Table of Contents


    C. E. Bosworth

    Arabic broken plural form of a singular oswār(ī), eswār(ī), early recognized by Arab philologists as a loanword from Persian meaning “cavalryman.”


    F. Towfīq

    “tribes” in Iran. 1. Definitions. 2. Historical background. 3. Population figures. 4. Territorial distribution: (a) Lor and Lak tribes; (b) Kurdish tribes; (c) Turkish tribes; (d) Arab tribes; (e) Baluch and Brahui tribes. 5. Organization. 6. Economy.

  • ASB

    Multiple Authors

    ASB, “horse” (equus cabullus, Av. aspa-, Old PerS. asa- and aspa-, Mid. and NPers. asp/b); uses and significance of horses in the Iranian world.

  • ASB i. In Pre-Islamic Iran

    A. Sh. Shahbazi

    the horse in the culture and society of the ancient Iranian world.

  • ASB ii. Among the Scythians

    F. Thordarson

    the horse in Scythian culture.

  • ASB iii. In Islamic Times

    ʿA. Solṭānī Gordfarāmarzī

    horses and horsemanship in Iran in the Islamic period.

  • ASB iv. In Afghanistan

    C. E. Bosworth

    horses and horsemanship in Afghanistan.



    J.-P. Digard

    "horse-riding." The Iranian lands, in the course of their long history, have been the source of major advances in the techniques of equitation.


    M. Mayrhofer

    name of an Iranian in the Persepolis Fortification Tablets.



    See MADĀʾEN.