ĀDUR (and ādar) Middle Persian word for “fire;” the Avestan form is ātar (of unknown derivation), and the late form is arabicized in New Persian as āẕar. The Middle Persian by-form ātaxš (NPers. ātaš) represents the old nom. sing. form of the word, with intervocalic -t- irregularly preserved. There is reason to think that in Middle Iranian the standard Parthian form was ādar, the standard Middle Persian ātaxš. Both forms occur freely in the mixed language of the Pahlavi books. “Adur” is the name of the ninth Zoroastrian month and the ninth day of the month.

For the Zoroastrian cult use of fire, see Ātaš. For the three greatest fire foundations of ancient Iran, see Ādur Burzēn-Mihr, Ādur Farnbāg, Ādur Gušnasp.

(M. Boyce)

Originally Published: December 15, 1983

Last Updated: July 22, 2011

This article is available in print.
Vol. I, Fasc. 5, pp. 471-472

Cite this entry:

M. Boyce, “ĀDUR,” Encyclopædia Iranica, I/5, pp. 471-472; an updated version is available online at http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/adur-and-adar-middle-persian-word-for-fire-the-avestan-form-is-atar-of-unknown-derivation-and-the-late-form (accessed on 28 February 2014).