers of maṯnawīs, which was to be entitled Taḏkera-ye haft āsmān; it was to consist of an awj “zenith” (i.e., preface), seven āsmān “skies” (i.e., sec­tions, one for each meter used in maṯnawīs), and an ofoq “horizon” (i.e., conclusion). The first section, on works in sarīʿ-e maṭwī-e mawqūf, the meter used by Neẓāmī in Maḵzan al-asrār, includes seventy-eight maṯnawīs writ­ten in imitation of that work; it was published in Calcutta in 1289/1873 and reprinted by offset in Tehran in 1344 Š./1965. Whether or not other sections were actually completed by the author is unknown.

23. Ḥasan b. ʿAlī Kaṯnawī Yazdī (d. 1297/1879-80) was a pupil of Ḥojjat-al-Eslām Šaftī. Accounts of his career are given in Aʿlām al-šīʿa (II, p. 342) and Āqā Bozorg Ṭehrānī, Moṣaffā al-maqāl fī moṣannefī ʿelm al-rejāl (Tehran, 1378/1958-59, p. 138). His Hadīyat al-asmāʾ fī bayān kotob al-ʿolamāʾ, completed in 1260/1844, is a concise list of well-known books by Shiʿites and a few by Sunnites, 640 in all, divided into 28 chapters according to alphabetical letter. It was published, with a preface by M.-T. Dānešpažūh, in Našrīya-­ye Ketāb-ḵāna-ye Markazī-e Dānešgāh-e Tehrān 6, 1348 Š./1969, pp. 1-62.

24. Ḥājj Mīrzā Ḥosayn Nūrī Ṭabarsī (1254­-1320/1839-1902), the teacher of Āḡā Bozorg Ṭehrānī (see 27 below), wrote Mostadrak al-wasāʾel (3 vols., Tehran, 1318-21/1900-03; repr. Tehran, 1382-84/1962­-64), Faṣl al-ḵeṭāb, and a number of other works. In 1297/1881, while living at Sāmarrā, he made a list of the printed books and manuscripts in his possession, which includes more than 500 alphabetical entries (al-Ḏarīʿa XVI, pp. 390-91). It was published, under the title “Fehrest-e ketāb-ḵāna-ye Mīrzā Ḥosayn Nūrī,” with a preface by Ḥosayn Modarresī Ṭabāṭabāʾī, in Āšnāʾī bā čand nosḵa-ye ḵaṭṭī, I, Qom, 2535 = 1355 Š./1976, pp. 129-53. Moḥammad-Mortażā Ḥosaynī Janfūrī (d. ca. 1337/1919), an Indian pupil of Ḥosayn Nūrī, compiled a list of his teacher’s works in 300 Persian lines; it was published at the end of Ḥosayn Nūrī’s Loʾloʾ o marjān dar šarṭ-e pella-ye awwal o dovvom-e rawżaḵᵛān (Tehran, 1320/1902; al-Ḏarīʿa XVIII, p. 388).

25. Mīrzā ʿAlī Āqā Ṯeqat-al-Eslām Tabrīzī (1277-1330/1861-1912) undertook a bio-bibliographical survey of Shiʿite literature. Two of the seven volumes of his work (containing biographies of rejāl and a list of their writings up to the letter dāl), which was written in Persian, have so far been published (al-Ejtehād wa’l-taqlīd men al-tanqīḥ fī šarḥ al-ʿorwa al-woṯqā, 2 vols., Tabrīz, 1363 Š./1984).

26. Abu’l-Qāsem Ebrāhīm Kermānī (1314-89/1897-1969) b. Zayn-al-ʿĀbedīn (1276-1320/1859-1902) b. Ḥājī Moḥammad-Karīm Khan Qājār (1225-88/1810-­72) compiled Fehrest-e kotob-e mašāyeḵ-e ʿeẓām in two volumes in 1328/1910, at the written request of Š. Ūktāyī librarian of the Āstān-e Qods-e Rażawī at Mašhad. It is a bibliography of the writings of the Shaikhi shaikhs. The first volume consists of biographies of Shaikh Aḥmad Aḥsāʾī (q.v.), Sayyed Kāẓem Raštī (q.v.), Moḥammad-Karīm Khan, Moḥammad Khan, Zayn-al-ʿĀbedīn Kermānī, and Abu’l-Qāsem Ebrāhīmī himself; in the second volume bibliographies of their writings are given. This work was revised several times. Abu’l-Qāsem states in his preface to the third edition (Kermān, 1389/1969, pp. 314-16) that his main sources were a list of Shaikh Aḥmad Aḥsāʾī’s works by Sayyed Kāẓem Raštī, whose autograph manuscript is in the library of the Shaikhi community at Kermān; a list of Shaikhi writings made in 1345/1927 by Sayyed ʿAbd­ al-Majīd Fāʾeqī, the manuscript of which is in the same library; a brief list of Shaikhi writings compiled by an unknown contemporary of his father; and a biography of Shaikh Aḥmad Aḥsāʾī by Moḥammad-Ṭāher Kermānī, an uncle of Abu’l-Qāsem, who had the manu­script in his possession. An anonymous manuscript of a list of Shaikh Aḥmad Aḥsāʾī’s epistles in the Ḵᵛānsārī library at Najaf is mentioned in al-Ḏarīʿa (XVI, p. 383); it may well be one of the sources cited by Abu’l-Qāsem Ebrāhīmī.

27. Āḡā (Āqā) Bozorg Ṭehrānī (1293-1389/1876-1969; see āqā bozorg ṭehrānǰ, later surnamed Mon­zawī, compiled al-Ḏarīʿaelā taṣānīf al-šīʿa (Guide to the writings of the Shiʿites), which represents a transition from the old style of simply listing religious works to modern bibliographical practice. He decided to under­take the project after observing that Jorjī Zaydān (1861-­1914), in his Taʾrīḵ al-tamaddon al-eslāmī (History of Islamic civilization, 5 vols., Cairo, 1902-06) and Taʾrīḵ ādāb al-loḡa al-ʿarabīya (History of Arabic literature, 4 vols., Cairo, 1911-14) had attached only secondary importance to the contributions of Shiʿite and non-­Arab Muslims. Āḡā Bozorg took a quarter-century (1329-1355/1911-36) to finish his work. In al-Ḏarīʿa he gives particulars of Shiʿite works in Arabic, Persian, and other eastern languages from the earliest times until his own. The first three volumes were published at Najaf in 1313-15/1936-38; volumes 4-25, edited by his sons ʿAlī-­Naqī and Aḥmad Monzawī, at Tehran in 1363-98 Š./1944-77; and volume 26, edited with emendations by Sayyed Aḥmad Ḥosaynī, at Mašhad in 1405/1985. A subject index, Tabwīb al-Ḏarīʿa, prepared by Aḥmad Dībājī Eṣfahānī (Tehran, 1352 Š./1973), covers twenty-­four topics in vols. 1-3; an author index, Moʿjam moʾallefī al-šīʿa by ʿAlī Fāżel Qāʿenī (Tehran, 1365 Š./1986), lists the names of all authors cited in al-Ḏarīʿa, with the titles of their works.

ii. Modern bibliographies. This section includes only bibliographical works in Persian; bibliographies in other languages and catalogues of manuscripts are not included. The material is listed alphabetically by author’s name.

1. Parvīz Aḏkāʾī, Kār-nāma-ye Bīrūnī. Ketāb-šenāsī wa fehrest-e āṯār az Abū Rayḥān wa D. J. Boilot (Wezārat-e Farhang o Honar, Markaz-e Pažūhešhā-ye Mardomšenāsī wa Farhang-e ʿĀmma 3, Tehran, 1352 Š./1973), is a bibliography of printed editions and manuscripts of Bīrūnī’s works based on the author’s own list of 427/1036 and the work of D. J. Boilot (see i. 6 above). It includes 180 titles.

2. Īraj Afšār, “Ketāb-šenāsī-e farhang-nāmahā-ye fārsī-orūpāʾī,” a bibliography of Persian dictionaries in European languages, is included in the preface to Dehḵodā, pp. 373-78.

3. Idem, “Ketābhā-ye ʿelm-e neẓām,” Barrasīhā-ye tārīḵī 1/1-2, 1345 Š./1966, pp. 89-92, covers books on military subjects.

4. Idem, “Fehrest-e ketābhā-ī ke be-dastūr-e Moḥammad Walī Mīrzā dar Yazd tarjama wa taʾlīf šoda,” Našrīya-ye Ketāb-ḵāna . . ., 1348 Š./1969, no. 6, pp. 227-33, includes a list of fifty-four books extracted from the Jāmeʿ-e jaʿfarī of Moḥammad-Jaʿfar Ṭarab Eṣfahānī, arranged according to subject.

5. Idem (with the assistance of Ḥosayn Banī-Ādam), Ketāb-šenāsī-e dah-sāla-ye ketābhā-ye Īrān, 1333/1342 (Tehran, 1346 Š./1967), a combined edition of previ­ously issued bibliographies of books, was published in Iran between 1954 and 1963, with revised and standard­ized entries and including many works not previously listed. The titles are arranged according to subject and alphabetically by author within each category.

6. Idem, Fehrest-e maqālāt-e fārsī, consists of a subject index of Persian articles and research reports pertaining to Iranian studies published in periodicals, almanacs, and anthologies both in Iran and abroad. Volumes I (covering the period up to the end of 1338 Š./1959) and II (covering 1339-45 Š./1960-66, 4,642 titles) appeared in 1340 Š./1961 as Tehran University Publications 697 (vol. II with the serial number 1402); volume III (covering 1346-50 Š./1967-71, 5,458 titles) was issued by Franklin Publications in Tehran, 2535 = 1355 Š./1976. Second editions of the first two vol­umes were issued by Franklin Publications in 1348 Š./1969 and 2535 = 1355 Š./1976 respectively.

7. Idem, Ketāb-šenāsī-e Ferdowsī (Anjoman-e Āṯār-e Mellī 59, Tehran, 1347 Š./1968; enlarged 2nd ed., Tehran, 2535 = 1355 Š./1976), is a four-part bibliography, covering research on Ferdowsī and the Šāh-nāma; translations of the Šāh-nāma; manuscripts of the Šāh-nāma copied before the end of the 11th/17th century, with information on their present locations throughout the world; and printed editions of the epic.

8. Idem, Yūsof Mūsāzāda, and Ebrāhīm Hamadānī, Fehrest-e maqālāt-e ḥoqūqī o pāyān-e 1345 (Tehran University Publications 1187, Tehran, 1347 Š./1968), is a bibliography of articles on legal subjects up to the end of 1966-67.

9. Aṣḡar Āftāb, Tārīḵ-nevīsī-e fārsī dar Hend o Pākestān. Tīmūrīān-e bozorg az Bābor tā Awrangzīb (Lahore, 1364 Š./1985), includes 131 historical texts written in India under the Mughals, with particulars on editions and manuscript locations.

10. Ḥosayn Aḥmadīpūr, “Kotob-e montašera dar Āḏarbāyjān az dah sāl be-īn ṭaraf tā 1338,” in Našrīya-ye Ketāb-ḵāna-ye Mellī-e Tabrīz, Tabrīz, 1338 Š./1959, pp. 49-55, lists books published in Azerbaijan 1949-59.

11. Aḵtar Rāhī, Tarjamahā-ye motūn-e fārsī be-zabānhā-ye pākestānī (Lahore, 1365 Š./1986), is a com­pendium of translations of Persian texts into Pakistani languages.

12. Jaʿfar Āqāyānī-Čāvošī, Ketāb-šenāsī-e tawṣīfī-e Abū Naṣr Fārābī (Tehran, 1357 Š./1978), is a bibliography of the works of Fārābī (Tasbīḥī, p. 196).

13. Manūčehr Ašraf-al-Kottābī, Ketāb-šenāsī-e jāmeʿa-senāsī (Tehran, 1363 Š./1984), covers books and selected reports and research findings on sociology published up to 1360 Š./1981-82, arranged in chapters according to subject.

14. ʿAlī-Reżā Azḡandī, Ketāb-šenāsī-e ʿomūmī-e tārīḵ-e sīāsī-e Īrān (Tehran, 1365 Š./1986), is a bibliography of Iranian political history from the Consti­tutional Movement to the Revolution of 1357 Š./1978-­79.

15. Maryam Āzmūda, under the supervision of Nāṣer Pākdāman, Fehrest-e mawżūʿī-e maqālāt-e eqteṣādī (1351 Š./1972), is a compendium of articles on economic subjects, arranged under subject headings.

16. Loṭf-ʿAlī Banān and Mīr Moḥammad Ṭāherī, Fehrest-e ketābhā-ye čāp-šoda dar Tabrīz ṭayy-e panjāh sāl-e šāhanšāhī-e Pahlavī (Tabrīz, 2535 = 1355 Š./1976), contains a list of books printed at Tabrīz in 1304-54 Š./1925-75.

17. Ḥosayn Banī-Ādam, Ketāb-šenāsī-e mawżūʿī-e Īrān sālhā-ye 1343-1348 (Tehran, 1352 Š./1974), a continuation of 5 above, covers 1964-69, including 7,450 titles under 11 subject headings and 555 subheadings.

18. Idem, Ketāb-šenāsī-e neveštahā-ye fārsī barā-ye kūdakān wa nowjavānān (Tehran, 1347 Š./1968), includes 800 Persian books for children between the ages of 3 and 15 years, classified by age group and subject.

19. Taqī Bīneš, “Ketābhā-ye fārsī-e rīāżī,” Našrīya-ye Ketāb-ḵāna . . . 4, 1344 Š./1965, pp. 13-51, gives a list of Persian books on mathematics translated from Storey.

20. Idem, “Taḏkera-ye šoʿarāʾ,” MDAM 3-8, 1346-51 Š./1967-72, is a list of biographies of poets translated from Storey.

21. Yu. A. Bregel, Adabīyāt-e fārsī bar mabnā-ye taʾlīf-e Storey (tr. from Russian by Y. Āryanpūr, S. Īzadī, K. Kešāvarz, and P. Monzawī, ed. A. Monzawī, 2 vols., Tehran, 1362 Š./1983), based his 3-volume Russian work on Storey’s sections on Koranic studies and history (excluding India) but emended and greatly expanded them. The third volume was published as a supplement. In the Persian edition Aḥmad Monzawī has incorporated Bregel’s third volume into the first two. Volume I contains a number of prefaces and a survey of works concerned with the Koran, including translations, commentaries, glossaries, concordances, and treatises on pronunciation, readings, scripts, special features, and fortune-telling from the Koran; volume II covers general historical works and works on the pre-Islamic prophets, the prophet of Islam, the caliphs, and the imams.

22. Moḥammad-Taqī Dānešpažūh, “Fehrest-e pāra-ī az ketābhā-ye aḵlāq wa sīāsat be-fārsī,” in Našrīya-ye Ketāb-ḵāna . . . 1, 1341 Š./1962, pp. 211-27, contains particulars on 164 Persian manuscripts or editions on ethics and politics.

23. Idem, Modāwamat dar oṣūl-e mūsīqī-e Īrān. Namūna-ī az fehrest-e āṯār-e dānešmandān-e īrānī o eslāmī dar ḡenā-ye mūsīqī, (Tehran, 2535 = 1355 Š./1976, published for the festival of Iranian art and culture held in Ābān, 2536 = 1356 Š./October-November, 1977), gives names of Arab, Iranian, and Andalusian minstrels; titles of Greek and Indian books translated into Arabic and other Arabic books on music and listening to music, extant Persian books on these subjects, lost Persian books on Indian and Iranian music, and so on.

24. ʿAzīz Deyhemī, Ketāb-šenāsī-e fārsī (Shiraz, 1363 Š./1984), is a bibliography of the history of Fārs, including 1,060 book titles but no articles; entries are arranged alphabetically by title.

25. Ḥāfeẓ Farmānfarmāʾīān, Ketāb-šenāsī-e tārīḵ-e jadīd wa moʿāṣer. Fehrest-e montaḵab-ī az maʾāḵeḏ wa manābeʿ-e čāpī-e tārīḵ barā-ye dānešjūyān-e dānešgāh (Tehran, 1344 Š./1965), is a compendium of printed sources on modem Iranian history for university students.

26. Farānak Farnīā, Fehrest-e pāyān-nāmahā-ye pezeškī wa dārūsāzī (Moʾassasa-ye Taḥqīqāt o Bar-nāmarīzī-e ʿElmī-Āmūzešī, Markaz-e Madārek-e ʿElmī 183, Tehran, 1354 Š./1975), lists doctoral theses on medical and pharmacological subjects.

27. Maḥmūd Fāżel, “Ṣūrat-ī az ketābhā-ye sang-šenāsī yā ʿelm al-aḥjār,” MDAM 8/3, 1351 Š./1972, pp. 734-60, lists books on lithology.

28. Moḥammad-Ḥasan Ganjī, with the assistance of Javād Ṣafīnežād, Fehrest-e maqālāt-e joḡrāfīāʾī (Tehran, 1341 Š./1962), lists articles on geographical subjects.

29. Bahrām Gerāmī, Fehrest-e pāyān-nāmahā, maqālahā, našrīyahā, wa ketābhā-ye dāneškadahā-ye kešāvarzī-e kešvar az badw-e taʾsīs tā 1360 (programmed for computer by Bahrām Āṣafī, Isfahan, 1361 Š./1982), includes doctoral theses, articles, publications, and books issued by agricultural colleges in Iran up to 1360 Š./1981.

30. Moḥammad Golbon, Ketāb-šenāsī-e zabān o ḵaṭṭ (Tehran, 2536 = 1356 Š./1977), is a bibliography on [Persian] language and scripts, with 33 pages of examples.

31. Idem, Ketāb-šenāsī-e negāreš, āṯār-e naqqāšī, mīnīātūr, taḏhīb (Tehran, 1365 Š./1986), lists works on painting, miniatures, and book illumination.

32. Aḥmad Goḷčīn-e Maʿānī, “Golšan-e rāz wa šarḥhā-ye ān,” Našrīya-ye Ketāb-ḵāna . . ., Tehran, 1344 Š./1965, no. 4, pp. 53-124, describes forty-nine inter­pretive works and translations of Maḥmūd Šabestarī’s Golšan-e rāz.

33. Idem, Tārīḵ-etaḏkerahā-ye fārsī (2 vols., Tehran University Publications 1236, 1348-50 Š./1969-71), lists Persian taḏkeras (biographical dictionaries), with critical studies of each and details on manuscripts and editions. A register of books on history and related subjects, part of which is devoted to biographies of poets, is included (II, pp. 423-805).

34. ʿAbd-al-Ḥayy Ḥabībī, Rāhnamā-ye tārīḵ-e Afḡānestān (Kabul, 1348 Š./1969), covers Persian books useful as sources for the history of Afghanistan.

35. Ḵosrow Karīmī, with the assistance of Bahrām ʿĪlāmī, Fehrest-e maqālāt-e sīnemāʾī. Gozīda-ye maqālāt-e sīnemāʾī dar našrīyāt-e adwārī-e Īrān sālhā-ye 2480-2532 šāhanšāhī (Tehran, 2535 = 1355 Š./1976), contains a select list of articles on cinematic subjects appearing in Iranian periodicals in the period 2480­-2532 = 1300-52 Š./1921-73.

36. Ketāb-ḵāna-ye Markazī-e Dānešgāh-e Tehrān, Fehrest-e resālahā-ye taḥṣīlī-e Dānešgāh-e Tehrān, is a register of students’ theses. Only volumes I and IV are complete. The former covers theses for the bachelor’s degree in the Faculty of Arts and Human Sciences, compiled by Mehrīdoḵt Bešārat, under the supervision of Ḥosayn Banī-Ādam, 2536 = 1356 Š./1977. The latter, listing 7,182 theses for the doctorate of medicine, was compiled by Banī-Ādam and Ḵalīl Šīrāzī, with the assistance of Pūrāndoḵt Mašʿūf (forthcoming).

37. Ketāb-ḵāna-ye Mellī, Ketāb-šenāsī-e mellī-e Īrān sālhā-ye 1344 wa 1345 (Tehran, 1345 Š./1967) lists publications issued in Iran in 1344-45 Š./1965-67).

38. Aḥmad Saʿīd Khan, Ketāb-šenāsī-e ʿālem-e jalīl-e Afḡānestān Abū Rayḥān Moḥammad ebn Aḥmad al­-Bīrūnī (tr. of an unpublished version with notes by ʿA. Ḥabībī, Tehran, 1352 Š./1973), is a bibliography of manuscripts, printed editions, and translations of the works of Bīrūnī; the original work was later published in English in India (see i. 6 above).

39. ʿAbbās Māfī, Ketāb-šenāsī-e honar (Markaz-e Asnād-e Farhangī-e Āsīā, Majmūʿa-ye Ketāb-šenāsī wa Madārek-e Farhangī 3, Tehran 2535 = 1355 Š./1976), is a bibliography of books and articles on art published in Iran. Part I includes 1,093 titles of printed books up to 2535 = 1355 Š./1976, part 2 articles from 119 periodicals published between Dalv (= Bahman), 1298 Š./January-February, 1920, and Mehr, 1354 Š./September-October, 1975.

40. Moḥammad-Taqī Mahdawī, Ketāb-šenāsī-e modīrīyat (Tehran, 1364 Š./1985) is a bibliography on management in eight parts: general works; theories and systems of management; common techniques and skills in organizing management; management of human resources; governmental management; commercial and industrial management; financial management; special activities.

41. Yaḥyā Mahdawī, Fehrest-e nosḵahā-ye moṣannafāt-e Ebn-e Sīnā (Tehran University Publications 206, Tehran, 1333 Š./1954), contains a list of manuscripts of works by Avicenna (q.v., also called Ebn Sīnā) or attributed to him, with information on their locations. The material is organized in four parts: works definitely or probably by Avicenna; works erroneously or doubtfully attributed to him, as well as alternative titles for works accepted as his; a comparative table of titles of his works and their chapter headings; books about Avicenna and his works.

42. Aqdas Malek, under the supervision of Ḥamīd ʿEnāyat and with the assistance of Abu’l-Fażl Qāżī and Moḥammad-Reżā Jalīlī, Fehrest-e tawṣīfī-e ʿolūm-e sīāsī (Tehran, 1354 Š./1975), is an annotated listing of works on political science.

43. Maryam Mīr-Aḥmadī and Ḡolām-Reżā Varahrām, Ketāb-šenāsī-e mawżūʿī-e tārīḵ-e Īrān (Tehran, 1362 Š./1983), is a bibliography on Iranian history from pre-Islamic times to the Revolution of 1357 Š./1978-79, arranged according to period, subject, and region.

44. Mahīndoḵt Moʿāżed, Ketāb-šenāsī-e naqd-e ketāb (Tehran, 2535 = 1355 Š./1976), is an index of book reviews.

45. Moḥammad-Taqī Modarres Rażawī, Aḥwāl o āṯār-e . . . Abū Jaʿfar Moḥammad b. Moḥammad b. al-Ḥasan al-Ṭūsī . . . (Bonyād-e Farhang-e Īrān 208, Teh­ran, 1354 Š./1975), contains a biography of Moḥammad Ṭūsī (see i. 9 above), followed by a detailed list of 181 Arabic and Persian works written by him or attributed to him, with details on manuscripts and printed editions.

46. Ḥosayn Modarres Ṭabāṭabāʾī, Ketāb-šenāsī-e āṯār-e marbūṭ be-Qom, 1354 Š./1975, is a compendium of writings about Qom (Tasbīḥī, p. 150).

47. Mahdī Moḥaqqeq, Yād-nāma-ye Adīb Nīšāpūrī (Tehran, 1365 Š./1986), includes a valuable section on bibliographies on Iran in works by foreigners.

48. Aḥmad Monzawī, ed., Fehrestvāra-ye ketābhā-ye fārsī, is an index of Persian books compiled with the aid of a group of assistants at the Markaz-e Taḥqīqāt-e Fārsī-e Iran wa Pākestān in Islamabad. The work is planned as a compilation of book titles, with authors’ names and sources in which the books are briefly described. The entries are grouped by subject. Some 250,000 index cards, containing information extracted from some 500 volumes, have already been prepared, and the work is continuing. The following portions of the index have been published: approximately 15,700 titles on letter writing and official correspondence, in Fehrest­-e moštarak-e Pākestān 5, 1986, pp. 581-921; about 2,400 titles of romances and stories (dāstānhā), in Fehrest-e moštarak-e Pākestān 6, 1987, pp. 1301-1468; collections of poems by single poets (dīvānhā) and narrative poems (manżūmahā), in Fehrest-e moštarak-e Pākestān 7-9, 1996-87.

49. Idem, Saʿdī bar mabnā-ye nosḵahā-ye ḵaṭṭī-e Pākestān (Markaz-e Taḥqīqāt-e Fārsī-e Īrān wa Pākestān 89, Lahore and Islamabad, 1363 Š./1985), a bibliography of verse and prose works by Saʿdī available in Pakistan, as well as commentaries and translations in Pakistani languages and details on manu­scripts and editions.

50. ʿAlī-Naqī Monzawī, Farhang-nāmahā-ye ʿarabī be-fārsī (Tehran University Publications 513, Tehran, 1337 Š./1959, repr. with some omissions in the preface to Dehḵodā, pp. 265-372), lists Arabic-Persian diction­aries in chronological order from the 5th/11th century to the end of the 13th/19th century and a few 14th/20th­century examples, with an appendix on dictionaries surviving only in fragments, prepared by unknown authors, or containing incorrect dates of composition.

51. Idem, “Sāqī-nāmahā-ye ḵaṭṭī,” Našrīya-ye Ketāb-ḵāna . . . 1, 1339 Š./1960, pp. 18-50, gives a list of 130 sāqī-nāmas in alphabetical order by author’s pen name, with details on manuscripts and editions.

52. Ḵānbābā Mošār, Fehrest-e ketābhā-ye čāpī-e fārsī (BTNK56, 1337 Š./1958), is an index of Persian printed books up to 1958. This is the most comprehensive bibliography of Persian printed books published to date. It was originally sponsored by the Iranian Council of Philosophical and Humanistic Sciences of UNESCO and published by the Bongāh-e Tarjama wa Našr-e Ketāb (q.v.) in 1337 Š./1958. A supplement, bringing the bibliography up to 1339 Š./1960 and including an index of authors for both volumes, was published by the Bongāh in 1342 Š./1963. This supplement included extensive addenda embodying further research by Mošār and the staff of the Bongāh, making the bibliography more nearly complete. During the 1340s Š./1960s the number of Persian printed books increased sharply, and a new and enlarged edition was therefore edited by Ehsan Yarshater in three volumes (Fehrest-e ketābhā-ye čāpī-e fārsī az āḡāz tā āḵer-e 1345 bar asās-e Fehrest-e Ḵānbābā Mošār wa fahāres-e Anjoman-e Ketāb, Tehran, 1352 Š./1973). The first two volumes comprise an alphabetical listing of books by title, with bibliographical details; the third contains an index of authors. This new edition incorporated the annual bibliographies printed by the Anjoman-e Ketāb (q.v.) in 1345-48 Š./1966-69, a supplement to the 1958 edition by Karāmat Raʿnā-Ḥosaynī (Fehrest-e ketābhā-ye čāpī-e fārsī. Ḏayl-e Fehrest-e Mošār, Tehran, 1349 Š./1970), and the pertinent issues of Rāhnamā-ye ketāb.

53. Idem, Fehrest-e ketābhā-ye čāpī-e ʿarabī-e Īrān az āḡāz-e čāp tā konūṇ . . . (Tehran, 1344 Š./1965), is a compilation of Arabic books published in Iran up to 1965, with an author index.

54. Idem, Fehrest-e ketābhā-ye čāpī-e fārsī (5 vols., Tehran, 1351-55 Š./1973-76 [vol. V dated 2535]), is an alphabetical index of Persian printed books.

55. Moḥammad Mošīrī, Ketāb-šenāsī-e sekkahā wa mohrhā wa ṭoḡrāhā-ye pādšāhān-e Īrān (Anjomam-e Farhang-e Īrānzamīn 5, Tehran, 1352 Š./1973), is a bibliography of Iranian numismatics, seals, and royal monograms in two parts, the first containing titles of books, the second of articles.

56. Saʿīd Nafīsī, “Qadīmītarīn kotob-e loḡat dar Īrān,” Šarq 1, 1303 Š./1924, pp. 393-405, treats the oldest dictionaries and glossaries in Iran.

57. Idem, Farhanghā-ye fārsī (in the preface to Dehḵodā’s Loḡat-nāma, pp. 178-86), gives a history of lexicography in Iran and a list of 188 dictionaries.

58. Idem, “Ketābhā-ye kaḥḥālī be zabān-e fārsī,” Jahān-e pezeškī 1/1, 1326 Š./ 1947, pp. 38-43 (Tasbīḥī, p. 185), contains a list of Persian books on ophthalmology.

59. Idem, “Ketābhā-ye darsī-e ḥesāb dar madāres-e qadīm,” Soḵan 3/10, 1326 Š./1947, pp. 647-57 (Tasbīḥī, p. 146), is a bibliography of arithmetic textbooks used in traditional schools.

60. Idem, Āṯāro aḥwāl-e Šayḵ Bahāʾī (Tehran, 1316 Š./1937) treats the career and writings of Bahāʾ-al-Dīn ʿĀmelī (q.v., 953-1030/1547-1621).

61. Idem, “Dāʾerat al-maʿāref-e fārsī,” Armaḡān 23, 1327 Š./1948, pp. 61-65, is on Persian encyclopedias.

62. Idem, “Sāl-nāma wa sāl-nāma-nevīsī dar Īrān,” Sāl-nāma-ye kešvar-e Īrān 5, 1329 Š./1950, pp. 17-21, is on Iranian almanacs.

63. Idem, “Moʾallafāt-e marḥūm Doktor Nāẓem-al-Aṭebbāʾ,” Jahān-e pezeškī 2/7, 1327 Š./1948, pp. 1-3, is on writings of ʿAlī-Akbar Nafīsī Nāẓem-al-Aṭebbāʾ.

64. Maḥmūd Najmābādī, Moʾallefāt wa moṣannafāt-­e Abū Bakr Moḥammad b. Zakarīyāʾ Rāzī (Tehran University Publications 500, Tehran, 1339 Š./1960), is an expanded version of a bibliography of the works of al-Rāzī (see i. 1 above) by the same title published in Tehran in 1339 Š./1960. It consists of eleven parts: medicine, natural sciences, logic, philosophy, metaphysics, theology, mathematics and astronomy, al­chemy, miscellaneous works, an appendix and addenda, and indexes.

65. Idem, Fehrest-e ketābhā-ye fārsī-e ṭebbī wa fonūn-­e vā-basta be-ṭebb (Tehran University Publications 900, Tehran, 1342 Š./1963), lists Persian books on medical and related subjects.

66. ʿAlī-Reżā Naqawī, Taḏkera-nevīsī dar Hend wa Pākestān (Tehran, 1347 Š./1968), is a bibliography of taḏkeras compiled on the Indian subcontinent, with biographies of the compilers, based on Storey but with many additions.

67. Sayyed Ḥosayn Naṣr, Ketāb-šenāsī-e tawṣīfī-e Abū Rayḥān Bīrūnī (Tehran, 1352 Š./1973), is an annotated bibliography of the works of Bīrūnī (Tasbīḥī, p. 185; see also i. 6 above).

68. Idem, with the assistance of William Chittick, Ketāb-šenāsī-e falsafa-ye īrānī (I/1, Tehran, 1354 Š./1975), is an annotated bibliography of sources on the Islamic sciences; according to the preface, five further fascicles will cover works on the same subject in languages other than those of Islamic countries.

69. Idem, “Moʾallafāt-e fārsī-e Šayḵ-e Ešrāq Šehāb-al-Dīn Sohravardī” (“The Persian Works of Shaykh al­-Ishrâq Shihâb al-Dīn Suhrawardi,” Proceedings of the 27th International Congress of Orientalists, 1967, Wies­baden, 1971; Pers. tr. Ḡolām-ʿAlī ʿErfānīān, MDAM 12/1, 2535 = 1355 Š./1976, pp. 145-60), treats the Per­sian writings of Sohravardī Maqtūl (d. 578/1191).

70. Yaḥyā Mahyār Nawwābī, Ketāb-šenāsī-e Īrān: Fehrest-e ketābhā wa maqālāt-ī ke dar bāra-ye Īrān be-zabānhā-ye orūpāʾī čāp šoda ast (6 vols., Tehran, 1347-57 Š./1968-78), contains titles of books and articles on Iran in European languages.

71. Sayyed ʿĀref Nowšāhī, Fehrest-e čāphā-ye āṯār-e Saʿdī dar šebh-e qārra wa čāphā-ye šorūḥ wa tarjamahā wa farhang-nāmahā wa tażmīnhā-ye āṯār-e vey, Lahore, 1363 Š./1984, lists editions of Saʿdī’s works, as well as commentaries, translations, glossaries, tażmīns, and the like printed on the Indian subcontinent, with excerpts.

72. Abu’l-Qāsem Qorbānī, Fārsī-nāma dar šarḥ-e aḥwāl wa āṯār-e Bīrūnī, Tehran, 1363 Š./1984, is a study of Bīrūnī’s life and works (see i. 6 above).

73. Idem, Nasavī-nāma (Tehran, 1351 Š./1972), is a biography of the mathematician ʿAlī b. Aḥmad Nasavī (393-493/1003-1100), with information on his works.

74. Idem, Bīrūnī-nāma (Tehran, 1353 Š./1974), is also on Bīrūnī’s life and works (see i. 6 above).

75. Moḥammad-Ḥasan Rajāʾī Zefraʾī, “Fehrest-e ketābhā-ī ke dar bāra-ye Eṣfahān nevešta šoda ast,” Waḥīd 9/5, 1350 Š./1971, pp.723-33; 11/2, 1352 Š./1973, pp. 229-31 (Tasbīḥī, p. 15), contains a listing of books about Isfahan.

76. Moḥammad Rīāż, Ketāb-šenāsī-e Eqbāl (Markaz-­e Taḥqīqāt-e Fārsī-e Īrān wa Pākestān 99, Rawalpindi, 1364 Š./1985-86), deals with the works of the philosopher and poet Moḥammad Eqbāl. It consists of four parts: a listing of his works in Urdu, English, Persian, and other languages; descriptions of his Persian and Urdu prose works and poems; explanation of words and passages in his poems; a list of translations of his works into Urdu, English, Persian, German, Italian, Punjabi, Baluchi, Bengali, Turkish, and other languages.

77. Māndānā Ṣadīq Behzādī, Ketāb-nāma-ye Mawlawī (Tehran, 1351 Š./1972) is a bibliography of the works of Jalāl-al-Dīn Rūmī (604-72/1207-73).

78. Ḡolām-Ḥosayn Ṣadīqī, “Baʿż-ī az kohnatarīn āṯār-e fārsī tā pāyān-e qarn-e čahārom-e hejrī,” MDAT 13/4, 1344 Š./1965, pp. 126-56, gives a listing of Persian writings up to the end of the 4th/10th century, in chronological order according to subject.

79. Ḡolām-Ḥosayn Ṣadrī Afšār, Ketāb-nāma-ye ʿolūm-e Īrān (Tehran, 1350 Š./1971), is an index of books mainly on the pure and experimental sciences, mathematics, physics, astronomy, technology, agriculture, and medicine published in the Persian language both in Iran and elsewhere.

80. Bāqer Sārūḵānī and ʿAlī Pūr-e Ṭāʾī, Fehrest-e taḥqīqāt wa maqālāt-e marbūṭ be kūdakān wa now-javānān (University of Tehran, Dāneškada-ye ʿOlūm-e Ejtemāʿī wa Taʿāwon, Moʾassasa-ye Moṭālaʿāt wa Taḥqīqāt-e Ejtemāʿī 78, Tehran, 1351 Š./1972), is a bibliography of research findings and other articles on children and young people.

81. Ḥamīd Šoʿāʿī, Namāyeš-nāma wa fīlm-nāma dar Īrān yā ketābhā-ye namāyešī . . . (Tehran, 2535 = 1355 Š./1976), gives particulars of approximately 1,500 plays, film scripts, and books on drama and film.

82. Ṣadīqa Solṭānpūr, Ketāb-šenāsī-e joḡrāfīā (Tehran, 1364 Š./1985) lists the titles of 688 printed works and 286 manuscripts on geography.

83. Masʿūda Tafażżolī, Fehrest-e moštarak-e ketābhā-ye āmūzeš wa parvareš (Tehran, 1362 Š./1983), is a list of educational textbooks prepared with the collaboration of the Sāzmān-e Ketābhā and Markaz-e Asnād of the Dānešgāh-e Mellī.

84. Idem, Fehrest-e moštarak-e tawṣīfī-e ketābhā-ye ravān-šenāsī (Tehran, 1363 Š./1984), is an annotated list of books on psychology.

85. A list of 1,750 Western articles and books about Iran (Persische Bibliographie), was published as a separate volume of the periodical Kāva, Berlin, 1920.



Ī. Afšār, Ketāb-šenāsī-e fehresthā-ye ḵaṭṭī-e fārsī dar ketāb-ḵānahā-ye donyā, Tehran, 1337 Š./1958.

Ebn Ḵallekān, Wafāyāt al-aʿyān, ed. M. M. ʿAbd-al-Ḥamīd, 6 vols., 1948-49; 3rd ed., Cairo, 1964-65.

Ebn Meskūya (Meskawayh), al-Ḥekmat al-­ḵāleda. Jāvīdān ḵerad, ed. ʿA. Badawī, Cairo, 1372/1952-53; Pers. tr. Š. Qazvīnī and M.-T. Dānešpažūh, Tehran, 1359 Š./1970.

M.-B. Ḵᵛānsārī Eṣfahānī, Rawżāt al-jannāt fi’l-ʿolamāʾ wa’l-sādāt, Isfahan, 1341 Š./1962; ed. ʿA. Esmāʿīlīān, Qom, 1390-92/1970-­72.

Abū ʿAbd-Allāh Moḥammad Ḵᵛārazmī, Mafātīḥ al-ʿolūm, ed. G. van Vloten, Leiden, 1895.

M.-ʿA. Kašmīrī, Nojūm al-samāʾ fī tarājem al-ʿolamāʾ, Luck­now, 1303/1886.

E. Majdūʿ, Fehrest al-kotob wa’l-rasāʾel, ed. A. Monzawī, Tehran, 1345 Š./1966.

M. Moḥaqqeq, Bīst goftār, 2nd ed., Tehran, 1363 Š./1984.

A. Monzawī, Fehrest-e moštarak-e nosḵahā-e ḵaṭṭī-e fārsī-e Pākestān, 8 vols., Islamabad, 1362-66 Š./1983-87.

Ḵ. Mošār, Fehrest-e ketābhā-ye čāpī-e fārsī, 5 vols., Tehran, 1350-2535 = 1355 Š./1971-76.

S. Nafīsī, Pūr-e Sīnā, Tehran, 1333 Š./1954. Aḥmad Najāšī, al-Rejāl, Bombay, 1317/1899.

Našrīya-ye Ketāb-ḵāna-ye Markazī-e Dānešgāh-e Tehrān. Nosḵahā-ye ḵaṭṭī, 12 vols., Tehran, 1340-62 Š./1961-83.

ʿEnāyat-Allāh Qohpāʾī, Majmaʿ al-rejāl, 7 vols., ed. Ż. ʿA. Fānī Eṣfahānī, Isfahan 1388/1968.

Ḡ.-Ḥ. Tasbīḥī, Jahān-e ketāb-šenāsīhā-ye Īrān, Tabrīz, 1365 Š./1986.

(Aḥmad Monzawī and ʿAlī Naqī Monzawī)

Originally Published: January 1, 2000

Last Updated: March 16, 2012

This article is available in print.